Publications by authors named "Lambertus J van Tits"

34 Publications

Sirt6 deletion in bone marrow-derived cells increases atherosclerosis - Central role of macrophage scavenger receptor 1.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2020 02 21;139:24-32. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Center for Molecular Cardiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Aims: Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase that plays a key role in DNA repair, inflammation and lipid regulation. Sirt6-null mice show severe metabolic defects and accelerated aging. Macrophage-foam cell formation via scavenger receptors is a key step in atherogenesis. We determined the effects of bone marrow-restricted Sirt6 deletion on foam cell formation and atherogenesis using a mouse model.

Methods And Results: Sirt6 deletion in bone marrow-derived cells increased aortic plaques, lipid content and macrophage numbers in recipient Apoe mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks (n = 12-14, p < .001). In RAW macrophages, Sirt6 overexpression reduced oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake, Sirt6 knockdown enhanced it and increased mRNA and protein levels of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1), whereas levels of other oxLDL uptake and efflux transporters remained unchanged. Similarly, in human primary macrophages, Sirt6 knockdown increased MSR1 protein levels and oxLDL uptake. Double knockdown of Sirt6 and Msr1 abolished the increase in oxLDL uptake observed upon Sirt6 single knockdown. FACS analyses of macrophages from aortic plaques of Sirt6-deficient bone marrow-transplanted mice showed increased MSR1 protein expression. Double knockdown of Sirt6 and the transcription factor c-Myc in RAW cells abolished the increase in Msr1 mRNA and protein levels; c-Myc overexpression increased Msr1 mRNA and protein levels.

Conclusions: Loss of Sirt6 in bone marrow-derived cells is proatherogenic; hereby macrophages play an important role given a c-Myc-dependent increase in MSR1 protein expression and an enhanced oxLDL uptake in human and murine macrophages. These findings assign endogenous SIRT6 in macrophages an important atheroprotective role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.01.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Loss of Sirt3 accelerates arterial thrombosis by increasing formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and plasma tissue factor activity.

Cardiovasc Res 2018 07;114(8):1178-1188

Center for Molecular Cardiology, University of Zurich, Wagistrasse 12, 8952 Schlieren, Switzerland.

Aims: Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase that reduces oxidative stress by activation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Oxidative stress enhances arterial thrombosis. This study investigated the effects of genetic Sirt3 deletion on arterial thrombosis in mice in an inflammatory setting and assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: Using a laser-induced carotid thrombosis model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, in vivo time to thrombotic occlusion in Sirt3-/- mice (n = 6) was reduced by half compared to Sirt3+/+ wild-type (n = 8, P < 0.01) controls. Ex vivo analyses of whole blood using rotational thromboelastometry revealed accelerated clot formation and increased clot stability in Sirt3-/- compared to wild-type blood. rotational thromboelastometry of cell-depleted plasma showed accelerated clotting initiation in Sirt3-/- mice, whereas overall clot formation and firmness remained unaffected. Ex vivo LPS-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation was increased in Sirt3-/- bone marrow-derived neutrophils. Plasma tissue factor (TF) levels and activity were elevated in Sirt3-/- mice, whereas plasma levels of other coagulation factors and TF expression in arterial walls remained unchanged. SOD2 expression in bone marrow -derived Sirt3-/- neutrophils was reduced. In STEMI patients, transcriptional levels of Sirt3 and its target SOD2 were lower in CD14+ leukocytes compared with healthy donors (n = 10 each, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Sirt3 loss-of-function enhances experimental thrombosis in vivo via an increase of neutrophil extracellular traps and elevation of TF suggesting thrombo-protective effects of endogenous Sirt3. Acute coronary thrombosis in STEMI patients is associated with lower expression levels of SIRT3 and SOD2 in CD14+ leukocytes. Therefore, enhancing SIRT3 activity by pan-sirtuin activating NAD+-boosters may provide a novel therapeutic target to prevent or treat thrombotic arterial occlusion in myocardial infarction or stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014146PMC
July 2018

Mild endothelial dysfunction in Sirt3 knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet: protective role of a novel C/EBP-β-dependent feedback regulation of SOD2.

Basic Res Cardiol 2016 May 12;111(3):33. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Zurich, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistr. 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is an NAD(+)-dependent mitochondrial deacetylase associated with superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-mediated protection from oxidative stress. We have reported accelerated weight gain and impaired metabolic flexibility in atherosclerotic Sirt3 (-/-) mice. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. Yet, the role of Sirt3 in this context remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to unravel the effects of endogenous Sirt3 on endothelial function and oxidative stress. Knockdown of Sirt3 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) increased intracellular mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, as assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings from Sirt3 (-/-) mice exposed to a normal diet did not differ from wild-type controls. However, following 12 weeks of high-cholesterol diet and increasing oxidative stress, endothelial function of Sirt3 (-/-) mice was mildly impaired compared with wild-type controls. Relaxation was restored upon enhanced superoxide scavenging using pegylated superoxide dismutase. Knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured HAEC diminished SOD2 specific activity, which was compensated for by a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP-β)-dependent transcriptional induction of SOD2. Abrogation of this feedback regulation by simultaneous knockdown of C/EBP-β and Sirt3 exacerbated mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and culminated into endothelial cell death upon prolonged culture. Taken together, Sirt3 deficiency induces a mild, superoxide-dependent endothelial dysfunction in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. In cultured endothelial cells, a novel C/EBP-β-dependent rescue mechanism maintains net SOD2 activity upon transient knockdown of Sirt3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-016-0552-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829622PMC
May 2016

Changes of coronary plaque composition correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction following high-intensity statin therapy.

