Publications by authors named "Lakshmi Thangavelu"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emerging cases of mucormycosis under COVID-19 pandemic in India: Misuse of antibiotics.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, Australia.

COVID-19's second wave had a significant impact on India, on May 7, 2021, the largest daily recorded case count was a little more than 4 million, and it has since fallen. Although the number of new cases reported has dropped, during the third week of May 2021, India accounted for about 45% of new cases identified globally and around 34% of deaths. As India maintains its present level of stability, a new urgent threat has emerged in the form of coronavirus-associated mucormycosis. Mucormycosis, an acute and deadly fungal infection caused by Mucorales-related fungal species, is a fungal emergency with a particularly aggressive propensity for contiguous spread, associated with a poor prognosis if not properly and immediately identified, and treated. Mucormycosis, sometimes referred to as the "black fungus," has increased more rapidly in India during the second wave of COVID-19 than during the first wave, with at least 14,872 cases as of May 28, 2021. Uncontrolled diabetic mellitus (DM) and other immunosuppressive diseases such as neutropenia and corticosteroid treatment have traditionally been identified as risk factors for mucormycosis. Therefore, the use of glucocorticoids or high doses of glucocorticoids in mild COVID-19 cases (without hypoxemia) should be avoided. In addition, drugs that target the immune pathway, such as tocilizumab, are not recommended without clear benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21862DOI Listing
July 2021

Recent update on barbiturate in relation to brain disorder.

EXCLI J 2021 7;20:1028-1032. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal Road-302017, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2021-3687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278211PMC
June 2021

CAR-engineered NK cells; a promising therapeutic option for treatment of hematological malignancies.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 2;12(1):374. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Adoptive cell therapy has received a great deal of interest in the treatment of advanced cancers that are resistant to traditional therapy. The tremendous success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T (CAR-T) cells in the treatment of cancer, especially hematological cancers, has exposed CAR's potential. However, the toxicity and significant limitations of CAR-T cell immunotherapy prompted research into other immune cells as potential candidates for CAR engineering. NK cells are a major component of the innate immune system, especially for tumor immunosurveillance. They have a higher propensity for immunotherapy in hematologic malignancies because they can detect and eliminate cancerous cells more effectively. In comparison to CAR-T cells, CAR-NK cells can be prepared from allogeneic donors and are safer with a lower chance of cytokine release syndrome and graft-versus-host disease, as well as being a more efficient antitumor activity with high efficiency for off-the-shelf production. Moreover, CAR-NK cells may be modified to target various antigens while also increasing their expansion and survival in vivo. Extensive preclinical research has shown that NK cells can be effectively engineered to express CARs with substantial cytotoxic activity against both hematological and solid tumors, establishing evidence for potential clinical trials of CAR-NK cells. In this review, we discuss recent advances in CAR-NK cell engineering in a variety of hematological malignancies, as well as the main challenges that influence the outcomes of CAR-NK cell-based tumor immunotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02462-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252313PMC
July 2021

Nuclear factor-kappa B and its role in inflammatory lung disease.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Aug 25;345:109568. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jagatpura, 302017, Mahal Road, Jaipur, India. Electronic address:

Nuclear factor-kappa B, involved in inflammation, host immune response, cell adhesion, growth signals, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis defense, is a dimeric transcription factor. Inflammation is a key component of many common respiratory disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many basic transcription factors are found in NF-κB signaling, which is a member of the Rel protein family. Five members of this family c-REL, NF-κB2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), NF-κB1 (p105/p50), RelB, and RelA (p65) produce 5 transcriptionally active molecules. Proinflammatory cytokines, T lymphocyte, and B lymphocyte cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, bacteria, viral proteins, viruses, double-stranded RNA, oxidative stress, physical exertion, various chemotherapeutics are the stimulus responsible for NF-κB activation. NF-κB act as a principal component for several common respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, COPD as well as infectious diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, COVID-19. Inflammatory lung disease, especially COVID-19, can make NF-κB a key target for drug production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109568DOI Listing
August 2021

Interleukin-25: New perspective and state-of-the-art in cancer prognosis and treatment approaches.

