Publications by authors named "Lambertus A Kiemeney"

417 Publications

Validation and reliability of the Dutch version of the EORTC QLQ-NMIBC24 Questionnaire Module for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Sep 20;5(1):96. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department for Health Evidence, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (QLQ-NMIBC24) has been available and applied for some years now, but has yet to undergo a full comprehensive psychometric evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the EORTC QLQ-NMIBC24 questionnaire in patients with low, intermediate and high risk NMIBC.

Methods: We included patients newly diagnosed with NMIBC participating in the multicenter, population-based prospective cohort studies UroLife or BlaZIB. Psychometric evaluation included examination of the structural validity, reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (i.e. divergent validity and known-groups validity), responsiveness and interpretability.

Results: A total of 1463 patients who completed the baseline questionnaire of UroLife (n = 541, response rate 50%) or BlaZIB (n = 922, response rate 58%) were included. The percentage of missing responses were low for all non-sex related scales (< 1%) and ranged between 6.9% to 50.0% for sex-related scales. More than 15% of the patients obtained the lowest possible scores on nearly each scale (floor effect). The structural validity was adequate; the confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory results and all items of multiple items scales had higher within- than between-scale correlations. Reliability of the questionnaire was adequate for most multiple item scales (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70 and intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.70), with exception of the scales 'malaise' and 'bloating and flatulence'. The questionnaire also showed good construct validity; it showed low correlations with the items of the EORTC core questionnaire and was able to measure differences between risk-based subgroups. The responsiveness of the questionnaire was good, but the interpretability, i.e. minimal important change, could not be determined.

Conclusions: This study shows that the measurement properties of the EORTC QLQL-NMIBC24 are good; it has a good structural validity, reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (i.e. divergent validity and known-group validity), and responsiveness. Interpretability could not be assessed. This questionnaire can be used to measure and monitor health-related quality of life of patients with NMIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41687-021-00372-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452806PMC
September 2021

Overall Survival of Patients Receiving Cisplatin or Carboplatin for Primary Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Contemporary Dutch Nationwide Cohort Study.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Research and Development, The Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Cisplatin is preferred to carboplatin when treating metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (mUCB), despite its greater toxicity. Randomised studies underpinning this have been performed in noncontemporary populations with limitations in sample sizes and analyses, affecting their validity in current clinical practice.

Objective: To estimate overall survival (OS) and assess the benefit of cisplatin-based regimens over carboplatin-based regimens in a contemporary cohort of patients with mUCB.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients diagnosed with de novo mUCB in the Netherlands between 2016 and 2019, who underwent first-line treatment with cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy, based on the data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: A propensity model for receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy based on age, sex, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index, renal function, performance status, serum haemoglobin, and the presence of visceral and bone metastases was used to produce inverse probability weighting (IPW) per patient. Unadjusted and IPW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier OS curves of both chemotherapy groups were compared by restricted mean survival time (RMST).

Results And Limitations: Of the 1041 patients with mUCB, 359 received either cisplatin (n = 170; 47%) or carboplatin (n = 189; 53%) as first line. The cisplatin group was younger, had fewer comorbidities, and had better performance status and renal function. The median OS in the cisplatin and carboplatin groups was 13.1 and 11.5 mo, respectively. After IPW adjustment, prognostic factors were balanced between the two chemotherapy groups (standardised differences <0.1), and differences in RMST were <2.0 mo and not statistically significant up to 24 mo.

Conclusions: After accounting for all known prognostic factors, we found no significant survival benefit for cisplatin over carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in mUCB.

Patient Summary: In this study, we compared the survival benefits of cisplatin- and carboplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with metastatic bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.08.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome-wide Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Genes Associated with Recurrence and Progression in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department for Health Evidence, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is characterized by frequent recurrences and a risk of progression in stage and grade. Increased knowledge of underlying biological mechanisms is needed.

Objective: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free (PFS) survival in NMIBC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We analyzed outcome data from 3400 newly diagnosed NMIBC patients from the Netherlands, the UK, Canada, and Spain. We generated genome-wide germline SNP data using Illumina OmniExpress and Infinium Global Screening Array in combination with genotype imputation.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Cohort-specific genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for RFS and PFS were performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results were combined in a fixed-effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Candidate genes for the identified SNP associations were prioritized using functional annotation, gene-based analysis, expression quantitative trait locus analysis, and transcription factor binding site databases. Tumor expression levels of prioritized genes were tested for association with RFS and PFS in an independent NMIBC cohort.

