Publications by authors named "Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves"

17 Publications

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Viability of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap treated with photobiomodulation and therapeutic ultrasound: an experimental model.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Department of Health Sciences, Center Araranguá, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Jardim das Avenidas, Rod. Gov. Jorge Lacerda, 3201, Ararangua, SC, 88906-072, Brazil.

Report the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) and therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) on the viability of TRAM in mice.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-five mice Swiss were subjected to treatment for 5 days. Group 1, treatment was performed with the agents switched off. Groups 2 to 5 were treated with different wavelengths 660 and 830 nanometers (nm) and groups 6 to 11 with TUS of 1 and 3 MHz frequency. Macrometric analyses were performed using a specific camera and analyzed by the ImageJ® software. Thermographic analyses were performed with the Flir C2 and analyzed using the FLIR Tools software.

Results: Group 9 obtained 95% of viable area on the 3rd day and 85% on the 5th day, showing the effectiveness of the TUS in the flap viability. Regarding skin temperature, there was a difference only in the immediate postoperative period in group 1, which had a lower temperature than the other groups.

Conclusions: TUS demonstrated greater efficiency in maintaining the viability of TRAM. PBM 830 nm also demonstrated good results in the viability of TRAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03283-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of photobiomodulation in the treatment of skin injury with an open wound in mice.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Department of Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá - Campus Mato Alto, Rua Pedro João Pereira, 150, Araranguá, Santa Catarina, 88905-120, Brazil.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation at a wavelength of 660 and 830 nm at different numbers of application points in the healing of open wounds in mice. In total, 120 mice were divided into 10 groups. The animals were submitted to cutaneous lesion of the open wound type (1.5 × 1.5 cm). Photobiomodulation at a wavelength of 660 and 830 nm and total energy of 3.6 J were used, applied at 1, 4, 5, and 9 points, for 14 days. The animals were subjected to analysis of the lesion area, skin temperature, and histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis results showed a difference (p < 0.05) between the irradiated groups and the sham group at 14 days PO. There was no statistical difference in skin temperature. Histological analysis findings showed better results for the epidermis thickness. Regarding the number of blood vessels, a difference was found between the 1- and 5-point 830-nm photobiomodulation groups and between the 4-point 660-nm group and the naive group. A significant difference in the number of fibroblasts was observed between the 830- and 660-nm photobiomodulation groups and the naive and sham groups. When comparing photobiomodulation wavelength, the 830-nm groups were more effective, and we emphasize the groups irradiated at 5 points, which showed an improvement in macroscopic analysis and epidermis thickness, an increase in the number of vessels, and a lower number of fibroblasts on the 14th day after skin injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-020-03216-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in the functionality and lymphatic circulation of the upper limb of women undergoing breast cancer treatment.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2020 12 31;80:105158. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, São Paulo University, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Health Sciences, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: With the increase in survival of women treated for breast cancer, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of therapeutic resources on co-morbidities resulting from the surgical treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the functionality and lymphatic circulation of the upper limb involved in the treatment of breast cancer.

Methods: The study was conducted according to randomized clinical trial design. Thirty-two women at a mean age of 52.20 (±8.32) years, submitted to breast cancer treatment, divided into two groups, control - women submitted to standard breast cancer treatment, and treated group, composed of women who underwent breast cancer treatment and rehabilitation with the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique. Palmar grip strength with dynamometer and shoulder range of motion with goniometer were evaluated. Lymphatic circulation analysis was performed in a computerized scintillation chamber, before and after therapeutic intervention.

Findings: In the results obtained, a significant increase (p < 0.05) of palmar grip strength was observed, a significant increase in range of motion of flexion (p < 0.001), extension (p < 0.0012), abduction (p < 0.0001), external rotation (p < 0.0001), internal rotation (p < 0.0001), and not significant for lymphatic flow (p > 0.05).

Interpretation: The results obtained in this study allow us to conclude that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation favors an increase in muscle strength, range of motion, but not in lymphatic flow, in women undergoing surgical treatment for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2020.105158DOI Listing
December 2020

Thermographic Characterization of Cutaneous Ulcers of Different Etiologies.