Cancer Med 2021 Aug 15;10(15):5191-5202. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Cancer is a leading cause of death which imposes a substantial financial burden. Among the several mechanisms involved in cancer progression, imbalance of immune cell-derived factors such as cytokines and chemokines plays a central role. IL-25, as a member of the IL-17 cytokine subfamily, exerts a paradoxical role in cancer, including tumor supportive and tumor suppressive. Hence, we have tried to clarify the role of IL-25 and its receptor in tumor progression and cancer prognosis. It has been confirmed that IL-25 exerts a tumor-suppressive role through inducing infiltration of eosinophils and B cells into the tumor microenvironment and activating the apoptotic pathways. In contrast, the tumor-supportive function has been implemented by activating inflammatory cascades, promoting cell cycle, and inducing type-2 immune responses. Since IL-25 has been dysregulated in tumor tissues and this dysregulation is involved in cancer development, its examination can be used as a tumor diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Moreover, IL-25-based therapeutic approaches have shown promising results in cancer inhibition. In cancers in which IL-25 has a tumor-suppressive function, employing IL-25-enhancing approaches, such as Virulizin and dihydrobenzofuran administration, has potentially inhibited tumor cell growth. On the other hand, in the case of IL-25-dependent tumor progression, using IL-25 blocking methods, including anti-IL-25 antibodies, might be a complementary approach to the other anticancer agent. Collectively, it is hoped, IL-25 might be a promising target in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4060DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 patients: Possible basis for diverse responses to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 15;277:119503. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by an unpredictable disease course, with variable presentations of different organ systems. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are highly variable ranging from mild presentations to severe, life-threatening symptoms and the wide individual variability may be due to the broad heterogeneity in the underlying pathologies. There is no doubt that early management may have a major influence on the outcome. This led the scientists to search for ways to monitor disease progression or to predict outcomes in COVID-19. Although it is not yet possible to predict who will progress to the severe forms or in what time, numerous prospective and longitudinal studies represent the evidence for determining the potential immunological risk factors of COVID-19 critical disease and death. The kinetics and breadth of immune responses during COVID-19 appear to follow a trend which is consistent to the predominant pathological alterations. Recent publications have used these biomarkers to help identify patients who will develop the severe acute COVID-19. Of particular interest is the relationship between the kinetics of peripheral leukocytes and clinical progress of the disease in COVID-19. Although research is ongoing in this area, we present details about the current status of the evaluation. Understanding of the COVID-19 related alterations of the innate and adaptive immune responses may help to promote the vaccine development and immunological interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046708PMC
July 2021

P53 long noncoding RNA regulatory network in cancer development.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Aug 8;45(8):1583-1598. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The protein p53 as a transcription factor with strong tumor-suppressive activities is known to trigger apoptosis via multiple pathways and is directly involved in the recognition of DNA damage and DNA repair processes. P53 alteration is now recognized as a common event in the pathogenesis of many types of human malignancies. Deregulation of tumor suppressor p53 pathways plays an important role in the activation of cell proliferation or inactivation of apoptotic cell death during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Mounting evidence indicates that the p53 status of tumors and also the regulatory functions of p53 may be relevant to the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA)-dependent gene regulation programs. Besides coding genes, lncRNAs that do not encode for proteins are induced or suppressed by p53 transcriptional response and thus control cancer progression. LncRNAs also have emerged as key regulators that impinge on the p53 signaling network orchestrating global gene-expression profile. Studies have suggested that aberrant expression of lncRNAs as a molecular-genomic signature may play important roles in cancer biology. Accordingly, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms by which the crosstalk between lncRNAs and p53 occurs in the development of numerous cancers. Here, we review how several classes of lncRNAs and p53 pathways are linked together in controlling the cell cycle and apoptosis in various cancer cells in both human and mouse model systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11600DOI Listing
August 2021

Renaissance of armored immune effector cells, CAR-NK cells, brings the higher hope for successful cancer therapy.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 03 22;12(1):200. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran (IPI), Tehran, Iran.

In recent decades, a new method of cellular immunotherapy was introduced based on engineering and empowering the immune effector cells. In this type of immunotherapy, the immune effector cells are equipped with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to specifically target cancer cells. In much of the trials and experiments, CAR-modified T cell immunotherapy has achieved very promising therapeutic results in the treatment of some types of cancers and infectious diseases. However, there are also some considerable drawbacks in the clinical application of CAR-T cells although much effort is in progress to rectify the issues. In some conditions, CAR-T cells initiate over-activated and strong immune responses, therefore, causing unexpected side-effects such as systemic cytokine toxicity (i.e., cytokine release syndrome), neurotoxicity, on-target, off-tumor toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). To overcome these limitations in CAR-T cell immunotherapy, NK cells as an alternative source of immune effector cells have been utilized for CAR-engineering. Natural killer cells are key players of the innate immune system that can destroy virus-infected cells, tumor cells, or other aberrant cells with their efficient recognizing capability. Compared to T cells, CAR-transduced NK cells (CAR-NK) have several advantages, such as safety in clinical use, non-MHC-restricted recognition of tumor cells, and renewable and easy cell sources for their preparation. In this review, we will discuss the recent preclinical and clinical studies, different sources of NK cells, transduction methods, possible limitations and challenges, and clinical considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02251-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983395PMC
March 2021