Atherosclerosis 2016 Apr 16;247:154-60. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objectives: Levels of inflammatory biomarkers associate with changes of coronary atheroma burden in statin-treated patients with stable coronary artery disease. This study sought to determine changes of plaque composition in vivo in relation to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving high-intensity statin therapy.

Methods: The IBIS-4 study performed serial (baseline and 13-month), 2-vessel intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and radiofrequency-IVUS of the non-infarct-related arteries in patients with STEMI treated with high-intensity statin therapy. The present analysis included 44 patients (80 arteries) with serial measurements of hs-CRP.

Results: At follow-up, median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased from 126 to 77 mg/dl, HDL-C increased from 44 to 47 mg/dl, and hs-CRP decreased from 1.6 to 0.7 mg/L. Regression of percent atheroma volume (-0.99%, 95% CI -1.84 to -0.14, p = 0.024) was accompanied by reduction of percent fibro-fatty (p = 0.04) and fibrous tissue (p < 0.001), and increase in percent necrotic core (p = 0.006) and dense calcium (p < 0.001). Follow-up levels of hs-CRP, but not LDL-C, correlated with changes in percent necrotic core (p = 0.001) and inversely with percent fibrous tissue volume (p = 0.008). Similarly, baseline-to-follow-up change of hs-CRP correlated with the change in percent necrotic core volume (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: In STEMI patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy, stabilization of VH-IVUS-defined necrotic core was confined to patients with lowest on-treatment levels and greatest reduction of hs-CRP. Elevated CRP levels at follow-up may identify progression of high-risk coronary plaque composition despite intensive statin therapy and overall regression of atheroma volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.02.015DOI Listing
April 2016

The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 provides atheroprotection in Apoe-/- mice by reducing hepatic Pcsk9 secretion and enhancing Ldlr expression.

Eur Heart J 2015 Jan 6;36(1):51-9. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich and University Heart Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland Zurich Center of Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Aims: The deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) exerts beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, but its roles in plasma LDL-cholesterol regulation and atherosclerosis are controversial. Thus, we applied the pharmacological Sirt1 activator SRT3025 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis and in hepatocyte culture.

Methods And Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25% w/w) supplemented with SRT3025 (3.18 g kg(-1) diet) for 12 weeks. In vitro, the drug activated wild-type Sirt1 protein, but not the activation-resistant Sirt1 mutant; in vivo, it increased deacetylation of hepatic p65 and skeletal muscle Foxo1. SRT3025 treatment decreased plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol and reduced atherosclerosis. Drug treatment did not change mRNA expression of hepatic LDL receptor (Ldlr) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9), but increased their protein expression indicating post-translational effects. Consistent with hepatocyte Ldlr and Pcsk9 accumulation, we found reduced plasma levels of Pcsk9 after pharmacological Sirt1 activation. In vitro administration of SRT3025 to cultured AML12 hepatocytes attenuated Pcsk9 secretion and its binding to Ldlr, thereby reducing Pcsk9-mediated Ldlr degradation and increasing Ldlr expression and LDL uptake. Co-administration of exogenous Pcsk9 with SRT3025 blunted these effects. Sirt1 activation with SRT3025 in Ldlr(-/-) mice reduced neither plasma Pcsk9, nor LDL-cholesterol levels, nor atherosclerosis.

Conclusion: We identify reduction in Pcsk9 secretion as a novel effect of Sirt1 activity and uncover Ldlr as a prerequisite for Sirt1-mediated atheroprotection in mice. Pharmacological activation of Sirt1 appears promising to be tested in patients for its effects on plasma Pcsk9, LDL-cholesterol, and atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286317PMC
January 2015

Deletion of Sirt3 does not affect atherosclerosis but accelerates weight gain and impairs rapid metabolic adaptation in LDL receptor knockout mice: implications for cardiovascular risk factor development.