Results And Limitations: This meta-analysis revealed a genome-wide significant locus for RFS on chromosome 14 (lead SNP rs12885353, hazard ratio [HR] C vs T allele 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-1.82, p = 4.0 × 10), containing genes G2E3 and SCFD1. Higher expression of SCFD1 was associated with increased RFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.84, p = 0.003). Twelve other loci were suggestively associated with RFS (p < 10), pointing toward 18 additional candidate genes. For PFS, ten loci showed suggestive evidence of association, indicating 36 candidate genes. Expression levels of ten of these genes were statistically significantly associated with PFS, of which four (IFT140, UBE2I, FAHD1, and NME3) showed directional consistency with our meta-analysis results and published literature.

Conclusions: In this first prognostic GWAS in NMIBC, we identified several novel candidate loci and five genes that showed convincing associations with recurrence or progression.

Patient Summary: In this study, we searched for inherited DNA changes that affect the outcome of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We identified several genes that are associated with disease recurrence and progression. The roles and mechanisms of these genes in NMIBC prognosis should be investigated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.07.001DOI Listing
August 2021

Potential role for immune-related genes in autism spectrum disorders: Evidence from genome-wide association meta-analysis of autistic traits.

Autism 2021 Aug 4:13623613211019547. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Radboud University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Lay Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders are complex, with a strong genetic basis. Genetic research in autism spectrum disorders is limited by the fact that these disorders are largely heterogeneous so that patients are variable in their clinical presentations. To address this limitation, we investigated the genetics of individual dimensions of the autism spectrum disorder phenotypes, or autistic-like traits. These autistic-like traits are continuous variations in autistic behaviours that occur in the general population. Therefore, we meta-analysed data from four different population cohorts in which autistic-like traits were measured. We performed a set of genetic analyses to identify common variants for autistic-like traits, understand how these variants related to autism spectrum disorders, and how they contribute to neurobiological processes. Our results showed genetic associations with specific autistic-like traits and a link to the immune system. We offer an example of the potential to use a dimensional approach when dealing with heterogeneous, complex disorder like autism spectrum disorder. Decomposing the complex autism spectrum disorder phenotype in its core features can inform on the specific biology of these features which is likely to account to clinical variability in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13623613211019547DOI Listing
August 2021

Pleiotropy-guided transcriptome imputation from normal and tumor tissues identifies candidate susceptibility genes for breast and ovarian cancer.

HGG Adv 2021 Jul 16;2(3). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Virus, Lifestyle, and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Familial, sequencing, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genetic correlation analyses have progressively unraveled the shared or pleiotropic germline genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to leverage this shared germline genetics to improve the power of transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) to identify candidate breast cancer and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. We built gene expression prediction models using the PrediXcan method in 681 breast and 295 ovarian tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 211 breast and 99 ovarian normal tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and integrated these with GWAS meta-analysis data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (22,406 cases/40,941 controls). The integration was achieved through application of a pleiotropy-guided conditional/conjunction false discovery rate (FDR) approach in the setting of a TWASs. This identified 14 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes spanning 11 genomic regions and 8 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes spanning 5 genomic regions at conjunction FDR < 0.05 that were >1 Mb away from known breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We also identified 38 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes and 17 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes at conjunction FDR < 0.05 at known breast and/or ovarian susceptibility loci. The 22 genes identified by our cross-cancer analysis represent promising candidates that further elucidate the role of the transcriptome in mediating germline breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312632PMC
July 2021

Identification of 22 susceptibility loci associated with testicular germ cell tumors.

Nat Commun 2021 07 23;12(1):4487. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common tumor in young white men and have a high heritability. In this study, the international Testicular Cancer Consortium assemble 10,156 and 179,683 men with and without TGCT, respectively, for a genome-wide association study. This meta-analysis identifies 22 TGCT susceptibility loci, bringing the total to 78, which account for 44% of disease heritability. Men with a polygenic risk score (PRS) in the 95 percentile have a 6.8-fold increased risk of TGCT compared to men with median scores. Among men with independent TGCT risk factors such as cryptorchidism, the PRS may guide screening decisions with the goal of reducing treatment-related complications causing long-term morbidity in survivors. These findings emphasize the interconnected nature of two known pathways that promote TGCT susceptibility: male germ cell development within its somatic niche and regulation of chromosomal division and structure, and implicate an additional biological pathway, mRNA translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24334-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302763PMC
July 2021

Prospective bladder cancer infrastructure for experimental and observational research on bladder cancer: study protocol for the 'trials within cohorts' study ProBCI.

BMJ Open 2021 05 18;11(5):e047256. Epub 2021 May 18.

Research and Development, The Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A better understanding of the molecular profile of bladder tumours, the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and introduction of new drugs and has renewed research interest in the field of bladder cancer. We describe the design and setup of a Dutch Prospective Bladder Cancer Infrastructure (ProBCI) as a means to stimulate and accelerate clinically meaningful experimental and observational research.

