Publications by authors named "Lain C Pontes de Carvalho"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Reduce Airway Inflammation in a Model of Dust Mite Triggered Allergic Inflammation.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2018 07;10(4):406-419

Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Purpose: The use of tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) to control exacerbated immune responses may be a prophylactic and therapeutic option for application in autoimmune and allergic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of TolDC administration in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation caused by mite extract.

Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived TolDCs were induced by incubation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and dexamethasone, and then characterized by flow cytometry and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For the in vivo model of Blomia tropicalis-induced allergy, mice transplanted with antigen-pulsed TolDCs were sensitized intraperitoneally with B. tropicalis mite extract (BtE) adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. After challenge by nasal administration of BtE, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs, spleen and serum were collected for analysis.

Results: Induction of TolDCs was efficiently achieved as shown by low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-10, upon LPS stimulation in vitro. Transplantation of 1 or 2 doses of BtE-pulsed TolDCs reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and lungs as well as mucus deposition. Moreover, compared to saline-injected controls, TolDC-treated mice showed lower serum levels of anti-BtE immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies as well as reduced Gata3 and IL-4 gene expression in the lungs and decreased IFN-γ levels in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures Transplantation of TolDCs increased the percentage of the regulatory T cells in the spleen and the lungs.

Conclusions: Preventive treatment with TolDCs protects against dust mite-induced allergy in a mouse model, reinforcing the use of tolerogenic dendritic cells for the management of allergic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021587PMC
July 2018

Evaluation of a new set of recombinant antigens for the serological diagnosis of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(9):e0184867. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz-Pernambuco), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Current strategies for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) rely on its efficient diagnosis in both human and canine hosts. The most promising and cost effective approach is based on serologic assays with recombinant proteins. However, no single antigen has been found so far which can be effectively used to detect the disease in both dogs and humans. In previous works, we identified Leishmania infantum antigens with potential for the serodiagnosis of VL. Here, we aimed to expand the panel of the available antigens for VL diagnosis through another screening of a genomic expression library. Seven different protein-coding gene fragments were identified, five of which encoding proteins which have not been previously studied in Leishmania and rich in repetitive motifs. Poly-histidine tagged polypeptides were generated from six genes and evaluated for their potential for diagnosis of VL by ELISA (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) with sera from infected humans and dogs. None of those was valid for the detection of human VL (26-52% sensitivity) although their performance was increased in the canine sera (48-91% sensitivity), with one polypeptide useful for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis. Next, we assayed a mixture of three antigens, found to be best for human or canine VL, among 13 identified through different screenings. This "Mix" resulted in similar levels of sensitivity for both human (84%) and canine (88%) sera. With improvements, this validates the use of multiple proteins, including antigens identified here, as components of a single system for the diagnosis of both forms of leishmaniasis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184867PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619722PMC
October 2017

Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(3):e0174089. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene.

Methods: Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5.

Results: Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity.

Conclusions: A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic living conditions, infections, total IgE, IgE response to glycosylated allergens and genetic polymorphisms, indicating that multiple mechanisms may be involved. Our data, showing that exposures to an unhygienic environment and childhood infections modulate immediate allergen skin test reactivity, provide support for the "hygiene hypothesis".
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174089PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5369757PMC
August 2017

IL2RA genetic variants reduce IL-2-dependent responses and aggravate human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

J Immunol 2015 Mar 11;194(6):2664-72. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Aix Marseille Université, Génétique et Immunologie des Maladies Parasitaires, Unité Mixte de Recherche S906, 13385 Marseille, France; INSERM, Unité 906, 13385 Marseille, France;