Basic Res Cardiol 2014 Jan 27;109(1):399. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland,

Sirt3 is a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Sirt3 deficiency has been reported to accelerate the development of the metabolic syndrome. However, the role of Sirt3 in atherosclerosis remains enigmatic. We aimed to investigate whether Sirt3 deficiency affects atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability, and metabolic homeostasis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) and LDLR/Sirt3 double-knockout (Sirt3(-/-)LDLR(-/-)) mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25 % w/w) for 12 weeks. Atherosclerosis was assessed en face in thoraco-abdominal aortae and in cross sections of aortic roots. Sirt3 deletion led to hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. Unexpectedly, though plasma malondialdehyde levels were elevated in Sirt3-deficient mice, Sirt3 deletion affected neither plaque burden nor features of plaque vulnerability (i.e., fibrous cap thickness and necrotic core diameter). Likewise, plaque macrophage and T cell infiltration as well as endothelial activation remained unaltered. Electron microscopy of aortic walls revealed no difference in mitochondrial microarchitecture between both groups. Interestingly, loss of Sirt3 was associated with accelerated weight gain and an impaired capacity to cope with rapid changes in nutrient supply as assessed by indirect calorimetry. Serum lipid levels and glucose tolerance were unaffected by Sirt3 deletion in LDLR(-/-) mice. Sirt3 deficiency does not affect atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice. However, Sirt3 controls systemic levels of oxidative stress, limits expedited weight gain, and allows rapid metabolic adaptation. Thus, Sirt3 may contribute to postponing cardiovascular risk factor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-013-0399-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898152PMC
January 2014

Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor activation mediates endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obesity.

Eur Heart J 2013 Dec 17;34(45):3515-24. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: Aldosterone plays a crucial role in cardiovascular disease. 'Systemic' inhibition of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decreases atherosclerosis by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Obesity, an important cardiovascular risk factor, is an inflammatory disease associated with increased plasma aldosterone levels. We have investigated the role of the 'endothelial' MR in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction, the earliest stage in atherogenesis.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a normal chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with the MR antagonist eplerenone (200 mg/kg/day) for 14 weeks. Diet-induced obesity impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine, whereas eplerenone treatment of obese mice prevented this. Expression analyses in aortic endothelial cells isolated from these mice revealed that eplerenone attenuated expression of pro-oxidative NADPH oxidase (subunits p22phox, p40phox) and increased expression of antioxidative genes (glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase-1 and -3) in obesity. Eplerenone did not affect obesity-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or prostacyclin synthase. Endothelial-specific MR deletion prevented endothelial dysfunction in obese (exhibiting high 'endogenous' aldosterone) and in 'exogenous' aldosterone-infused lean mice. Pre-incubation of aortic rings from aldosterone-treated animals with the COX-inhibitor indomethacin restored endothelial function. Exogenous aldosterone administration induced endothelial expression of p22phox in the presence, but not in the absence of the endothelial MR.

Conclusion: Obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction depends on the 'endothelial' MR and is mediated by an imbalance of oxidative stress-modulating mechanisms. Therefore, MR antagonists may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in the increasing population of obese patients to decrease vascular dysfunction and subsequent atherosclerotic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3844149PMC
December 2013

The inflammasome and caspase-1 activation: a new mechanism underlying increased inflammatory activity in human visceral adipose tissue.

Endocrinology 2011 Oct 23;152(10):3769-78. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Internal Postal Code 463, Geert Grooteplein 8, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The immune competent abdominal adipose tissue, either stored viscerally [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] or sc [sc adipose tissue (SAT)], has been identified as a source of IL-1β and IL-18. To become active, the proforms of these cytokines require processing by caspase-1, which itself is mediated by the inflammasome. In this descriptive study, we investigate the expression of inflammasome components and caspase-1 in human fat and determine whether caspase-1 activity contributes to the enhanced inflammatory status of VAT. Paired SAT and VAT biopsies from 10 overweight subjects (body mass index, 25-28 kg/m(2)) were used to study the cellular composition and the intrinsic inflammatory capacity of both adipose tissue depots. The percentage of CD8(+) T cells within the lymphocyte fraction was significantly higher in VAT compared with SAT (41.6 vs. 30.4%; P < 0.05). Adipose tissue cultures showed a higher release of IL-1β (10-fold; P < 0.05), IL-18 (3-fold; P < 0.05), and IL-6 and IL-8 (3-fold, P < 0.05; and 4-fold, P < 0.05, respectively) from VAT compared with SAT that was significantly reduced by inhibiting caspase-1 activity. In addition, caspase-1 activity was 3-fold (P < 0.05) higher in VAT compared with SAT, together with an increase in the protein levels of the inflammasome members apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (2-fold; P < 0.05) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (2-fold; nonsignificant). Finally, caspase-1 activity levels were positively correlated with the percentage of CD8(+) T cells present in adipose tissue. Our results show that caspase-1 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome members are abundantly present in human VAT. The increased intrinsic caspase-1 activity in VAT represents a novel and specific inflammatory pathway that may determine the proinflammatory character of this specific depot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2010-1480DOI Listing
October 2011

Hyperglycemia activates caspase-1 and TXNIP-mediated IL-1beta transcription in human adipose tissue.

Diabetes 2011 Feb;60(2):517-24

Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Obesity is characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, that contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In this study, we set out to investigate whether hyperglycemia drives IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in murine and human adipose tissue, thus inducing insulin resistance.

