Publications by authors named "Lajpat Rai"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Factors affecting delay in diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 15:e14529. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Surgical Unit 3, Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is increasing in our region. There is no specific CRC control programme or national cancer registry in Pakistan. Previously, no data have been published on presentation delay and diagnosis delay of CRC in our region. This study is conducted to determine the factors affecting delay in presentation and diagnosis and to provide baseline information to launch a CRC control programme. The primary objective is to determine factors causing delay in diagnosis of CRC. The secondary objective is to evaluate the relationship between tumour site and stage of CRC with presenting symptoms and symptom duration.

Methods: This project is a prospective cross-sectional study on 113 biopsy-proven CRC patients admitted to the surgical ward of Civil Hospital Karachi.

Results: The total number of participants was 113. Presentation delay was observed in 83.2% of patients. The main reasons for a reported delay in the presentation were lack of patients' knowledge that these symptoms may be cancer (60.4%), the wrong diagnosis by the primary physician (34.6%) or the patient did not want to visit the doctor (0.04%). Most tumours (95%) originated from the sigmoid and rectum; 44.2% and 38.9% of the patients were diagnosed at Stages 3 and 4, respectively.

Conclusions: This study revealed that CRC patients in Pakistan are facing delays in presentation and diagnosis. This is the reason behind diagnosis at the advanced stage with a poor prognosis. On the basis of this study findings, CRC control programme should be introduced to detect CRC at an early stage.
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June 2021

Retrorectal Epidermal Inclusion Cyst: An Incidental Finding During Cesarean Section.

Cureus 2020 Nov 2;12(11):e11300. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Surgery, Dow Medical College, Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

An epidermal inclusion cyst is a benign lesion, frequently observed throughout the body. However, its presence in the retrorectal region is a rare occurrence. With a higher incidence in women and non-specific symptoms, these cysts are mostly an incidental finding. Here, we report a case of a 33-year-old female presenting with complaints of abdominal pain and sensation of incomplete and painful defecation. The patient's history revealed that a large pelvic cyst was found incidentally during her first cesarean section (CS) owing to an arrest in labor. A presumptive diagnosis of rectal duplication cyst was made based on digital rectal exam (DRE), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. For cyst removal, the patient underwent a midline laparotomy. A postoperative biopsy led to the confirmed diagnosis of the retrorectal epidermal inclusion cyst. On follow-up, our patient showed a smooth recovery without any complications. We conclude that when dealing with a pregnant woman with a pelvic mass, developmental cysts should always be kept in mind. Timely diagnosis and management of a retrorectal mass is essential for effective treatment and to prevent subsequent complications.
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November 2020

Jejunal Adenocarcinoma as a Rare Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report.

Cureus 2020 Oct 2;12(10):e10763. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Surgery, Dow Medical College, Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Jejunal adenocarcinoma, a small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Jejunal adenocarcinoma classically presents with vague clinical symptoms, i.e., abdominal pain, discomfort, and weight loss, making timely diagnosis challenging. Owing to its diagnosis at a late stage, the prognosis of jejunal adenocarcinoma is poor. Curative resection of the tumor at the early stages remains a treatment of choice. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old man presenting with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and relative constipation. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed dilated small bowel loops. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, which revealed a jejunal stricture and dilated small bowel loops proximal to it. Suspicious stricture, along with the diseased portion of the intestine, was removed through en-bloc resection. Histopathology and metastatic workup revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with stage IIB (T4aN0M0). We conclude that, although rare, jejunal adenocarcinoma should be kept in mind when dealing with a patient presenting with symptoms indicating small bowel obstruction. Our purpose is to emphasize laparotomy as both a diagnostic and surgical modality for SBAs in early stages, especially in setups of low economic countries where advanced imaging techniques are relatively inaccessible.
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October 2020

Radial or femoral access in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): Does the choice matters?

Indian Heart J 2020 May - Jun;72(3):166-171. Epub 2020 May 21.

National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: This study was conducted with the aim of providing a quantitative appraisal of clinical outcomes of trans-radial access for primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with ST-segment evaluation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: In this study, we compared two propensity-matched cohorts of patients who underwent primary PCI via trans-radial (TRA) and trans-femoral access (TFA) in a 1:1 ratio. The profile of two cohorts was matched for gender, age, and body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, family history, and smoking. The outcomes of primary PCI were compared for the two cohorts which included all-cause in-hospital mortality, heart failure, re-infarction, cardiogenic shock, bleeding, transfusion, cerebrovascular accident, and dialysis.