The outcome of Leishmania infections varies substantially, depending on the host and the parasite strain; infection may be asymptomatic or cause mild or severe skin ulcers (cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]), limited or disseminated lesions, or lethal visceral disease. We previously reported an association between IL-2R mutations and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in children infected with Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of IL-2 signaling in human CL. We first showed that the transcripts of several genes of the IL-2 pathway were abundant in skin lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis. We then carried out a genetic analysis, focusing on major genes of the IL-2 pathway. We used a family-based approach and found that polymorphisms of several genes appeared to be associated with CL in a Brazilian population. Moreover, two polymorphisms of the IL2RA gene were significantly and independently associated with CL. We confirmed this result in a second Brazilian sample (also exposed to L. braziliensis) and in Iranians infected with Leishmania tropica: IL2RA rs10905669 T (Pcombined = 6 × 10(-7)) and IL2RA rs706778 T (Pcombined = 2 × 10(-9)) were associated with greater susceptibility to lesion development. These alleles were also correlated with a poor IFN-γ response and poor FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell activation. Thus, IL-2 plays a crucial role in protection against the cutaneous ulcers caused by Leishmania, and the IL-2 pathway is a potential target for strategies aiming to control Leishmania-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1402047DOI Listing
March 2015

Effects of helminth co-infections on atopy, asthma and cytokine production in children living in a poor urban area in Latin America.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Nov 19;7:817. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Departamento de Ciências da Biointeração, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Background: Helminths are modulators of the host immune system, and infections with these parasites have been associated with protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. The human host is often infected with multiple helminth parasites and most studies to date have investigated the effects of helminths in the context of infections with single parasite or types of parasites (e.g. geohelminths). In this study, we investigated how co-infections with three nematodes affect markers of allergic inflammation and asthma in children. We selected Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, two parasites that inhabit the human intestine and Toxocara spp (Toxocara canis and/or T. cati), intestinal roundworms of dogs and cats that cause systemic larval infection in humans. These parasites were selected as the most prevalent helminth parasites in our study population.

Results: 36.4% of children were infected with one parasite; 12.7% with 2 and 5.2% with 3. Eosinophilia>4% and >10% was present in 74.3% and 25.5% of the children, respectively. Total IgE>200 IU/mL, sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and SPT positivity were present in 59.7%, 37.1% and 30% of the children, respectively. 22.7% had recent asthma (12.0% non-atopic and 10.7% atopic). Helminth infections were associated in a dose-dependent way to decrease in the prevalence of SPT and increase in eosinophilia, total IgE, and the production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 by unstimulated peripheral blood leukocytes. No association with asthma was observed.

Conclusions: Helminth co-infections in this population were associated with increased markers of the Th2 immune response, and with a host immune regulatory phenotype that may suppress allergic effector responses such as immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289379PMC
November 2014

Temporal distribution of positive results of tests for detecting Leishmania infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in the Brazilian tropics: a 13 years survey and association with human disease.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Dec 26;190(3-4):591-4. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Rua Waldemar Falcão 121, Candeal, Salvador 40-296-710, BA, Brazil.

Human visceral leishmaniasis occurs in periodic waves in endemic areas of Brazil. In this study we followed the prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis and of Leishmania infantum infection in stray dogs of an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at periods of time between 1997 and 2010. Prevalence of human visceral leishmaniasis had two peaks (40 cases) in 1997 and 2006 with sharp declines to 2 cases in 2001 and to 5 cases in 2008. Similar fluctuations were also observed in the occurrence of positive spleen culture and anti-Leishmania serology in dogs, although the proportion of dogs with active spleen parasitism remained relatively high even in the periods of low prevalence of human disease. These observations support the notion that stray dogs may constitute a renewable source of parasites, capable of sustaining the persistence of the infection in urban areas, even in periods of low transmission by phlebotomines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.025DOI Listing
December 2012

Characterization of novel Leishmania infantum recombinant proteins encoded by genes from five families with distinct capacities for serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011 Dec;85(6):1025-34

Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4-93.0% and 36.4-97.2%) and specificities (76.1-100% and 90.4-97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225146PMC
December 2011

A study on the immunological basis of the dissociation between type I-hypersensitivity skin reactions to Blomia tropicalis antigens and serum anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies.