Research Design And Methods: ob/ob animals were used as a model to study obesity and hyperglycemia. Human adipose tissue fragments or adipocytes were cultured in medium containing normal or high glucose levels. Additionally, the role of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in glucose-induced IL-1β production was assessed.

Results: TXNIP and caspase-1 protein levels were more abundantly expressed in adipose tissue of hyperglycemic ob/ob animals as compared with wild-type mice. In human adipose tissue, high glucose resulted in a 10-fold upregulation of TXNIP gene expression levels (P < 0.01) and a 10% elevation of caspase-1 activity (P < 0.05), together with induction of IL-1β transcription (twofold, P < 0.01) and a significant increase in IL-1β secretion. TXNIP suppression in human adipocytes, either by a small interfering RNA approach or a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, counteracted the effects of high glucose on bioactive IL-1 production (P < 0.01) mainly through a decrease in transcription levels paralleled by reduced intracellular pro-IL-1β levels.

Conclusions: High glucose activates caspase-1 in human and murine adipose tissue. Glucose-induced activation of TXNIP mediates IL-1β mRNA expression levels and intracellular pro-IL-1β accumulation in adipose tissue. The concerted actions lead to enhanced secretion of IL-1β in adipose tissue that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-0266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3028351PMC
February 2011

The effect of the interleukin-1 cytokine family members IL-1F6 and IL-1F8 on adipocyte differentiation.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010 Nov 18;18(11):2234-6. Epub 2010 Mar 18.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation originating from expanding adipose tissue. In the present study, we examined the adipogenic expression levels of IL-1F6 and IL-1F8, both members of the IL-1 family of cytokines, and their effects on adipose tissue gene expression. Although IL-1F6 is primarily present in adipose tissue resident macrophages and induced by inflammation, IL-1F8 is absent. IL-1F6, but not IL-1F8, reduces adipocyte differentiation, as shown by a significant decrease in PPARγ gene expression. Finally, both IL-1F6 and IL-1F8 are able to induce inflammatory gene expression in mature adipocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that IL-1F6 is present in adipose tissue and that IL-1F6 and IL-1F8 are involved in the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression. Importantly, IL-1F6 inhibits PPARγ expression which may lead to reduced adipocyte differentiation suggesting metabolic effects of this cytokine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2010.55DOI Listing
November 2010

Familial combined hyperlipidemia is associated with alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010 Jan 15;30(1):113-20. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111-1524, USA.

Objective: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a common familial lipid disorder characterized by increases in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B-100 levels. In light of prior metabolic and genetic research, our purpose was to ascertain whether FCH cases had significant abnormalities of plasma markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption as compared to unaffected kindred members.

Methods And Results: Plasma levels of squalene, desmosterol, and lathosterol (cholesterol synthesis markers) and campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol (cholesterol absorption markers) were measured by gas-liquid chromatography in 103 FCH patients and 240 normolipidemic relatives (NLR). Squalene, desmosterol, and lathosterol levels were 6% (0.078), 31%, (P<0.001) and 51% (P<0.001) higher in FCH as compared to NLR, and these differences were especially pronounced in women. An interaction with obesity was also noted for a subset of these markers. We did not observe any apparent differences for the cholesterol absorption markers among FCH patients and NLR.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that both men and women with FCH have alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, resulting in 51% higher levels of lathosterol (and additionally desmosterol in women). Plasma levels of the cholesterol precursor sterol squalene were only slightly increased (6%), suggesting enhanced conversion of squalene to lathosterol in this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.196550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813691PMC
January 2010

Pioglitazone treatment enlarges subcutaneous adipocytes in insulin-resistant patients.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009 Nov 9;94(11):4453-7. Epub 2009 Oct 9.

Departments of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Context: Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with an increase in adipocyte size. In rodent models, treatment with the insulin-sensitizers thiazolidinediones (TZDs) leads to the appearance of small, insulin-sensitive adipocytes. Whether such TZD-dependent morphological changes occur in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant patients is unclear.

Objective: The objective of the study was to study the effects of treatment with the TZD pioglitazone on sc adipose tissue morphology and function in insulin-resistant subjects.

Design: This was a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study.

Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center.

Patients: Twelve adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) characterized by insulin resistance were included in this study.

Intervention: After a 4-wk run-in phase, patients were treated with pioglitazone (45 mg/d) followed by placebo, each for 16 wk or vice versa.

Main Outcome Measures: After both placebo and pioglitazone treatment, insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and abdominal sc adipose tissue was obtained to measure adipocyte cell surface and expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and inflammation.

Results: Pioglitazone treatment significantly improved the insulin sensitivity index (placebo: 0.35 +/- 0.16 micromol/kg . min per milliunit per liter; pioglitazone 0.53 +/- 0.16 micromol/kg . min per milliunit per liter, P < 0.001) and increased mRNA expression levels of adiponectin and glucose transporter-4 in adipose tissue. The increase in insulin sensitivity was accompanied by a significant enlargement of the sc adipocyte cell surface (placebo: 2323 +/- 725 microm(2); pioglitazone 2821 +/- 885 microm(2), P = 0.03).