Methods And Analysis: ProBCI entails an open cohort of patients with bladder cancer in which the trials within cohorts (TwiCs) design can be embedded. Physicians in participating hospitals prospectively recruit invasive (≥T1) patients with bladder cancer on primary diagnosis for inclusion into the study. Extensive clinical data are collected and updated every 4 months, along with patient-reported outcomes and biomaterials. Informed consent includes participation in TwiCs studies and renewed contact for future studies. Consent for participation in questionnaires and molecular analyses that may yield incidental findings is optional.

Ethics And Dissemination: The Dutch ProBCI is a unique effort to construct a nation-wide cohort of patients with bladder cancer including clinical data, patient-reported outcomes and biomaterial, to facilitate observational and experimental research. Data and materials are available for other research groups on request through www.probci.nl. Ethics approval was obtained from METC Utrecht (reference: NL70207.041.19).

Trial Registration Number: NCT04503577.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130738PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies pleiotropic risk loci for aerodigestive squamous cell cancers.

PLoS Genet 2021 03 5;17(3):e1009254. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

University of Salzburg, Department of Biosciences and Cancer Cluster Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) of the aerodigestive tract have similar etiological risk factors. Although genetic risk variants for individual cancers have been identified, an agnostic, genome-wide search for shared genetic susceptibility has not been performed. To identify novel and pleotropic SqCC risk variants, we performed a meta-analysis of GWAS data on lung SqCC (LuSqCC), oro/pharyngeal SqCC (OSqCC), laryngeal SqCC (LaSqCC) and esophageal SqCC (ESqCC) cancers, totaling 13,887 cases and 61,961 controls of European ancestry. We identified one novel genome-wide significant (Pmeta<5x10-8) aerodigestive SqCC susceptibility loci in the 2q33.1 region (rs56321285, TMEM273). Additionally, three previously unknown loci reached suggestive significance (Pmeta<5x10-7): 1q32.1 (rs12133735, near MDM4), 5q31.2 (rs13181561, TMEM173) and 19p13.11 (rs61494113, ABHD8). Multiple previously identified loci for aerodigestive SqCC also showed evidence of pleiotropy in at least another SqCC site, these include: 4q23 (ADH1B), 6p21.33 (STK19), 6p21.32 (HLA-DQB1), 9p21.33 (CDKN2B-AS1) and 13q13.1(BRCA2). Gene-based association and gene set enrichment identified a set of 48 SqCC-related genes rel to DNA damage and epigenetic regulation pathways. Our study highlights the importance of cross-cancer analyses to identify pleiotropic risk loci of histology-related cancers arising at distinct anatomical sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968735PMC
March 2021

Assessing Lung Cancer Absolute Risk Trajectory Based on a Polygenic Risk Model.

Cancer Res 2021 03 20;81(6):1607-1615. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Baylor Medical College, Houston, Texas.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death globally. An improved risk stratification strategy can increase efficiency of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening. Here we assessed whether individual's genetic background has clinical utility for risk stratification in the context of LDCT screening. On the basis of 13,119 patients with lung cancer and 10,008 controls with European ancestry in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, we constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) via 10-fold cross-validation with regularized penalized regression. The performance of risk model integrating PRS, including calibration and ability to discriminate, was assessed using UK Biobank data ( = 335,931). Absolute risk was estimated on the basis of age-specific lung cancer incidence and all-cause mortality as competing risk. To evaluate its potential clinical utility, the PRS distribution was simulated in the National Lung Screening Trial ( = 50,772 participants). The lung cancer ORs for individuals at the top decile of the PRS distribution versus those at bottom 10% was 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92-3.00; = 1.80 × 10] in the validation set ( = 5.26 × 10). The OR per SD of PRS increase was 1.26 (95% CI = 1.20-1.32; = 9.69 × 10) for overall lung cancer risk in the validation set. When considering absolute risks, individuals at different PRS deciles showed differential trajectories of 5-year and cumulative absolute risk. The age reaching the LDCT screening recommendation threshold can vary by 4 to 8 years, depending on the individual's genetic background, smoking status, and family history. Collectively, these results suggest that individual's genetic background may inform the optimal lung cancer LDCT screening strategy. SIGNIFICANCE: Three large-scale datasets reveal that, after accounting for risk factors, an individual's genetics can affect their lung cancer risk trajectory, thus may inform the optimal timing for LDCT screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969419PMC
March 2021

European Association of Urology (EAU) Prognostic Factor Risk Groups for Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) Incorporating the WHO 2004/2016 and WHO 1973 Classification Systems for Grade: An Update from the EAU NMIBC Guidelines Panel.

Eur Urol 2021 04 6;79(4):480-488. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Urology, The Stokes Centre for Urology, Royal Surrey Hospital, Guildford, UK.