BMC Immunol 2011 Jun 1;12:34. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Departamento de Biointeração, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av, Reitor Miguel Calmon, Sem no, Canela, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Two conditions are used as markers of atopy: the presence of circulating anti-allergen IgE antibodies and the presence of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to allergenic extracts. The correlation between these conditions is not absolute. This study aimed at investigating immunological parameters that may mediate this lack of correlation. Individuals whose sera contained anti-B. tropicalis extract IgE antibodies (α-BtE IgE) were divided into two groups, according to the presence or absence of skin reactivity to B. tropicalis extract (BtE). The following parameters were investigated: total IgE levels; α-BtE IgE levels; an arbitrary α-BtE IgE/total IgE ratio; the proportion of carbohydrate-reactive α-BtE IgE; the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with Ascaris lumbricoides extract (AlE); the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated peripheral blood cells (PBMC).

Results: Total IgE levels were similar in the two groups, but α-BtE IgE was significantly higher in the SPT-positive group (SPT+). A large overlap of α-BtE IgE levels was found in individuals of both groups, indicating that these levels alone cannot account for the differences in SPT outcome. Individuals of the two groups did not differ, statistically, in the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with carbohydrate and in the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated PBMC. Both groups had part of α-BtE IgE activity absorbed out by AlE, indicating the existence of cross-reactive IgE antibodies. However, the α-BtE IgE from the SPT-negative individuals (SPT-) was more absorbed with AlE than the α-BtE IgE from the SPT+ individuals. This finding may be ascribed to avidity differences of the α-BtE IgE that is present in the two groups of individuals, and could occur if at least part of the α-BtE IgE from the SPT- individuals were elicited by A. lumbricoides infection.

Conclusion: The present results suggest that a low ratio of specific IgE to total IgE levels (in a minority of individuals), and differences in α-BtE IgE avidities (which would have high affinities for A. lumbricoides antigens in SPT- than in SPT+ individuals) may play a role in the down-modulation of type-I hypersensitivity reaction against aeroallergens described in helminth-infected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-12-34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118201PMC
June 2011

Evidence for a modulatory effect of IL-10 on both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production: the role of the environment.

Clin Immunol 2011 Apr 1;139(1):57-64. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Allergic and other immune-mediated diseases are complex disease states determined by interplay between host genetics and environmental factors. Environmental changes such as fewer infections and reduced exposure to microbial products have been suggested to have led to insufficient regulation of Th1 and Th2 immune responses, causing an increased incidence of inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of poor living environmental conditions on mitogen-induced production of cytokines (Th1 and Th2) by peripheral blood leukocytes in children living in urban Brazil and investigate the role of IL-10 in modifying this effect. Our data showed that the proportion of children producing Th1 and Th2 cytokines was lower among those with poor living conditions and that this finding was stronger in children producing IL-10. These results provide a possible biologic explanation for the temporal trends of increasing risk of inflammatory diseases observed in populations living in affluent countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2010.12.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070800PMC
April 2011

Babassu aqueous extract (BAE) as an adjuvant for T helper (Th)1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain.

BMC Immunol 2011 Jan 29;12:13. Epub 2011 Jan 29.

Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Laboratory of Immunophysiology, São Luís, Brazil.

Background: The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE) exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE), adsorbed or not to Al(OH)3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH)3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses.

Results: The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH)3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ), a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-)4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine), by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH)3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH)3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine) levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by splenocytes of control mice.

Conclusions: Based on the results described above, BAE, or biologically active molecules purified from it, should be further investigated as a possible adjuvant, in association or not with aluminium compounds, for the preferential induction of Th1-dependent immune responses against different antigens in distinct murine strains and animal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-12-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3037928PMC
January 2011

Activity of physalin F in a collagen-induced arthritis model.