J Med Syst 2020 Aug 3;44(9):160. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, São Paulo University, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The characterization of the temperature of skin ulcers may provide preliminary diagnostic evidence. The aim of this study was to characterize cutaneous ulcers of different etiologies by infrared thermography. 122 cutaneous ulcers of 87 patients (age 60.1 ± 15.7 years) were evaluated, allocated into five groups: venous ulcers (VU) n = 26, arterial ulcers (AU) n = 20, mixed ulcers (MU) n = 25, pressure ulcers (PU) n = 29, and neuropathic ulcers (NU) n = 22. The cutaneous temperature was recorded by infrared thermography (FLIR-450™); we also evaluated the ulcer area, the ankle brachial index (ABI), the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle, and pain. For the different variables, the statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis test, ANOVA, the chi-squared test, and the Spearman test (SPSS™ software version 20, p < 0.05). A significant difference was found between the temperatures of PU and NU. The ABI was significantly lower in the MU and AU groups, and pain was also higher in these groups. The ROM was decreased in all groups, and the MU and VU groups had the lowest ROM. There was no correlation between temperature and the clinical findings (ABI, ROM, and pain). There was a moderate correlation in the analysis between the temperature and the area of the ulcer in the PU group, as larger ulcers had lower temperatures. It is possible to characterize cutaneous ulcers by infrared thermography, and there are temperature differences among ulcers with different etiologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-020-01612-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of High Voltage Pulsed Current on the integration of total skin grafts in rats submitted to nicotine action.

J Tissue Viability 2019 Aug 20;28(3):161-166. Epub 2019 May 20.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Ribeirão Preto Medical School - FMRP/USP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of High Voltage Pulsed Current (HVPC) on the integration of total skin grafts in rats submitted to nicotine action.

Materials And Methods: For this purpose, 60 adult Wistar rats randomly distributed in 6 groups of 10 animals were analyzed. The electrical stimulation (anodic and cathodic stimulation, motor level, 30 min at 10 Hz; minimum voltage 20 μs and 100 μs pulse interval) was applied for seven days, starting on the third day after surgery and after the dressing was removed from the graft.

Results: Anodic HVPC promoted greater graft integration, demonstrating a lower percentage of tissue contraction, a lower number of inflammatory infiltrates and a greater amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as a higher number of newly formed blood vessels.

Conclusions: HVPC can positively influence the integration of skin grafts in nicotine-treated rats. anodic HVPC is shown to promote greater integration in relation to a lower percentage of tissue contraction, a lower number of inflammatory infiltrates and a greater amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and newformed blood vessels. Whereas, the cathodic polarity has presented smaller amount of tissue gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2019.05.001DOI Listing
August 2019

Reduction in handgrip strength and electromyographic activity in women with breast cancer.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2018 ;31(3):447-452

Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Breast cancer survivors have side effects from surgical treatment and adjuvant that may acutely or chronically compromise the musculoskeletal system, resulting in loss of muscle strength.

Objective: Handgrip strength and electromyography of the upper limbs and its relationship with dominance in women submitted to surgery for breast cancer.

Methods: Were evaluated 28 women. The handgrip strength was measured through dynamometer associated with electromyographic, in the muscles: descending trapezius, biceps brachial, triceps brachial, extensor carpi ulnaris, radial extensor carpi and superficial flexor of wrist and fingers.

Results: Reduction in grip strength on the side affected by the surgery, that occurred when the surgery was performed on the non-dominant side. The electromyographic showed significant differences in affected side. This shows the need to consider the affected side by surgery and dominance.

Conclusions: Decreased grip strength and lower electromyographic activity of upper limb affected by surgery for breast cancer, when the side affected was not the dominant this loss was greater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-170848DOI Listing
October 2018

Accuracy and Reliability of Infrared Thermography in Assessment of the Breasts of Women Affected by Cancer.

J Med Syst 2017 May 12;41(5):87. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Evaluate reliability and accuracy of infrared thermography in the assessment of women wth breasts cancer. Thirty-five participants had unilateral breast cancer and 17 control subjects were assessed using infrared thermography. To evaluate reliability, two professionals, who were experienced, measured the temperature of the infrared images in two different moments, with a one-week interval. Biopsy was used as a gold standard exam with regard identify breast cancer. The analysis illustrated excellent reliability in terms of the affected, contralateral and control breasts with the intra-class correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.948 to 0.999. Standard measurement error ranged from 0.04 to 0.28 °C, and minimum detectable change deviated from 0.11 to 0.78 °C. Moreover, low to moderate accuracy were observed in terms of the establishment of the breast cancer diagnosis with values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ranging from 0.571 and 0.749. Breasts affected by cancer present higher skin temperature compared to contralateral and control. Furthermore, excellent reliability of the analysis of the infrared images and low-moderate accuracy in terms diagnosis were observed. Considering the results, infrared thermography can be applied as an instrument complement the assessment of breast cancer patients, but not for diagnostic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0730-7DOI Listing
May 2017