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a valuable source for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 03 18;12(1):192. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Over recent years, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and their potential biomedical applications have received much attention from the global scientific community in an increasing manner. Firstly, MSCs were successfully isolated from human bone marrow (BM), but in the next steps, they were also extracted from other sources, mostly from the umbilical cord (UC) and adipose tissue (AT). The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has suggested minimum criteria to identify and characterize MSCs as follows: plastic adherence, surface expression of CD73, D90, CD105 in the lack of expression of CD14, CD34, CD45, and human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), and also the capability to differentiate to multiple cell types including adipocyte, chondrocyte, or osteoblast in vitro depends on culture conditions. However, these distinct properties, including self-renewability, multipotency, and easy accessibility are just one side of the coin; another side is their huge secretome which is comprised of hundreds of mediators, cytokines, and signaling molecules and can effectively modulate the inflammatory responses and control the infiltration process that finally leads to a regulated tissue repair/healing or regeneration process. MSC-mediated immunomodulation is a direct result of a harmonic synergy of MSC-released signaling molecules (i.e., mediators, cytokines, and chemokines), the reaction of immune cells and other target cells to those molecules, and also feedback in the MSC-molecule-target cell axis. These features make MSCs a respectable and eligible therapeutic candidate to be evaluated in immune-mediated disorders, such as graft versus host diseases (GVHD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Crohn's disease (CD), and osteoarthritis (OA), and even in immune-dysregulating infectious diseases such as the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper discussed the therapeutic applications of MSC secretome and its biomedical aspects related to immune-mediated conditions. Sources for MSC extraction, their migration and homing properties, therapeutic molecules released by MSCs, and the pathways and molecular mechanisms possibly involved in the exceptional immunoregulatory competence of MSCs were discussed. Besides, the novel discoveries and recent findings on immunomodulatory plasticity of MSCs, clinical applications, and the methods required for their use as an effective therapeutic option in patients with immune-mediated/immune-dysregulating diseases were highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02265-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971361PMC
March 2021

The effects of oxygen-ozone therapy on regulatory T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis patients.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jul 26;45(7):1498-1509. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The decreased frequency and dysfunction of Treg cells cause inflammation and disease progression. Ozone autohemotherapy can be used as a potential therapeutic approach to regulate the immune system responses and inflammation in MS. For this purpose, 20 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients were under treatment with ozone twice weekly for 6 months. The frequency of Treg cell, the expression levels of the Treg cell-related factors (FoxP3, IL-10, TGF-β, miR-17, miR-27, and miR-146A), and the secretion levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were assessed. We found a significant increase in the number of Treg cells, expression levels of FoxP3, miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-27), IL-10, and TGF-β factors in patients after oxygen-ozone (O -O ) therapy compared to before treatment. In contrast, oxygen-ozone therapy notably decreased the expression level of miR-146a in treated patients. Interestingly, the secretion levels of both IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines were considerably increased in both serum and supernatant of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells in posttreatment condition compared to pretreatment condition. According to results, oxygen-ozone therapy raised the frequency of Treg cell and its relevant factors in treated MS patients. Oxygen-ozone therapy would contribute to improving the MS patients by elevating the Treg cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11589DOI Listing
July 2021

Calcium sensing receptor hyperactivation through viral envelop protein E of SARS CoV2: A novel target for cardio-renal damage in COVID-19 infection.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India.