Background: The European Association of Urology (EAU) prognostic factor risk groups for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are used to provide recommendations for patient treatment after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). They do not, however, take into account the widely used World Health Organization (WHO) 2004/2016 grading classification and are based on patients treated in the 1980s.

Objective: To update EAU prognostic factor risk groups using the WHO 1973 and 2004/2016 grading classifications and identify patients with the lowest and highest probabilities of progression.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Individual patient data for primary NMIBC patients were collected from the institutions of the members of the EAU NMIBC guidelines panel.

Intervention: Patients underwent TURBT followed by intravesical instillations at the physician's discretion.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models were fitted to the primary endpoint, the time to progression to muscle-invasive disease or distant metastases. Patients were divided into four risk groups: low-, intermediate-, high-, and a new, very high-risk group. The probabilities of progression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results And Limitations: A total of 3401 patients treated with TURBT ± intravesical chemotherapy were included. From the multivariable analyses, tumor stage, WHO 1973/2004-2016 grade, concomitant carcinoma in situ, number of tumors, tumor size, and age were used to form four risk groups for which the probability of progression at 5 yr varied from <1% to >40%. Limitations include the retrospective collection of data and the lack of central pathology review.

Conclusions: This study provides updated EAU prognostic factor risk groups that can be used to inform patient treatment and follow-up. Incorporating the WHO 2004/2016 and 1973 grading classifications, a new, very high-risk group has been identified for which urologists should be prompt to assess and adapt their therapeutic strategy when necessary.

Patient Summary: The newly updated European Association of Urology prognostic factor risk groups for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer provide an improved basis for recommending a patient's treatment and follow-up schedule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.12.033DOI Listing
April 2021

Hospital volume is associated with postoperative mortality after radical cystectomy for treatment of bladder cancer.

BJU Int 2021 10 15;128(4):511-518. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organization, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To contribute to the debate regarding the minimum volume of radical cystectomies (RCs) that a hospital should perform by evaluating the association between hospital volume (HV) and postoperative mortality.

Patients And Methods: Patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018 were retrospectively identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. To create a calendar-year independent measure, the HV of RCs was calculated per patient by counting the RCs performed in the same hospital in the 12 months preceding surgery. The relationship of HV with 30- and 90-day mortality was assessed by logistic regression with a non-linear spline function for HV as a continuous variable, which was adjusted for age, tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) stage, and neoadjuvant treatment.

Results: The median (interquartile range; range) HV among the 9287 RC-treated patients was 19 (12-27; 1-75). Of all the included patients, 208 (2.2%) and 518 (5.6%) died within 30 and 90 days after RC, respectively. After adjustment for age, TNM stage and neoadjuvant therapy, postoperative mortality slightly increased between an HV of 0 and an HV of 25 RCs and steadily decreased from an HV of 30 onwards. The lowest risks of postoperative mortality were observed for the highest volumes.

Conclusion: This paper, based on high-quality data from a large nationwide population-based cohort, suggests that increasing the RC volume criteria beyond 30 RCs annually could further decrease postoperative mortality. Based on these results, the volume criterion of 20 RCs annually, as recently recommended by the European Association of Urology Guideline Panel, might therefore be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519083PMC
October 2021

Survival after radical cystectomy: Progressive versus De novo muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2020 4;25:100264. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Urology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Despite treatment with radical cystectomy, patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) have a poor survival. It has been reported that survival is worse in NMIBC patients who progressed to MIBC in comparison to patients with de novo MIBC. The objective of this study was to compare survival of progressive versus de novo MIBC. Secondary objective was to explain this difference in survival by clinicopathological factors.

Methods: 431 patients with MIBC who underwent radical cystectomy between 1998 and 2016 in the Radboudumc, Nijmegen, were retrospectively analyzed. 313 patients were identified with de novo MIBC and 118 with progressive MIBC.

Results: 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) of patients with progressive MIBC was 37% and 20%, respectively. Patients with de novo MIBC had significantly better survival, with a 5- and 10-year OS of 49% and 39%, respectively. Patients with progressive MIBC were more frequently diagnosed with concomitant carcinoma in situ and positive surgical margins in bladder, ureters or urethra. In multivariable analysis that adjusted for these factors, progressive MIBC was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.40 (0.99 - 1.98). Kaplan-Meier survival curves show a detrimental effect of progressive MIBC in patients with pT2 versus pT3-4 tumors and in patients with negative versus positive surgical margins. In multivariable analysis, this effect modification disappeared.