Manual Lymphatic Drainage in Blood Circulation of Upper Limb With Lymphedema After Breast Cancer Surgery.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017 05 8;40(4):246-249. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, São Paulo University, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess blood flow after manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) in women who had received surgery for breast cancer and had post-axillary lymphadenectomy lymphedema.

Methods: Sixteen volunteers (mean age 64 ± 11.44 years) were divided into 2 groups. Those in group 1 received MLD without upper limb elevation, and those in group 2 received MLD with elevation of 30° of the upper limb. Blood flow velocity of the brachial vein and artery were measured using Doppler ultrasound before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after MLD, with and without 30° of upper limb elevation as defined by a random crossover design and an interval (washout) of 7 days. Comparison of data before and after MLD was evaluated by the Friedman test.

Results: There was a significant increase of blood flow velocity in the brachial vein after the therapeutic procedure with upper limb elevation. However, after 30 minutes the data returned to the pretreatment value.

Conclusion: This preliminary study indicated that MLD promoted increased brachial vein velocity flow in the short term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.02.009DOI Listing
May 2017

Photobiomodulation laser and pulsed electrical field increase the viability of the musculocutaneous flap in diabetic rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2017 Apr 2;32(3):641-648. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Post-Graduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Ribeirão Preto Medical School-FMRP/USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electrical field (PEF) and photobiomodulation laser (PBM) on the viability of the TRAM flap in diabetic rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five homogeneous groups: Group 1-control; Group 2-diabetics; Group 3-diabetics + PEF; Group 4-diabetic + laser 660 nm, 10 J/cm, 0.27 J; Group 5-diabetic + laser 660 nm, 140 J/cm, 3.9 J. The percentage of necrotic area was evaluated using software Image J®. The peripheral circulation of the flap was evaluated by infrared thermography FLIR T450sc (FLIR® Systems-Oregon USA). The thickness of the epidermis (haematoxylin-eosin), mast cell (toluidine blue), leukocytes, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast and newly formed blood vessels were evaluated. For the statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied followed by Dunn and ANOVA test followed by Tukey with critical level of 5% (p < 0.05). The PEF reduced the area of necrosis, decreased the leukocytes, increased the mast cells, increased the thickness of epidermis and increased newly formed blood vessels when it was compared to the untreated diabetic group of animals. Laser 660 nm, fluence 140 J/cm (3.9 J) showed better results than the 10 J/cm (0.27 J) related to reduction of the area of necrosis and the number of leukocytes, increased mast cells, increased thickness of the epidermis, increased vascular endothelial growth factor, increased fibroblast growth factor and increase of newly formed blood vessels in diabetic animals. The laser and pulsed electrical field increase the viability of the musculocutaneous flap in diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2160-7DOI Listing
April 2017

Laser photobiomodulation (830 and 660 nm) in mast cells, VEGF, FGF, and CD34 of the musculocutaneous flap in rats submitted to nicotine.

Lasers Med Sci 2017 Feb 2;32(2):335-341. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Post-Graduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance of Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMRP/USP), Av. dos Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of laser photobiomodulation (PBM) on the viability of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap in rats subjected to the action of nicotine. We evaluated 60 albino Wistar rats, divided into six groups of ten animals. Group 1 (saline) underwent the surgical technique to obtain a TRAM flap; group 2 (laser 830 nm) underwent the surgical technique and was irradiated with a laser 830 nm; group 3 (laser 660 nm) underwent the surgical technique and was irradiated with a laser 660 nm; group 4 was treated with nicotine subcutaneously (2 mg/kg/2×/day/4 weeks) and underwent surgery; group 5 (nicotine + laser 830 nm) was exposed to nicotine, underwent the surgical technique, and was irradiated with a laser 830 nm; group 6 (nicotine + laser 660 nm) was exposed to nicotine, underwent the surgical technique, and was irradiated with a laser 660 nm. The application of PBM occurred immediately after surgery and on the two following days. The percentage of necrosis was assessed using the AxioVision® software. The number of mast cells (toluidine blue staining) was evaluated, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect vascular endothelial growth factor expression (anti-VEGF-A), fibroblasts (anti-basic FGF), and neoformed vessels (anti-CD34). PBM with a wavelength of 830 nm increased the viability of the TRAM flap, with a smaller area of necrosis, increased number of mast cells, and higher expression of VEGF and CD34. PBM increases the viability of musculocutaneous flaps treated with to nicotine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2118-1DOI Listing
February 2017

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation in different regions in the viability of myocutaneous flaps.