Over the recent decades, a number of new pathogens have emerged within specific and diverse populations across the globe, namely, the Nipah virus, the Ebola virus, the Zika virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs) to name a few. Recently, a new form of coronavirus was identified in the city of Wuhan, China. Interestingly, the genomic architecture of the virus did not match with any of the existing genomic sequencing data of previously sequenced CoVs. This had led scientists to confirm the emergence of a new CoV strain. Originally, named as 2019-nCoV, the strain is now called as SARS-CoV-2. High serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, namely, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), chemoattractant protein-1, and IFN-inducible protein, have been repeatedly observed in subjects who were infected with this virus. In addition, the virus demonstrated strong coagulation activation properties, leading to further the understanding on the SARS-CoV2. To our understanding, these findings are unique to the published literature. Numerous studies have reported anomalies, namely, decline in the number of lymphocytes, platelets and albumins; and a rise in neutrophil count, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponins, creatinine, complete bilirubin, D-dimers, and procalcitonin. Supplementation of calcium during the SARS CoV-2 associated hyperactive stage of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) may be harmful to the cardio-renal system. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of CaSR may prevent the increase in the levels of intracellular calcium, oxidative, inflammatory stress, and cardio-renal cellular apoptosis induced by high cytokines level in COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250664PMC
March 2021

The ambiguous role of sirtuins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Dis 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacology, the Blue Lab (Molecular Medicine and Toxicology) Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai, India.

Oral cancer is one of the most leading cancer responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The sirtuins (SIRTs) are a family of class III histone deacetylases and are known to regulate a variety of molecular signaling associated with different cancer types including oral malignancies. SIRT1 acts as bifunctional in a variety of cancer. In oral cancer, SIRT1 seems to work as a tumor suppressor. The carcinogenic potential of SIRT1 is also reported in oral cancer, and hence, its role is still ambiguous. SIRT2 is also said to play a dual-faced role in different types of cancers. However, in oral cancer, SIRT2 is not studied and its role remains obscure. SIRT3 expression was positively correlated with oral malignancies. However, studies also showed the anti-cancer role of SIRT3 in oral cancer. SIRT7 loss was observed in oral cancer cells, while its overexpression caused the suppression of oral cancer cells proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. The role of other SIRTs in oral cancer was studied meagerly or reports not available. To date, only the roles of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT7 have been reported in oral malignancies. Therefore, understanding the regulatory mechanisms employed by sirtuins to modulate oral cancer is important for developing potential anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13798DOI Listing
February 2021

Zebrafish as a potential biomaterial testing platform for bone tissue engineering application: A special note on chitosan based bioactive materials.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 5;175:379-395. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.

Biomaterials function as an essential aspect of tissue engineering and have a profound impact on cell growth and subsequent tissue regeneration. The development of new biomaterials requires a potential platform to understand the host-biomaterial interaction, which is crucial for successful biomaterial implantation. Biomaterials analyzed in rodent models for in vivo research are cost-effective but tedious, and the practice has many technical difficulties. As an alternative, zebrafish provide an excellent biomaterial testing platform over the current rodent models. During growth and recovery, zebrafish bone morphogenesis shows a variety of inductive signals involved in the cycle that are close to those influencing differentiation of bone and cartilage in mammals, including humans. This platform is cheap, optically transparent, quick to change genes, and provides reliable reproducibility on short life cycles. Chitosan is a well-known biomaterial in the field of tissue engineering. In view of its documented use in bone regeneration, the biological characterization of chitosan-based bioactive materials in the zebrafish model has been featured in an outstanding note. We, therefore, outlined this review of the zebrafish as a potential in vivo research model for the rapid characterization of the biological properties of new biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.005DOI Listing
April 2021

CAR T cells in solid tumors: challenges and opportunities.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 01 25;12(1):81. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: CARs are simulated receptors containing an extracellular single-chain variable fragment (scFv), a transmembrane domain, as well as an intracellular region of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in association with a co-stimulatory signal.

Main Body: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are genetically engineered T cells to express a receptor for the recognition of the particular surface marker that has given rise to advances in the treatment of blood disorders. The CAR T cells obtain supra-physiological properties and conduct as "living drugs" presenting both immediate and steady effects after expression in T cells surface. But, their efficacy in solid tumor treatment has not yet been supported. The pivotal challenges in the field of solid tumor CAR T cell therapy can be summarized in three major parts: recognition, trafficking, and surviving in the tumor. On the other hand, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) interferes with T cell activity in terms of differentiation and exhaustion, and as a result of the combined use of CARs and checkpoint blockade, as well as the suppression of other inhibitor factors in the microenvironment, very promising results were obtained from the reduction of T cell exhaustion.