Conclusions: Progressive MIBC is associated with poorer survival than de novo MIBC. Because most patients with progressive MIBC had a history of high risk NMIBC, considering radical cystectomy is most important in the highest risk NMIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2020.100264DOI Listing
November 2021

Utilization of systemic treatment for metastatic bladder cancer in everyday practice: Results of a nation-wide population-based cohort study.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2020 8;25:100266. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

The Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Department of Research and Development, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: With the introduction of new therapeutic options, the landscape of metastatic bladder cancer (mBC) management is shifting. We describe current clinical practice and outcomes of mBC patients as a benchmark for translation of developments into clinical practice in the near future.

Patients And Methods: Nation-wide population-based cohort study including all patients diagnosed with synchronous metastatic bladder cancer in the Netherlands in 2016-2017, identified through the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Clinical data on patient and disease characteristics, treatments and survival from the NCR were supplemented with specific information from electronic health records and descriptively analyzed. This study was part of the Prospective Bladder Cancer Infrastructure.

Results: Synchronous metastatic bladder cancer was diagnosed in 636 patients in the Netherlands in 2016 and 2017. 35% (221 patients) received systemic treatment, of whom 88 received multiple treatment lines. Most common first-line regimen was carboplatin-based chemotherapy (49%), followed by cisplatin-based chemotherapy (41%) and immunotherapy (8%). Factors associated with systemic treatment were: young age, <2 comorbidities, adequate renal function and performance-status (WHO-0-1/Karnofsky-80-100), urothelial carcinoma and lymph node only metastases. Median overall survival was 4.4 months for the total cohort, and 12.3, 12.9 and 11.1 months for patients treated with first-line immunotherapy, cisplatin-based and carboplatin-based chemotherapy, respectively.

Conclusions: Many mBC patients received no systemic treatment or received carboplatin-based chemotherapy, partly because of cisplatin-ineligibility. Observed survival corresponded relatively well with rates reported from trials among chemotherapy-treated patients. These data can serve as a benchmark for future studies evaluating the application of immunotherapy outside a trial setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2020.100266DOI Listing
November 2021

Association between a 46-SNP Polygenic Risk Score and melanoma risk in Dutch patients with familial melanoma.

J Med Genet 2021 11 29;58(11):760-766. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Familial clustering of melanoma suggests a shared genetic predisposition among family members, but only 10%-40% of familial cases carry a pathogenic variant in a known high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene. We investigated whether a melanoma-specific Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) is associated with melanoma risk in patients with genetically unexplained familial melanoma.

Methods: Dutch familial melanoma cases (n=418) were genotyped for 46 SNPs previously identified as independently associated with melanoma risk. The 46-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 3423 healthy controls (sPRS) and the association between PRS and melanoma risk was modelled using logistic regression. Within the case series, possible differences were further explored by investigating the PRS in relation to (1) the number of primary melanomas in a patient and (2) the extent of familial clustering of melanoma.

Results: The PRS was significantly associated with melanoma risk, with a per-SD OR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.35, p<0.001), corresponding to a 5.70-fold increased risk (95% CI 3.93 to 8.28) when comparing the top 90th to the middle 40-60th PRS percentiles. The mean PRS was significantly higher in cases with multiple primary melanomas than in cases with a single melanoma (sPRS 1.17 vs 0.71, p=0.001). Conversely, cases from high-density melanoma families had a lower (but non-significant) mean PRS than cases from low-density families (sPRS 0.60 vs 0.94, p=0.204).

Conclusion: Our work underlines the significance of a PRS in determining melanoma susceptibility and encourages further exploration of the diagnostic value of a PRS in genetically unexplained melanoma families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551976PMC
November 2021

Integration of multiomic annotation data to prioritize and characterize inflammation and immune-related risk variants in squamous cell lung cancer.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 02 14;45(1):99-114. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1β pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855632PMC
February 2021

Hospital-specific probability of cystectomy affects survival from muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Urol Oncol 2020 12 8;38(12):935.e9-935.e16. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Radical cystectomies (RCs) are increasingly centralized, but bladder cancer can be diagnosed in every hospital The aim of this study is to assess the variation between hospitals of diagnosis in a patient's chance to undergo a RC before and after the volume criteria for RCs, to identify factors associated with this variation and to assess its effect on survival.

Methods And Materials: Patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (cT2-4a,N0/X,M0/X) without nodal or distant metastases between 2008 and 2016 were identified through the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the hospital specific probability of undergoing a cystectomy. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the case-mix adjusted effect of hospital-specific probabilities on survival.

Results: Of the 9,215 included patients, 4,513 (49%) underwent a RC. The percentage of RCs varied between 7% and 83% by hospital of diagnosis before the introduction of the first volume criteria (i.e., 2008-2009; minimum of 10 RCs). This variation decreased slightly to 17%-77% after establishment of the second volume criteria (i.e., 2015-2016; minimum of 20 RCs). Age, cT-stage and comorbidity were inversely and socioeconomic status was positively associated with RC. Both being diagnosed in a community hospital and/or being diagnosed in a hospital fulfilling the RC volume criteria were associated with increased use of RC compared to academic hospitals and hospitals not fulfilling the volume criteria. For each 10% increase in the percentage of RC in the hospital of diagnosis, 2-year case-mix adjusted survival increased 4% (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.98).