J Nat Prod 2010 Aug;73(8):1323-6

Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

The effects of physalin F (1), a steroid derivative purified from Physalis angulata, were investigated in models of collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice and allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. Oral treatment with 1 or dexamethasone caused a marked decrease in paw edema and joint inflammation when compared to vehicle-treated arthritic mice. In contrast, treatment with 1 had no effect in mice with allergic airway inflammation caused by ovalbumin immunization, whereas dexamethasone significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the broncoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung sections of challenged mice. To further demonstrate that 1 acts through a mechanism different from that of glucocorticoids, a nuclear translocation assay was performed of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) using COS-7 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding for a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-GR fusion protein. Untreated or treated cells with 1 had YFP staining mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas in dexamethasone-treated cells the YFP staining was concentrated in the nuclei. It is concluded that the mechanism of the immunosuppressive activity of physalin F is distinct from that of the glucocorticoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np900691wDOI Listing
August 2010

Sub-clinical infection as an effective protocol for obtaining anti-Leishmania chagasi amastigote antibodies of different animal species.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2004 Jun;99(3-4):135-41

Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Reitor Miguel Calmon, s/n, Canela, 40.110-100 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

This work aims at identifying an effective protocol to raise anti-Leishmania chagasi amastigote antibodies in different animal species. Protocols of immunization by subcutaneous injections of L. chagasi promastigote and amastigote lysates or by either intravenous or subcutaneous inoculation of live metacyclic promastigotes were assessed in mice, rabbits, and dogs. The immunization with live promastigotes produced a strong humoral immune response against L. chagasi amastigotes in all three animal species. The sera from animals immunized with the promastigote lysate did not react with amastigotes and, conversely, the sera from mice immunized with the amastigote lysate did not react with promastigotes. Taken all data together, the immunization through infection with metacyclic promastigotes was considered the most satisfactory way to immunize animals for obtaining anti-amastigote and anti-promastigote antibodies, since it did not only allowed the obtention of antibody against the two forms of the parasite, but it is also cheap, less laborious than carrying out the purification of amastigotes from infected tissues and avoid the use of a large number of hamsters for obtention the amastigotes, necessary to produce the immunogenic lysates. Furthermore, this immunization protocol was comparable to the amastigote lysate immunization protocol for the obtaining of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2004.01.013DOI Listing
June 2004

A follow-up of Beagle dogs intradermally infected with Leishmania chagasi in the presence or absence of sand fly saliva.

Vet Parasitol 2003 May;114(2):97-111

Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rua Waldemar Falcão 121, 40295-001 Salvador, BA, Brazil.

In this study, we compare the development of infection and/or disease in Beagle dogs intradermally infected with Leishmania chagasi, in the presence or absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva, with those of intravenously infected animals. Spleen samples of all the animals inoculated with parasites had positive polymerase chain reaction tests for Leishmania DNA. Positive spleen cultures for Leishmania were detected earlier (P < or = 0.018) and were more frequent (five out of the five animals) in intravenously infected animals than in the intradermally infected animals, in presence (two out of the six animals) or absence (three out of the five animals) of salivary gland lysate of L. longipalpis. Significant increase in serum antibodies against Leishmania was observed only in the intravenously infected group (P = 0.004). In addition, dogs with infection confirmed by isolation of amastigotes or detection of parasite DNA were, nevertheless, negative for anti-Leishmania antibodies up to 5 months or more after infection. Only animals of the intravenously infected group developed progressive decreases in hematocrit (Pearson r = -0.8076, P = -0.0026) and hemoglobin (Pearson r = -0.8403, P = 0.0012) during the infection period. No significant difference in the course of infection was observed between groups of intradermally infected animals. The data presented herein confirms that the intradermal inoculation of dogs with Leishmania produces an asymptomatic form of infection. It also fails to show an advantage in using L. longipalpis saliva as an infection-enhancing agent in experimental canine leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-4017(03)00132-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126804PMC
May 2003