Conclusion: Nowadays, identifying and defeating the mechanisms associated with CAR T cell dysfunction is crucial to establish CAR T cells that can proliferate and lyse tumor cells severely. In this review, we discuss the CAR signaling and efficacy T in solid tumors and evaluate the most significant barriers in this process and describe the most novel therapeutic methods aiming to the acquirement of the promising therapeutic outcome in non-hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02128-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831265PMC
January 2021

Targeting eosinophils in respiratory diseases: Biological axis, emerging therapeutics and treatment modalities.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 2;267:118973. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia; Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173229, India. Electronic address:

Eosinophils are bi-lobed, multi-functional innate immune cells with diverse cell surface receptors that regulate local immune and inflammatory responses. Several inflammatory and infectious diseases are triggered with their build up in the blood and tissues. The mobilization of eosinophils into the lungs is regulated by a cascade of processes guided by Th2 cytokine generating T-cells. Recruitment of eosinophils essentially leads to a characteristic immune response followed by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are hallmarks of chronic respiratory diseases. By analysing the dynamic interactions of eosinophils with their extracellular environment, which also involve signaling molecules and tissues, various therapies have been invented and developed to target respiratory diseases. Having entered clinical testing, several eosinophil targeting therapeutic agents have shown much promise and have further bridged the gap between theory and practice. Moreover, researchers now have a clearer understanding of the roles and mechanisms of eosinophils. These factors have successfully assisted molecular biologists to block specific pathways in the growth, migration and activation of eosinophils. The primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the eosinophil biology with a special emphasis on potential pharmacotherapeutic targets. The review also summarizes promising eosinophil-targeting agents, along with their mechanisms and rationale for use, including those in developmental pipeline, in clinical trials, or approved for other respiratory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118973DOI Listing
February 2021

The role of non-coding genome in the behavior of infiltrated myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor microenvironment; a perspective and state-of-the-art in cancer targeted therapy.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 May 28;161:17-26. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Student Research Committee, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran; Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the healthcare problems that affect many communities around the world. Many factors contribute to cancer development. Besides, these factors are counted as the main impediment in cancer immunotherapy. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are one of these impediments. MDSCs inhibit the immune responses through various mechanisms such as inhibitory cytokine release and nitric oxide metabolite production. Several factors are involved in forming these cells, including tumor secreted cytokine and chemokines, transcription factors, and non-coding RNA. In the meantime, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the vital gene regulatory elements that affect gene expression. In this study, we are going to discuss the role of miRNAs and lncRNAs in MDSCs development in a cancer situation. It is hoped that miRNA and lncRNAs targeting may prevent the growth and development of these inhibitory cells in the cancer environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2020.11.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Naringenin-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles in vitro.

J Food Biochem 2021 01 29;45(1):e13572. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In this study, we had developed Naringenin-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) and investigated the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Naringenin-LCNs against human airway epithelium-derived basal cells (BCi-NS1.1) and human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cell lines, respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of Naringenin-LCNs evaluated by qPCR revealed a decreased expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-induced BCi-NS1.1 cells. The activity of LCNs was comparable to the positive control drug Fluticasone propionate (10 nM). The anticancer activity was studied by evaluating the antiproliferative (MTT and trypan blue assays), antimigratory (scratch wound healing assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and immunoblot), and anticolony formation activity in A549 cells. Naringenin LCNs showed promising antiproliferative, antimigratory, and anticolony formation activities in A549 cells, in vitro. Therefore, based on our observations and results, we conclude that Naringenin-LCNs may be employed as a potential therapy-based intervention to ameliorate airway inflammation and to inhibit the progression of lung cancer. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Naringenin was encapsulated into liquid crystalline nanoparticles, thus, attributing to their sustained-release nature. In addition, Naringenin-loaded LCNs efficiently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory markers, namely, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8. In addition, the Naringenin-loaded LCNs also possess potent anticancer activity, when tested in the A549 cell line, as revealed by the inhibition of proliferation and migration of cells. They also attenuated colony formation and induced apoptosis in the A549 cells. The findings from our study could form the basis for future research that may be translated into an in vivo model to validate the possible therapeutic alternative for lung cancer using Naringenin-loaded LCNs. In addition, the applications of Naringenin-loaded LCNs as an intervention would be of great interest to biological, formulation and respiratory scientists and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13572DOI Listing
January 2021

Cellular signalling pathways mediating the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases: an update.