Conclusions: In the human situation, treatment of insulin-resistant subjects with pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, whereas at the same time, sc adipocyte cell surface increases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-0517DOI Listing
November 2009

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not equal to oxidative stress.

Am J Cardiol 2008 Oct;102(8):1118

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.08.020DOI Listing
October 2008

Adiponectin multimer distribution in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Nov 30;376(1):164-8. Epub 2008 Aug 30.

Department of General Internal Medicine 463, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Adiponectin is secreted from adipocytes in different multimers, of which the high molecular weight (HMW) form is supposed to mediate favorable metabolic and anti-atherogenic effects. We determined adiponectin multimers in 29 female and 22 male patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 51 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched controls in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We observed a clear sexual dimorphism of total adiponectin and its multimers. Female, but not male, FCH patients had significant lower total adiponectin and both HMW and low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin than controls. The adiponectin sensitivity index (ASI), reflected by HMW/total adiponectin, and the LMW/HMW adiponectin ratio did not differ significantly between FCH females and control females. However, FCH females with CVD exhibited significantly lower ASI (34.2+/-10.1% vs 46.0+/-7.1%) and higher LMW/HMW ratio (1.5+/-0.8 vs 0.7+/-0.3) compared to FCH females without CVD, reflecting a more atherogenic adiponectin multimer distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.111DOI Listing
November 2008

Serum hepcidin levels are innately low in HFE-related haemochromatosis but differ between C282Y-homozygotes with elevated and normal ferritin levels.

Br J Haematol 2008 Sep 28;142(6):979-85. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

HFE C282Y-homozygosity has been associated with low hepcidin expression, leading to increased ferritin levels. However, serum hepcidin protein levels have not been documented in humans. In the current study, we compared serum hepcidin levels of newly diagnosed HFE C282Y-homozygotes with (N = 15) and without (N = 7) elevated serum ferritin levels to levels of 40 controls (20 heterozygotes and 20 wild types). In addition, hepcidin levels of four C282Y homozygotes were investigated during the course of all phlebotomy treatment phases. Serum hepcidin levels were lower in HFE C282Y-homozygotes (median; 25th-75th percentile: 1.88; 0.78-2.77 nmol/l) compared to controls (2.74; 1.45-5.39). Hepcidin/ferritin ratios were also lower in homozygotes. Homozygotes with an elevated serum ferritin had a higher serum hepcidin but a lower hepcidin/ferritin ratio than those with normal ferritin (2.28; 1.62-3.23 nmol/l hepcidin vs. 0.80; 0.60-1.29 and 3.63; 2.72-7.59 pmol hepcidin/microg ferritin vs. 13.2; 5.15-14.2). Serum hepcidin decreased during the depletion phase of phlebotomy and remained low during maintenance. This study showed that serum hepcidin is innately low in HFE-related haemochromatosis. Elevated ferritin levels were associated with increased hepcidin levels while erythropoiesis lead to lower hepcidin levels. During depletion, therefore, hepcidin levels are decreased, which may exacerbate intestinal iron absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07273.xDOI Listing
September 2008

Paraoxonase (PON1) and the risk for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in a general population of Dutch women.

Atherosclerosis 2008 Aug 27;199(2):408-14. Epub 2007 Dec 27.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

There is strong evidence from both animal- and in vitro-models that paraoxonase (PON1) is involved in the onset of cardiovascular disease. In humans there is no consensus on this issue and therefore we investigated the effect of PON1 genotype and activity on the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large prospective cohort of 17,357 middle-aged women. We applied a case-cohort design using the CHD (n=211) and AMI cases (n=71) and a random sample from the baseline cohort (n=1527). A weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate age- and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the PON1 genetic variants (192Q > R and -107C > T) and tertiles of the PON1 arylesterase- and paraoxonase activities. Neither the PON1 genetic variants, nor the PON1 activities affected the incidence of CHD in general, but, an increased paraoxonase activity was associated with a higher risk of AMI: the second and third tertile HR were 1.31 and 2.07, respectively (P-trend=0.029, multivariate model). In the subgroup of never-smokers, paraoxonase activity was associated with an increased risk for AMI: the second and third tertile HR were 4.1 and 4.7, respectively (P-trend=0.009, multivariate model). Additionally, when compared to the lowest paraoxonase tertile in never-smokers, the highest paraoxonase tertile in current-smokers showed a 19.2-fold higher risk for AMI (95%CI: 5.3-69.5, P < 0.0001, multivariate model). In conclusion, this study shows that in middle-aged women paraoxonase activity was associated with an increased risk for AMI and that the risk was modified by the effects of smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.11.018DOI Listing
August 2008

Paraoxonase (PON1) is associated with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