Conclusion: Probability of RC varied between hospitals of diagnosis and affected 2-year overall survival. Undergoing a RC was associated with age, cT-stage, socioeconomic status, type of hospital, and whether the hospital of diagnosis fulfilled the RC volume criteria. Future research is needed to identify patient, tumor, and hospital characteristics affecting utilization of curative treatment as this may benefit overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Causal relationships between body mass index, smoking and lung cancer: Univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization.

Int J Cancer 2021 03 23;148(5):1077-1086. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

The National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, P = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, P = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, P = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, P = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845289PMC
March 2021

Comprehensive functional annotation of susceptibility variants identifies genetic heterogeneity between lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Front Med 2021 Apr 5;15(2):275-291. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Pb 5330, Norway.

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0779-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374896PMC
April 2021

GWAS of thyroid stimulating hormone highlights pleiotropic effects and inverse association with thyroid cancer.

Nat Commun 2020 08 7;11(1):3981. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Center for Statistical Genetics and Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17718-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414135PMC
August 2020

Disparities in cancer-related healthcare among people with intellectual disabilities: A population-based cohort study with health insurance claims data.

Cancer Med 2020 09 25;9(18):6888-6895. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Concerns have been raised about the accessibility and quality of cancer-related care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, there is limited insight into cancer incidence and the utilization of cancer care at the ID population level to inform targeted cancer control strategies. Therefore, we aimed to examine differences in the utilization of cancer-related care between people with and without ID, identified through diagnostic codes on health insurance claims.

Methods: In a population-based cohort study, Dutch individuals of all ages who received residential care through the Chronic Care Act due to an ID (n = 65 183) and an age and sex-matched sample of persons without ID (1:2 ratio), who were cancer-free at enrollment in 2013 were followed through 2015. Incidence rates (IRs) of newly started cancer care and IR ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare groups. Separate analyses were performed per cancer type.

Results: Individuals with ID received less cancer-related care than individuals without (IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Differences increased with age and were larger for females than for males. Utilization of care for cancers within the national screening program (female breast, cervical, and colon cancer) was lower for people with ID compared to people without ID.

Conclusion: Cancer may be underdiagnosed and/or undertreated in people with ID, or cancer is truly less prevalent in this population. In particular, the differences detected between males and females with ID, and the potential underutilization of national screening programs, require urgent follow-up investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520346PMC
September 2020

Menstrual Factors, Reproductive History, Hormone Use, and Urothelial Carcinoma Risk: A Prospective Study in the EPIC Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 08 28;29(8):1654-1664. Epub 2020 May 28.

Hellenic Health Foundation, Kaisareias 13 & Alexandroupoleos, Athens, Greece.

Background: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk.

Methods: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed.

Conclusions: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk.

Impact: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0184DOI Listing
August 2020

Association Analysis of Driver Gene-Related Genetic Variants Identified Novel Lung Cancer Susceptibility Loci with 20,871 Lung Cancer Cases and 15,971 Controls.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 07 10;29(7):1423-1429. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.

Background: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated.

Methods: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project.

Results: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery ( < 0.001) and validation ( < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, = 1.65 × 10). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele ( in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of (OR = 1.16, = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 ( in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, = 1.76 × 10).

Conclusions: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility.

Impact: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120681PMC
July 2020

The genetic architecture of membranous nephropathy and its potential to improve non-invasive diagnosis.

Nat Commun 2020 03 30;11(1):1600. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Membranous Nephropathy (MN) is a rare autoimmune cause of kidney failure. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for primary MN in 3,782 cases and 9,038 controls of East Asian and European ancestries. We discover two previously unreported loci, NFKB1 (rs230540, OR = 1.25, P = 3.4 × 10) and IRF4 (rs9405192, OR = 1.29, P = 1.4 × 10), fine-map the PLA2R1 locus (rs17831251, OR = 2.25, P = 4.7 × 10) and report ancestry-specific effects of three classical HLA alleles: DRB1*1501 in East Asians (OR = 3.81, P = 2.0 × 10), DQA1*0501 in Europeans (OR = 2.88, P = 5.7 × 10), and DRB1*0301 in both ethnicities (OR = 3.50, P = 9.2 × 10 and OR = 3.39, P = 5.2 × 10, respectively). GWAS loci explain 32% of disease risk in East Asians and 25% in Europeans, and correctly re-classify 20-37% of the cases in validation cohorts that are antibody-negative by the serum anti-PLA2R ELISA diagnostic test. Our findings highlight an unusual genetic architecture of MN, with four loci and their interactions accounting for nearly one-third of the disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15383-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105485PMC
March 2020

No clear associations of adult BMI and diabetes mellitus with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(3):e0229384. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department for Health Evidence, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients are at high risk for tumour recurrence and progression, hence an intensive follow-up procedure is recommended which is costly. Identification of factors that are associated with the risk of recurrence and progression may enable personalized follow-up schedules. Obesity and diabetes mellitus may be associated with a worse prognosis, but the evidence is limited and inconsistent. Our objective was to determine the associations of BMI and diabetes mellitus with risks of recurrence and progression among non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients.