Inflammopharmacology 2020 Aug 18;28(4):795-817. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Respiratory disorders, especially non-communicable, chronic inflammatory diseases, are amongst the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Respiratory diseases involve multiple pulmonary components, including airways and lungs that lead to their abnormal physiological functioning. Several signaling pathways have been reported to play an important role in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. These pathways, in addition, become the compounding factors contributing to the clinical outcomes in respiratory diseases. A range of signaling components such as Notch, Hedgehog, Wingless/Wnt, bone morphogenetic proteins, epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor is primarily employed by these pathways in the eventual cascade of events. The different aberrations in such cell-signaling processes trigger the onset of respiratory diseases making the conventional therapeutic modalities ineffective. These challenges have prompted us to explore novel and effective approaches for the prevention and/or treatment of respiratory diseases. In this review, we have attempted to deliberate on the current literature describing the role of major cell signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases and discuss promising advances in the field of therapeutics that could lead to novel clinical therapies capable of preventing or reversing pulmonary vascular pathology in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-020-00698-3DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of the sub-acute toxicity of Acacia catechu Willd seed extract in a Wistar albino rat model.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Jun 10;113:104640. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446- 701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Acacia catechu (A. catechu) or Khair (Hindi) is used in several herbal preparations in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. Traditionally, this drug is beneficial against several gastrointestinal and stomach related ailments, and leprosy. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-acute oral toxicity of the ethanolic extract of A. catechu seeds in Wistar albino rats. Results obtained from the quantitative chemical analysis of A. catechu seed extract were compared with commercially available standards. A. catechu seed extract was administered orally at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. daily for 28 days. General behavior, bodyweight and mortality were examined during the entire study period. At the end of 28 days, hematological and biochemical parameters along with the relative organ weights were determined. It was observed that the extract did not induce death or any significant changes in the body weight, relative weight of vital organs and in hematological parameters for up to a dose of 1000 mg/kg. The oral administration of the plant extract did not produce any significant changes in the levels of glucose. In addition, there were no significant changes in the activity of both hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic marker enzymes in the serum. Oral administration of A. catechu also did not produce any significant changes in the levels of oxidative markers. Furthermore, the findings from the biochemical studies were, well corroborated with the histological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104640DOI Listing
June 2020

The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress.

Drug Dev Res 2019 09 16;80(6):714-730. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Lung diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The currently available therapies are not sufficient, leading to the urgent need for new therapies with sustained anti-inflammatory effects. Small/short or silencing interfering RNA (siRNA) has potential therapeutic implications through post-transcriptional downregulation of the target gene expression. siRNA is essential in gene regulation, so is more favorable over other gene therapies due to its small size, high specificity, potency, and no or low immune response. In chronic respiratory diseases, local and targeted delivery of siRNA is achieved via inhalation. The effectual delivery can be attained by the generation of aerosols via inhalers and nebulizers, which overcomes anatomical barriers, alveolar macrophage clearance and mucociliary clearance. In this review, we discuss the different siRNA nanocarrier systems for chronic respiratory diseases, for safe and effective delivery. siRNA mediated pro-inflammatory gene or miRNA targeting approach can be a useful approach in combating chronic respiratory inflammatory conditions and thus providing sustained drug delivery, reduced therapeutic dose, and improved patient compliance. This review will be of high relevance to the formulation, biological and translational scientists working in the area of respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21571DOI Listing
September 2019

Interactions between microbiome and lungs: Paving new paths for microbiome based bio-engineered drug delivery systems in chronic respiratory diseases.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Sep 2;310:108732. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Rd, Sydney, NSW, 2050, Australia; Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia; Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) & School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The human body is a home to thousands of microbiotas. It is defined as a community of symbiotic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms that have existed in all exposed sites of the body, which have co-evolved with diet, lifestyle, genetic factors and immune factors. Human microbiotas have been studied for years on their effects with relation to health and diseases.

Methods: Relevant published studies, literature and reports were searched from accessible electronic databases and related institutional databases. We used keywords, viz; microbiome, microbiota, microbiome drug delivery and respiratory disease. Selected articles were carefully read through, clustered, segregated into subtopics and reviewed.

Findings: The traditional belief of sterile lungs was challenged by the emergence of culture-independent molecular techniques and the recently introduced invasive broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sampling method. The constitution of a lung microbiome mainly depends on three main ecological factors, which include; firstly, the immigration of microbes into airways, secondly, the removal of microbes from airways and lastly, the regional growth conditions. In healthy conditions, the microbial communities that co-exist in our lungs can build significant pulmonary immunity and could act as a barrier against diseases, whereas, in an adverse way, microbiomes may interact with other pathogenic bacteriomes and viromes, acting as a cofactor in inflammation and host immune responses, which may lead to the progression of a disease. Thus, the use of microbiota as a target, and as a drug delivery system in the possible modification of a disease state, has started to gain massive attention in recent years. Microbiota, owing to its unique characteristics, could serve as a potential drug delivery system, that could be bioengineered to suit the interest. The engineered microbiome-derived therapeutics can be delivered through BC, bacteriophage, bacteria-derived lipid vesicles and microbe-derived extracellular vesicles. This review highlights the relationships between microbiota and different types of respiratory diseases, the importance of microbiota towards human health and diseases, including the role of novel microbiome drug delivery systems in targeting various respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108732DOI Listing
September 2019

Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Aug 18;309:108720. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, 144411, India. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the major diseases that cause a high number of deaths globally. Of the major types of cancers, lung cancer is known to be the most chronic form of cancer in the world. The conventional management of lung cancer includes different medical interventions like chemotherapy, surgical removal, and radiation therapy. However, this type of approach lacks specificity and also harms the adjacent normal cells. Lately, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising intervention in the management and treatment of lung cancers. Nanotechnology has revolutionized the existing modalities and focuses primarily on reducing toxicity and improving the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to the target tumor cells. Nanocarrier systems are being currently used extensively to exploit and to overcome the obstructions induced by cancers in the lungs. The nano-carrier-loaded therapeutic drug delivery methods have shown promising potential in treating lung cancer as its target is to control the growth of tumor cells. In this review, various modes of nano drug delivery options like liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles have been discussed. Nano-carrier drug delivery systems emerge as a promising approach and thus is expected to provide newer and advanced avenues in cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.06.033DOI Listing
August 2019

Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Aug 6;197:111531. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Environment friendly methods for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles have become a valuable trend in the current scenario. The utilization of phytochemicals from plant extracts has become a unique technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles, as they possess dual nature of reducing and capping agents to the nanoparticles. In the present investigation we have synthesized copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a rare medicinal plant Cissus arnotiana and evaluated their antibacterial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacteria. The morphology and characterization of the synthesized CuNPs were studied and done using UV-Visible spectroscopy at a wavelength range of 350-380 nm. XRD studies were performed for analyzing the crystalline nature; SEM and TEM for evaluating the spherical shape within the size range of 60-90 nm and AFM was performed to check the surface roughness. The biosynthesized CuNPs showed better antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli with an inhibition zone of 22.20 ± 0.16 mm at 75 μg/ml. The antioxidant property observed was comparatively equal with the standard antioxidant agent ascorbic acid at a maximum concentration of 40 μg/ ml. This is the first study reported on C. arnotiana mediated biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles, where we believe that the findings can pave way for a new direction in the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine where there is a significant potential for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. We predict that, these could lead to an exponential increase in the field of biomedical applications, with the utilization of green synthesized CuNPs, due to its remarkable properties. The highest antibacterial property was observed with gram-negative strains mainly, E. coli, due to its thin peptidoglycan layer and electrostatic interactions between the bacterial cell wall and CuNPs surfaces. Hence, CuNPs can be potent therapeutic agents in several biomedical applications, which are yet to be explored in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111531DOI Listing
August 2019

Oligonucleotide therapy: An emerging focus area for drug delivery in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Aug 25;308:206-215. Epub 2019 May 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road (NH-1), Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Oligonucleotide-based therapies are advanced novel interventions used in the management of various respiratory diseases such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). These agents primarily act by gene silencing or RNA interference. Better methodologies and techniques are the need of the hour that can deliver these agents to tissues and cells in a target specific manner by which their maximum potential can be reached in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Nanoparticles play an important role in the target-specific delivery of drugs. In addition, oligonucleotides also are extensively used for gene transfer in the form of polymeric, liposomal and inorganic carrier materials. Therefore, the current review focuses on various novel dosage forms like nanoparticles, liposomes that can be used efficiently for the delivery of various oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA. We also discuss the future perspectives and targets for oligonucleotides in the management of respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.05.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094617PMC
August 2019

Seed and bark extracts of Acacia catechu protects liver from acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and liver function enzymes in Wistar rat model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 24;108:838-844. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College & Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Electronic address:

In this study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects and possible mechanism of Acacia catechu in acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity using female Wistar rat model. Hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg body weight) for 24 h. The seed (400 mg/kg body weight) and bark (400 mg/kg body weight) extract's treated groups exhibited hepatoprotective effects and was compared with well-known clinical anti-dote N-acetylcysteine (NAC). When groups treated with acetaminophen, significant increase of liver weight/body weight ratio, liver function enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and decrease of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed. The histopathology of APAP treated groups also showed moderate degree of sinusoidal congestion, centrilobular necrosis with polymorph nuclear cells infiltration, marked vacuolations and congestion. However, pretreatment with seed or bark extract groups decreased LPO accumulation, reduced the liver function enzymes and increased antioxidant defense enzymes. Moreover, histopathology of seed extract treated groups showed normal architecture whereas bark extract treated groups exhibited mild degree of vacuolations in the hepatocytes with minimal sinusoidal congestion. Taken together, our study concludes that A. catechu seed extract to be a more promising agent for protecting liver from APAP induced hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.08.077DOI Listing
December 2018

In silico and in vitro analysis of coumarin derivative induced anticancer effects by undergoing intrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in human stomach cancer.

Phytomedicine 2018 Jul 10;46:119-130. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Coumarin plays a vital role in drug discovery process due to its diverse biologically active components. Recently, coumarin derivatives are paying attention to treat various diseases including cancer. The effect of coumarin derivatives on gastric cancer is not well established although gastric cancer being the fourth leading cancer. Therefore, we attempt to study the effect of styrene substituted biscoumarin (SSBC) to induce apoptosis and inhibit cancer proliferation using in silico and in vitro approaches.

Methods: We performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to identify the anti-proliferative activity of SSBC in stomach cancer cell lines (AGS) and toxicity of the compared was also assessed using lung normal cell lines (L-132 and MRC-5). A docking study was carried out between anti-apoptotic protein (BCL2) and SSBC compound. Furthermore, we analyzed the drug likeliness by screening pharmacological properties (ADME) and biological activity of SSBC by performing spectrum prediction analysis (PASS). The apoptotic effect of SSBC in AGS cell lines were detected using flow cytometry (FACS), Hoechst staining and DAPI/PI staining. Later, the regulation of apoptotic pathway by SSBC was also confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis.

Results: The inhibition concentration (IC) of SSBC was assayed against AGS and lung normal cell lines (L-132 and MRC-5). The IC value of SSBC toward AGS, L-132 and MRC-5 was 4.56, 268 and 285 μg/ml, respectively. In silico analysis predicted SSBC could bind to the active site of BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic protein and thus resulted in apoptotic mediated cell death. ADME prediction of SSBC exhibit strong binding capacity of 99.08% and showed absorption rate about 95.57% in the intestine. In addition, biological activity of SSBC was also predicted using PASS program and we found SSBC exhibit high activity for various cancer related protein expression including apoptosis pathway proteins such as caspase 3 stimulant, apoptosis agonist. Furthermore, apoptosis of AGS was also assessed using Hoechst staining, DAPI/PI analysis, flow-cytometric analysis, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis.

Conclusion: Our study denotes that SSBC could be very effective against AGS by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic pathway and recommended for in vivo and human trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.04.021DOI Listing
July 2018

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Phenerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC-787) and their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria.

Microb Pathog 2018 Apr 7;117:68-72. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Innovative Green Product Synthesis and Renewable Environment Development Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

The present study elucidates an eco-friendly method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using Phenerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC-787), its bactericidal and cytotoxic effect were studied. The formation of nanoparticles was evidenced by color change and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscope and Transmission electron microscope, showed spherical and oval shapes particles in the sizes ranging between 34 and 90 nm. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at a high dose. Further, the nanoparticles observed to be non-toxic at 12.5 μg/ml towards fibroblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.02.008DOI Listing
April 2018

ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.

J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2017 Oct-Dec;8(4):143-149

Green Chem Herbal Extracts and Formulations, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_73_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680622PMC
November 2017

Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

Pharmacogn Mag 2017 Oct 11;13(Suppl 3):S405-S411. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Research and Development, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Willd (), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities.

Objective: We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line.

Methods: Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining.

Results: ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells.

Conclusion: The ethanol seed extracts of was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells.

Summary: ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin seed (ACS) extract significantly ( < 0.001) inhibits the active proliferation of human oral squamous carcinoma (SCC-25) cellsACS extract treatment to SCC-25 cells significantly modulated the gene expressions pertaining to apoptosis and propidium iodide and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining also confirm the apoptosis inductionAntiproliferative and apoptosis inducing activities of ACS extract is correlated with phytochemical contents. ACS: seed extract; MTT: 3 (4,5 dimethylthiazol 2 yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; AO/EO: Acridine orange/ethidium bromide; LC MS: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pm.pm_458_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669074PMC
October 2017
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