Atherosclerosis 2008 Jul 21;199(1):87-94. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a common genetic lipid disorder of which the molecular basis still remains to be elucidated. Since the HDL-associated enzyme serum paraoxonase (PON1) is associated with variation in serum lipids and lipoproteins, we determined whether variation in PON1 also contributes to the FCH phenotype. The study population consisted of 32 well-defined families with FCH, including 103 FCH patients and 240 normolipidemic relatives (NLR). In addition to plasma lipids and lipoproteins we determined PON1 activity (arylesterase- and paraoxonase activity) as well as the common genetic variants -107C>T, 55L>M and 192Q>R in the PON1 gene. The arylesterase activity was significantly higher in FCH patients when compared to NLR (P<0.001). In the total population, the PON1 genetic variants associated with the highest arylesterase activity (-107CC and 55LL) also associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol. In support, the combination of the -107CC with the 55LL genotype associated with a significant increased risk for FCH when compared to the -107TT/55MM genotype (odds ratio 5.0 (95% CI, 1.3-19.1, P=0.02)). In conclusion, in this population of subjects from well-defined families with FCH, PON1 is biochemically and genetically associated with FCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.10.017DOI Listing
July 2008

Regulation of hepcidin: insights from biochemical analyses on human serum samples.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2008 May-Jun;40(3):339-46. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Department of Clinical Chemistry (441), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Knowledge of hepcidin regulation is foremost gained by in vitro studies. We aimed to translate this knowledge into the human in vivo situation. Therefore, we measured serum markers as transferrin saturation (TS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in parallel with hepcidin and prohepcidin in patients with iron metabolism disorders and controls. To assess sTfR as erythropoietic activity-associated factor in hepcidin regulation, we studied its influence on hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells. Results showed that sTfR highly associates with erythropoietic activity that strongly interfered with the iron store regulation of hepcidin. HepG2 expression results display an inverse association between hepcidin and sTfR. Inflammation was strongly related to increased hepcidin levels regardless of the iron store and erythropoietic activity status. In contrast, prohepcidin failed to correlate to any other parameter. In conclusion, these studies verify that previous conclusions based on in vitro studies on hepcidin regulation are also likely to apply to human patients. This is underscored by a simple algorithm, based on parameters reflecting the main regulating pathways, that accurately predict the actual measured hepcidin levels. Future studies are needed to validate the combined utility of this predictive algorithm together with actual measured hepcidin levels in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.10.002DOI Listing
August 2008

Plasma annexin A5 level relates inversely to the severity of coronary stenosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 May 12;356(3):674-80. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Department of General Internal Medicine 441, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Exogenous radiolabeled annexin A5 is taken up by atherosclerotic tissue. We measured endogenous plasma annexin A5 and circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a biochemical marker of atherosclerosis, in men with either severe angiographically determined coronary stenosis (n=90) or no or only minor stenosis (n=96). Men without history of cardiac disease or treatment and free of plaques in the carotid artery (by ultrasonography) were taken as controls (n=87). Opposite to oxLDL, annexin A5 decreased at increasing severity of stenosis. OxLDL was lowest and annexin A5 was highest in controls. Percentage differences between groups were higher for annexin A5 than for oxLDL, and highest for oxLDL/annexin A5 ratio. The oxLDL/annexin A5 ratio is a better marker of the severity of coronary stenosis than oxLDL alone, may reflect the presence and extent of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and might prove useful for preclinical screening purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.020DOI Listing
May 2007

Pulse wave velocity in familial combined hyperlipidemia.

Am J Hypertens 2007 Mar;20(3):263-9

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: In the present cross-sectional study we investigated whether familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is associated with an increased arterial wall stiffness, and whether measures of arterial wall stiffness in FCH family members could contribute to cardiovascular risk stratification.

Methods: Ninety-eight subjects with FCH and 230 unaffected relatives filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits, medical history, and medication use. Fasting venous blood was drawn after discontinuation of any lipid-lowering medication. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were determined by applanation tonometry as surrogate markers of arterial stiffness.

Results: Patients with FCH had a significantly increased PWV compared to their unaffected relatives (9.07 +/- 2.75 v 8.28 +/- 2.62 m/sec, P = .005), whereas AIx was not increased (21.6 +/- 12.7 v 15.6 +/- 14.1, P = .96). Age- and gender-adjusted PWV was an equally good predictor of the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in FCH family members as the most predictive combination of age- and gender-adjusted clinical and biochemical risk factors, including total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure (area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) [AUC] 0.83 [0.76-0.90] v AUC 0.84 [0.78-0.91], P = .83). Addition of PWV to the multivariable prognostic model, including these age- and gender-adjusted traditional risk factors, did not increase the predictive ability for CVD (AUC 0.84 [0.79-0.89]).

Conclusions: Patients with FCH are characterized by an increased arterial stiffness. The PWV predicts the presence of CVD equally well as any combination of clinical and traditional biochemical risk factors, but PWV has no additional value in addition to traditional risk factor screening in FCH families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.09.015DOI Listing
March 2007

Circulating CXCL16 is not related to circulating oxLDL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Apr 6;355(2):392-7. Epub 2007 Feb 6.

Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre and Nijmegen Centre of Molecular Life Sciences, The Netherlands.

CXCL16 acts as a scavenger receptor for oxLDL in its membrane-bound form and induces migration of activated T cells in its soluble form. Due to these properties, CXCL16 has been suggested to play a role in both atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to evaluate the contribution of soluble CXCL16 to the scavenging of oxLDL and its potential as a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with RA. We found that circulating CXCL16 was not correlated with plasma oxLDL or ApoB and was not related to the presence of CVD in RA patients. Moreover, CXCL16 did not bind and scavenge oxLDL in an in vitro setting. These data suggest that binding of oxLDL by soluble CXCL16 does not play a role in atherosclerosis and, although confirmation in larger studies is needed, that circulating CXCL16 is not related to the presence of CVD in patients with RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.161DOI Listing
April 2007

Serum non-transferrin-bound iron and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in heterozygous hemochromatosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Jun 2;345(1):371-6. Epub 2006 May 2.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Unlabelled: Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) is implicated in lipid peroxidation but the relation with oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is not known. We assessed variables reflecting in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation in two age- and sex-matched groups (n=23) of hereditary hemochromatosis heterozygotes (C282Y), characterized by a clear difference in mean serum NTBI (1.55+/-0.57 micromol/L vs 3.70+/-0.96 micromol/L). Plasma level of oxidized LDL (absolute and relative to plasma apolipoprotein B), and IgG and IgM antibodies to oxidized LDL, markers of in vivo LDL oxidation, did not differ between the groups with low and high serum NTBI. Mean lag-phase of in vitro LDL oxidation was also not significantly different between both study groups.

Conclusion: these findings do not support the hypothesis that NTBI promotes oxidative modification of plasma LDL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.100DOI Listing
June 2006

High-throughput genotyping with infrared fluorescence allele specific hybridization (iFLASH): a simple, reliable and low-cost alternative.

Clin Biochem 2006 Jul 19;39(7):739-45. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Research Laboratory of the Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To develop and validate a novel genotyping approach, named infrared Fluorescence Allele Specific Hybridization (iFLASH), which combines the principles of allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization with the advanced possibilities of infrared imaging.

Design And Methods: As an example, we genotyped the 55L > M and the 192Q > R common genetic variants of the paraoxonase-1 gene in 92 DNA samples using the iFLASH technique, and validated the outcomes with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and TAQman genotyping assays.

Results: There was a 100 percent agreement in genotype outcome among the three methods.

Conclusions: Although we found complete unity in genotype outcome, the iFLASH assay has essential advantages over the RFLP and TAQman genotyping assays. First, the iFLASH technique is capable of handling up to 1536 samples per assay, which makes it a suitable technique for high-throughput genotyping. Secondly, because the costs per assay are lower, high-throughput genotyping with iFLASH is affordable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.02.012DOI Listing
July 2006

Elevated leptin levels in subjects with familial combined hyperlipidemia are associated with the increased risk for CVD.

Atherosclerosis 2005 Dec;183(2):355-60

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is characterized by hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia and is associated with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other features of FCH are obesity and insulin resistance. Serum leptin levels have been associated with obesity, insulin resistance and CVD. The aim of this study was to determine whether increased leptin levels contribute to the FCH phenotype and its increased risk for CVD. The study population comprised 644 subjects, including 158 FCH patients. Leptin levels were determined, using a commercially available ELISA. For both males and females, the mean leptin level (ng/ml) was higher in FCH patients compared to normolipidemic relatives and spouses. However, after standardization for BMI and insulin resistance, these differences disappeared. The 90th percentile of the leptin level, standardized for BMI, insulin resistance and gender, was associated with an increased risk for CVD in FCH patients (odds ratio=2.9, 95% CI=1.1-8.0) and in non-FCH subjects (odds ratio=3.4, 95% CI=1.3-9.0). The overall increased risk for CVD, associated with a leptin level >90th percentile, was 3.3 (95% CI=1.7-6.4). We conclude that in patients with FCH, leptin levels are increased in proportion to their higher BMI and the presence of insulin resistance. These increased leptin levels are associated with an increased risk for CVD both in FCH patients and non-FCH subjects, independent of BMI, insulin resistance and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.03.019DOI Listing
December 2005

Decreased adiponectin levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia patients contribute to the atherogenic lipid profile.

J Lipid Res 2005 Nov 16;46(11):2398-404. Epub 2005 Aug 16.