Methods: A population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer between 1995 and 2010 was retrospectively identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and invited to participate in the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study (n = 1,433). Average weight during adult life, height, and diabetes mellitus diagnosis were self-reported by use of a questionnaire. Clinical follow-up data were retrieved from medical files. Associations were quantified using proportional hazard analyses. For all analyses, minimal adjustment sets were selected using a Directed Acyclic Graph.

Results: Fourteen percent of the patients indicated to be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, and more than half was overweight (45%) or obese (9%). Compared to healthy weight, overweight and obesity were not associated with risk of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.22, and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.76-1.38, respectively) and overall progression (HR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.74-1.44, and HR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.69-2.09, respectively). Also, no clear associations of diabetes mellitus with risk of recurrence (HR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.98-1.54) and overall progression (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.76-1.76) were found.

Conclusion: Average BMI during adult life and diabetes mellitus were not clearly associated with risk of recurrence or progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Prospective cohort studies with detailed information on BMI and diabetes mellitus before and after diagnosis are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229384PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094867PMC
June 2020

Assessing thyroid cancer risk using polygenic risk scores.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 03 4;117(11):5997-6002. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Human Cancer Genetics Program, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210;

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified at least 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk. Most of these SNPs are common variants with small to moderate effect sizes. Here we assessed the combined genetic effects of these variants on PTC risk by using summarized GWAS results to build polygenic risk score (PRS) models in three PTC study groups from Ohio (1,544 patients and 1,593 controls), Iceland (723 patients and 129,556 controls), and the United Kingdom (534 patients and 407,945 controls). A PRS based on the 10 established PTC SNPs showed a stronger predictive power compared with the clinical factors model, with a minimum increase of area under the receiver-operating curve of 5.4 percentage points ( ≤ 1.0 × 10). Adding an extended PRS based on 592,475 common variants did not significantly improve the prediction power compared with the 10-SNP model, suggesting that most of the remaining undiscovered genetic risk in thyroid cancer is due to rare, moderate- to high-penetrance variants rather than to common low-penetrance variants. Based on the 10-SNP PRS, individuals in the top decile group of PRSs have a close to sevenfold greater risk (95% CI, 5.4-8.8) compared with the bottom decile group. In conclusion, PRSs based on a small number of common germline variants emphasize the importance of heritable low-penetrance markers in PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919976117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084156PMC
March 2020

Measurement and genetic architecture of lifetime depression in the Netherlands as assessed by LIDAS (Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report).

Psychol Med 2020 Feb 27:1-10. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Amsterdam Public Health and Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.

Methods: Within the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n ≈ 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS).

Results: Estimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%).

Conclusions: By assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720000100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223240PMC
February 2020

Contribution of Intellectual Disability-Related Genes to ADHD Risk and to Locomotor Activity in .

Am J Psychiatry 2020 06 12;177(6):526-536. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Human Genetics (Klein, Singgih, van Rens, Mota, Castells-Nobau, Brunner, Arias-Vasquez, Schenck, van der Voet, Franke), Department of Psychiatry (Mota, Arias-Vasquez, Franke), and Department for Health Evidence (Kiemeney), Radboud University Medical Center and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Biomedicine and Center for Integrative Sequencing (iSEQ), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (Demontis, Børglum); and Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Denmark (Demontis, Børglum).

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD often co-occurs with intellectual disability, and shared overlapping genetics have been suggested. The aim of this study was to identify novel ADHD genes by investigating whether genes carrying rare mutations linked to intellectual disability contribute to ADHD risk through common genetic variants. Validation and characterization of candidates were performed using .

Methods: Common genetic variants in a diagnostic gene panel of 396 autosomal intellectual disability genes were tested for association with ADHD risk through gene set and gene-wide analyses, using ADHD meta-analytic data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium for discovery (N=19,210) and ADHD data from the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research for replication (N=37,076). The significant genes were functionally validated and characterized in by assessing locomotor activity and sleep upon knockdown of those genes in brain circuits.