J Ther Ultrasound 2016 21;4:25. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, University of São Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, CEP: 14049-900 São Paulo Brazil.

Background: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has presented good results in the healing of chronic wounds. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of LIPUS on the viability of transverse rectus abdominal muscle (TRAM) flap in different regions (central and epigastric) in rats.

Methods: Twenty-one Wistar male rats were homogeneously distributed into three groups as follows: group 1 (control), animals submitted to surgery only; group 2, animals submitted to surgery and application of LIPUS at the center of the flap; and group 3, animals submitted to surgery and application of LIPUS at the flap area corresponding to the right inferior epigastric artery pedicle. Stimulation was performed immediately after the surgery and within the following 2 days. The percentage of flap necrosis was evaluated by using the ImageJ® software as well as by measuring the temperature variation with infrared thermography (FLIR® T300).

Results: In the percentage calculation of the necrosis area, the application of LIPUS at the center of the flap (group 2) showed significantly smaller difference (26.2 %) compared to group 1 (54.50 %) and group 3 (44.01 %). Analysis of the temperature variation between the groups was performed by using the one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. The results showed that both forms of LIPUS application showed significant differences compared to the control group.

Conclusions: In view of our results, one can conclude that the application of LIPUS at the center of the flap was effective for the viability of TRAM flap in reducing the necrosis area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40349-016-0069-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073789PMC
October 2016

Multimodal approach to rehabilitation of the patients with lateral epicondylosis: a case series.

Springerplus 2016 5;5(1):1718. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP Brazil.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization with movement and kinesiotherapy in the treatment of patients with lateral epicondylosis.

Methods: This cases series included eight volunteers who had chronic lateral epicondylosis. The patients were treated with stretching, massage deep transverse at the lateral epicondyle and mobilization with movement associated with eccentric exercise. The mobilization with movement that consisted of a force of lateral glide of the proximal forearm. We performed twelve sessions, twice a week for 45 min/session. All patients underwent an evaluation with a visual analog scale and functional assessment through questionnaires patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), before and after the treatment. Data were analyzed by student's test (p < 0.05).

Results: The results showed statistical differences in pain symptoms before and after treatment, in the analysis and functional assessment through both questionnaires comparing the pre and post treatment.

Conclusion: The data obtained in this study demonstrates improvement of the function and pain status of the sample investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3375-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052242PMC
October 2016

The influence of different non-articular proximal forearm orthoses (brace) widths in the wrist extensors muscle activity, range of motion and grip strength in healthy volunteers.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2016 Jun 30. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Rehabilitation and Functional Performance Post-Graduate Program, Ribeirão Preto of the Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Purpose: The purpose this study was perform a biomechanical evaluation to compare the influence of commercial models of different non-articular proximal forearm orthoses widths (2.5 cm, 5.5 cm, 7.5 cm and 12.0 cm) in the extensor muscle activation, range of motion and grip strength in healthy subjects.

Methods: Was analyzed data from extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnares and extensor digitorum comunis using surface electromyography, simultaneous with a wrist electrogoniometer MiotecTM and a hydraulic dynamometer JamarTM. The sequence of tests with all the commercial orthoses models was randomized. Statistics analyses were performed by linear model with mixed effects.

Results: According to our findings the non-articular proximal forearm orthoses (2.5 cm - narrowest) positioned close to lateral epicondyle provided lesser muscle activation on extensor carpi radialis brevis/longus and extensor digitorum comunis, decreased wrist extension and grip strength during submaximal grip task (p< 0.01).

Conclusions: A narrow non-articular proximal forearm orthosis positioned close to the lateral epicondyle might decrease the extensor muscle activation and therefore could reduce mechanical stress on its insertion, based on this sample. Clinical studies must be conducted to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-160727DOI Listing
June 2016

Effects of High-Voltage Electrical Stimulation in Improving the Viability of Musculocutaneous Flaps in Rats.