Department of Medicine and Division of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or apolipoprotein B. Other features of FCH are obesity and insulin resistance. Adiponectin is a secretory product of the adipose tissue. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance and accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether decreased adiponectin levels are associated with FCH and its phenotypes. The study population comprised 644 subjects, including 158 patients with FCH. Serum adiponectin levels were determined using a commercially available ELISA. For both males and females, the mean adiponectin level (microg/ml) was significantly lower in FCH patients [2.0 (1.8-2.2) and 2.5 (2.3-2.8), respectively] compared with normolipidemic relatives [2.3 (2.2-2.5) and 3.1 (2.8-3.3), respectively] and spouses [2.4 (2.1-2.7) and 3.2 (2.8-3.6), respectively]. These differences remain significant after adjusting for waist circumference and insulin resistance. Low adiponectin level in FCH patients was a superior independent predictor of the atherogenic lipid profile, including high triglyceride levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, and the amount of small, dense LDL present, compared with both obesity and insulin resistance. Low adiponectin levels may contribute to the atherogenic lipid profile in FCH, independent of insulin resistance and obesity, as measured by waist circumference. This finding implies a role of adipose tissue metabolism in the pathophysiology of FCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M500212-JLR200DOI Listing
November 2005

Paraoxonase-1 and linoleic acid oxidation in familial hypercholesterolemia.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Aug;333(3):787-93

Research Laboratory of the Department of Clinical Chemistry, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. T.M.van

Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme that can inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. The role of PON1 in vivo still remains to be clarified. We investigated the effect of PON1 genotype (-107C > T and 192Q > R), concentration, paraoxonase activity, and arylesterase activity on the early phase of lipid peroxidation in plasma samples of 110 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The degree of lipid oxidation was assessed by quantitation of oxidized-linoleic acid (the most abundant fatty acid present in LDL) using high performance liquid chromatography. We found a significant inverse correlation between paraoxonase activity and the oxidized-linoleic acid concentration (r = -0.22, P = 0.03), independent of baseline linoleic acid levels. These findings support an anti-oxidative role for PON1 in patients with FH, and thus may give insight into the functioning of PON1 in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.176DOI Listing
August 2005

Indications that paraoxonase-1 contributes to plasma high density lipoprotein levels in familial hypercholesterolemia.

J Lipid Res 2005 Mar 1;46(3):445-51. Epub 2004 Dec 1.

Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

HDL-associated paraoxonase type 1 (PON1) can protect LDL and HDL against oxidative modification in vitro and therefore may protect against cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of PON1 levels, activity, and genetic variation on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, circulating oxidized LDL (OxLDL), subclinical inflammation [high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP)], and carotid atherosclerosis. PON1 genotypes (L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, -162A/G, -824G/A, and -907G/C) were determined in 302 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PON1 activity was monitored by the hydrolysis rate of paraoxon, diazoxon, and phenyl acetate. PON1 levels, OxLDL, and Hs-CRP were determined using an immunoassay. The genetic variants of PON1 that were associated with high levels and activity of the enzyme were associated with higher HDL-C levels (P values for trend: 0.008, 0.020, 0.042, and 0.037 for L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, and -907G/C, respectively). In addition to the PON1 genotype, there was also a positive correlation between PON1 levels and activity and HDL-C (PON1 levels: r = 0.37, P < 0.001; paraoxonase activity: r = 0.23, P = 0.01; diazoxonase activity: r = 0.29, P < 0.001; arylesterase activity: r = 0.19, P = 0.03). Our observations support the hypothesis that both PON1 levels and activity preserve HDL-C in plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M400052-JLR200DOI Listing
March 2005

Factors influencing isoprotein dependency of polyclonal apolipoprotein(a) assays.

Clin Chem 2004 Nov;50(11):2161-3

Department of Medicine, Laboratory of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center St. Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2004.039545DOI Listing
November 2004

Oxidative stress in patients with end-stage renal disease prior to the start of renal replacement therapy.

Nephron Clin Pract 2004 ;98(1):c3-7

Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background/aim: In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death. Increased oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for enhanced atherosclerosis in this population. Literature data vary partially dependent on differences in methodology. The present study compares three different methods: plasma lipid peroxides, the newly developed measurement of circulating oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) particles and the frequently used copper-induced LDL oxidation lag time.

Methods: We assessed plasma lipid peroxides, circulating Ox-LDL and in vitro copper-induced LDL oxidation lag time in 47 non-diabetic patients with ESRD, at the start of renal replacement therapy, and compared these with 41 age- and sex-matched controls.

Results: In ESRD, total cholesterol (4.6 +/- 1.1 vs. 5.6 +/- 0.9 mmol/l; p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (2.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.7 mmol/l; p < 0.001) and HDL cholesterol (1.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/l; p < 0.001) were lower compared to controls. Plasma lipid peroxides were higher (1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.5 micromol/l; p = 0.003) in ESRD. No differences were observed in plasma Ox-LDL (63.1 +/- 62.0 vs. 55.3 +/- 48.0 mg/l). However, due to the lower plasma LDL cholesterol in ESRD, LDL oxidation level was increased in ESRD (7.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.3%; p = 0.03). LDL lag time was slightly longer (89 +/- 11 vs. 84 +/- 11 min; p = 0.04) in ESRD. There were no significant differences regarding the amount and rate of dienes produced.

Conclusions: Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and higher LDL oxidation levels support the theory that ESRD is associated with increased oxidative stress, which may explain the accelerated atherosclerosis. The measured amount of oxidative stress is not reflected by in vitro oxidizability of LDL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000079921DOI Listing
April 2005