Results: This analysis was performed on a total of 2316 patients with 1158 patients each in the TRA and TFA group. We observed significantly lower rates of mortality, 0.8% (9) vs. 3.5% (41); p < 0.001 and bleeding, 0.5% (6) vs.1.6% (19); p = 0.009 with shorter hospital stay, 1.61 ± 1.39 vs. 1.98 ± 1.5 days, in trans-radial vs. trans-femoral. However, both fluoroscopic time and contrast volume were significantly higher in the TRA as compared to TFA group 15.57 ± 8.16 vs. 12.79 ± 7.82 min; p < 0.001 and 143.22 ± 45.33 vs. 133.78 ± 45.97; p < 0.001 respectively.

Conclusions: Compared with TFA access, TRA for primary PCI is safe for patients with STEMI, it was found to be associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality and bleeding complications.
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March 2021

Regression of coronary atherosclerosis through healthy lifestyle in coronary artery disease patients--Mount Abu Open Heart Trial.

Indian Heart J 2011 Sep-Oct;63(5):461-9

J. Watumull Global Hospital & Research Centre, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, India.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a unique healthy and happy lifestyle (HLS) program in regression of coronary atherosclerosis and reduction in cardiac events in an open trial.

Methods: One hundred and twenty three angiographically documented moderate to severe coronary artery disease (CAD) patients were administered HLS comprising of low-fat, high-fiber vegetarian diet, moderate aerobic exercise and stress-management through Rajyoga meditation. Its most salient feature was training in self-responsibility (heal+thy) and self-empowerment through inner-self consciousness (swasth; swa=innerself, sth=consciousness) approach using Rajyoga meditation. Following a seven day in-house sojourn, patients were invited for six month follow-up for reassessment and advanced training. At the end of two years, all patients were asked to undergo repeat angiography.

Results: Three hundred and sixty coronary lesions were analysed by two independent angiographers. In CAD patients with most adherence, percent diameter stenosis regressed by 18.23 +/- 12.04 absolute percentage points. 91% patients showed a trend towards regression and 51.4% lesions regressed by more than 10 absolute percentage points. The cardiac events in coronary artery disease patients were: 11 in most adherence, and 38 in least adherence over a follow-up period of 6.48 yrs. (risk ratio; most vs least adherence: 4.32; 95% CI: 1.69-11.705; P < 0.002).

Conclusion: Overall healthy changes in cardiovascular, metabolic and psychological parameters, decline in absolute percent diameter coronary stenosis and cardiac events in patients of CAD were closely related to HLS adherence. However, more than 50% adherence is essential to achieve a significant change.
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August 2013

Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion.

J Altern Complement Med 2004 Apr;10(2):261-8

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi, India.

Objectives: To evaluate effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion.

Subjects And Methods: Thirty healthy men in the age group of 25-35 years volunteered for the study. They were randomly divided in two groups of 15 each. Group 1 subjects served as controls and performed body flexibility exercises for 40 minutes and slow running for 20 minutes during morning hours and played games for 60 minutes during evening hours daily for 3 months. Group 2 subjects practiced selected yogic asanas (postures) for 45 minutes and pranayama for 15 minutes during the morning, whereas during the evening hours these subjects performed preparatory yogic postures for 15 minutes, pranayama for 15 minutes, and meditation for 30 minutes daily, for 3 months. Orthostatic tolerance, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, dynamic lung function (such as forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume percentage, peak expiratory flow rate, and maximum voluntary ventilation), and psychologic profile were measured before and after 3 months of yogic practices. Serial blood samples were drawn at various time intervals to study effects of these yogic practices and Omkar meditation on melatonin levels.

Results: Yogic practices for 3 months resulted in an improvement in cardiorespiratory performance and psychologic profile. The plasma melatonin also showed an increase after three months of yogic practices. The systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and orthostatic tolerance did not show any significant correlation with plasma melatonin. However, the maximum night time melatonin levels in yoga group showed a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p < 0.05) with well-being score.

Conclusion: These observations suggest that yogic practices can be used as psychophysiologic stimuli to increase endogenous secretion of melatonin, which, in turn, might be responsible for improved sense of well-being.
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April 2004