Results: The intellectual disability gene set was significantly associated with ADHD risk in the discovery and replication data sets. The three genes most consistently associated were , , and . Performing functional characterization of the two evolutionarily conserved genes in , the authors found that their knockdown in dopaminergic () and circadian neurons () resulted in increased locomotor activity and reduced sleep, concordant with the human phenotype.

Conclusions: This study reveals that a large set of intellectual disability-related genes contribute to ADHD risk through effects of common alleles. Utilizing this continuity, the authors identified , , and as novel ADHD candidate genes. Characterization in suggests that and contribute to ADHD-related behavior through distinct neural substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18050599DOI Listing
June 2020

Immune-mediated genetic pathways resulting in pulmonary function impairment increase lung cancer susceptibility.

Nat Commun 2020 01 7;11(1):27. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV: r = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10) and the ratio of FEV to forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC: r = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13855-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946810PMC
January 2020

Variation in the Prescription of Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy in the Netherlands, and Adherence to European Association of Urology Guidelines: A Population-based Study.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 03 17;7(2):332-339. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Research, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: According to (inter-)national guidelines, (neo-)adjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is optional for intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients and is the recommended standard treatment for high-risk PCa patients.

Objective: The aim of this study is to provide insight into the prescription of ADT in intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients treated with EBRT in the Netherlands, and to evaluate adherence to European Association of Urology guidelines and factors affecting prescription.

Design, Setting, And Participants: All intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients between October 2015 and April 2016 were identified through the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry. Variation in the prescription of ADT in patients with EBRT was evaluated. Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the probability of ADT and to examine the role of patient-, tumour-, and hospital-related factors.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 29% of patients with intermediate-risk PCa received ADT varying from 3% to 73% between institutions. From the multivariable regression analysis, higher Gleason grade, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography (CT)-positron-emission tomography/CT prior to radiotherapy appeared to be associated with increased prescription of ADT. Among high-risk patients, 83% received ADT, varying from 57% to 100% between departments. A higher prostate-specific antigen level, more advanced tumour stage, and a higher Gleason grade were associated with increased prescription.

Conclusions: Less than one-third of intermediate-risk PCa patients treated with EBRT receive ADT. The variation in the prescription of ADT between different institutions is substantial. This suggests that the prescription is largely dependent on different institutional policies. The guideline adherence in high-risk PCa is fairly good, as the vast majority of patients received ADT as recommended. However, given the clear recommendations in the guidelines, adherence could be improved.

Patient Summary: In this review, we looked at the variation of hormonal treatment in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients. We found substantial variation between institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.11.005DOI Listing
March 2021

Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUN-LMP): Still a meaningful histo-pathological grade category for Ta, noninvasive bladder tumors in 2019?

Urol Oncol 2020 05 5;38(5):440-448. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUN-LMP) was introduced as a noninvasive, noncancerous lesion and a separate grade category in 1998. Subsequently, PUN-LMP was reconfirmed by World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 and WHO 2016 classifications for urothelial bladder tumors.

Objectives: To analyze the proportion of PUN-LMP diagnosis over time and to determine its prognostic value compared to Ta-LG (low-grade) and Ta-HG (high-grade) carcinomas. To assess the intraobserver variability of an experienced uropathologist assigning (WHO) 2004/2016 grades at 2 time points.

Materials And Methods: Individual patient data of 3,311 primary Ta bladder tumors from 17 hospitals in Europe and Canada were available. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed between 1990 and 2018. Time to recurrence and progression were analyzed with cumulative incidence functions, log-rank tests and multivariable Cox-regression stratified by institution. Intraobserver variability was assessed by examining the same 314 transurethral resection of the tumorslides twice, in 2004 and again in 2018.

Results: PUN-LMP represented 3.8% (127/3,311) of Ta tumors. The same pathologist found 71/314 (22.6%) PUN-LMPs in 2004 and only 20/314 (6.4%) in 2018. Overall, the proportion of PUN-LMP diagnosis substantially decreased over time from 31.3% (1990-2000) to 3.2% (2000-2010) and to 1.1% (2010-2018). We found no difference in time to recurrence between the three WHO 2004/2016 Ta-grade categories (log-rank, P = 0.381), nor for LG vs. PUN-LMP (log-rank, P = 0.238). Time to progression was different for all grade categories (log-rank, P < 0.001), but not between LG and PUN-LMP (log-rank, P = 0.096). Multivariable analyses on recurrence and progression showed similar results for all 3 grade categories and for LG vs. PUN-LMP.

Conclusions: The proportion of PUN-LMP has decreased to very low levels in the last decade. Contrary to its reconfirmation in the WHO 2016 classification, our results do not support the continued use of PUN-LMP as a separate grade category in Ta tumors because of the similar prognosis for PUN-LMP and Ta-LG carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.10.002DOI Listing
May 2020
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