Ann Plast Surg 2016 Oct;77(4):e50-4

From the *Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Sao Paulo University, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo; and †Federal University of Santa Catarina, Araranguá, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Background: The musculocutaneous flap of the transverse rectus abdominis muscle is a technique used for breast reconstruction, and one of the complications of this procedure is tissue necrosis. The objective of the study is to determine the effect of high-voltage electrical stimulation (HVES) in the transverse rectus abdominis muscle flap in rats.

Methods: Fourteen rats underwent surgery for obtaining the flap. The rats were distributed into 2 homogeneous groups: group 1 underwent both surgery and the use of HVES, whereas group 2 underwent just the surgery (control). Electrical stimulation was applied immediately after surgery and for 2 consecutive days. The percentage of necrotic area was analyzed using the Image J software, and blood flow was assessed by infrared thermography in different regions of the flap, divided into 4 zones according to the proximity of the pedicle of the inferior epigastric artery.

Results: The results were analyzed using a Student t test, where group 1 experienced a necrotic area of 26.2%, and group 2 had an area of 54.5%. Regarding the temperature, the 2 groups showed increase in the minimum and maximum temperature on the fourth postoperative day.

Conclusion: The HVES appeared to have a positive influence on the viability of the flap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000621DOI Listing
October 2016

Ascorbic acid iontophoresis for chondral gain in rats with arthritis.

Acta Ortop Bras 2014 ;22(4):202-5

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ; Universidade Paulista, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Campus Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Objectives: To examine the cellularity and thickness of the articular cartilage of the femur in rats with arthritis after treatment with iontophoresis.

Methods: To evaluate these objectives, a histological analysis was performed on hematoxylin and eosin, where cellularity and cartilage thickness were observed and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by manual counting by 700.09µm² area.

Results: The group treated with IAA had normal cellularity (40.1 cells/μm(2)) and maintenance of non-calcified cartilage (75.5μm), suggesting normal thickness. The non-treated group C+, on the other hand, had a lower mean number of chondrocytes (13.0μm(2)) (P <0.05) and, when the cartilage thickness was compared, it showed higher average thickness of calcified cartilage (104.8 mm) and lower mean of non-calcified cartilage (53.3μm).

Conclusion: The use of iontophoresis with L-ascorbic acid by continuous electric current contributed to a quantitative gain of chondrocytes and improved the thickness distribution of calcified and non-calcified cartilage. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-78522014220400769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4167044PMC
September 2014

Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

J Hand Microsurg 2013 Dec 25;5(2):49-53. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP Brazil.

Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). On the 14th day the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) also presented better results when compared with sham, however, on the 21st day, no inter-group difference was found (p > 0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12593-013-0096-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827659PMC
December 2013

Low-level laser therapy on the viability of skin flap in rats subjected to deleterious effect of nicotine.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Aug 1;29(8):581-7. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, University of São Paulo-FMRP/USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 830-nm laser in blocking the action of nicotine on the viability of skin flap.

Background Data: The authors have analyzed the deleterious effect of cigarette smoke or nicotine on the skin flap alone with evidence of increased skin necrosis in the flap.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: Group 1 (control), subjected to a surgical technique to obtain a flap for cranial base, laser irradiation simulation, and a subcutaneous injection of saline; Group 2, similar to Group 1, with subcutaneous injection of nicotine (2  mg/kg/day) for a period of 1 week before and 1 week after surgery; and Group 3, similar to Group 2, with skin flaps subjected to a λ 830-nm laser irradiation. The laser parameters used were: power 30 mW, beam area 0.07 cm(2), irradiance 429 mW/cm(2), irradiation time 84  sec, total energy 2.52  J, and energy density 36 J/cm(2). The laser was used immediately after surgery and for 4 consecutive days, in one point at 2.5  cm of the flap cranial base. The areas of necrosis were examined by two macroscopic analyses: paper template and Mini-Mop(®). The pervious blood vessels were also counted.

Results: The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and post-test contrast orthogonal method (multiple comparisons), showing that the laser decreased the area of necrosis in flaps subjected to nicotine, and consequently, increased the number of blood vessels (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The laser proved to be an effective way to decrease the area of necrosis in rats subjected to nicotine, making them similar to the control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2010.2883DOI Listing
August 2011