Publications by authors named "Lai Wei"

1,197 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mesoscale evaluation of oil submerging and floating processes during marine oil spill response: Effects of dispersant on submerging stability and the associated mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 16;436:129153. Epub 2022 May 16.

China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group), Beijing 100728, China.

The migration of oil spills in marine environment is still not clear, especially the key processes of submerging and floating, which is an important concern for effective disposal of oil spills. In mesoscale wave tank (32 m × 0.8 m × 2 m), this study has evaluated the characteristics of oil submergence based on oil concentration and oil droplet size. The concept of effective submergence is put forward for the first time, utilized to analyze the effects of dispersant on submerging stability and associated mechanisms. The results indicate dispersants increase submerged oil concentration and promote homogeneous distribution and vertical penetration. Of concern is that dispersants increase the proportion of small oil droplets (2.5-70 µm), prolonging the residence time of oil droplets in water by delaying the floating process. Dispersants sharply reduce oil droplets size (VMD<44 µm) thus decreasing the coalescence probability. These contribute to better submerging stability. By contrast, the submerged oil, formed as oil patches, oil streamers, and large oil droplets (VMD>170 µm) when without dispersant, will float and reattach to oil slicks more quickly due to their large volume. These findings help to clarify spilled oil behaviors and provide a new idea for the research on oil submergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129153DOI Listing
August 2022

A Case Of Sintilimab-Induced SJS/TEN: Dermatologic Adverse Reactions Associated With Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 Inhibitors.

Dermatol Ther 2022 Jun 23:e15663. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.15663DOI Listing
June 2022

Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating fibrosis regression in chronic hepatitis C patients after direct-acting antiviral.

World J Gastroenterol 2022 May;28(20):2214-2226

Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology on NAFLD Diagnosis, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044,

Background: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has enabled hepatitis C virus infection to become curable, while histological changes remain uncontained. Few valid non-invasive methods can be confirmed for use in surveillance. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast, related to liver function in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP). Whether Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can be used in the diagnosis and follow up of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has not been investigated.

Aim: To investigate the diagnostic and follow-up values of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for hepatic histology in patients with CHC.

Methods: Patients with CHC were invited to undergo Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver biopsy before treatment, and those with paired qualified MRI and liver biopsy specimens were included. Transient elastography (TE) and blood tests were also arranged. Patients treated with DAAs who achieved 24-wk sustained virological response (SVR) underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver biopsy again. The signal intensity (SI) of the liver and muscle were measured in the unenhanced phase (UEP) (SI, SI) and HBP (SI, SI) MRI. The contrast enhancement index (CEI) was calculated as [(SI/SI)]/[(SI/SI)]. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was confirmed with TE. Serologic markers, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), were also calculated according to blood tests. The grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis were evaluated with the modified histology activity index (mHAI) and Ishak fibrosis score, respectively. Fibrosis regression was defined as a ≥ 1-point decrease in the Ishak fibrosis score. The correlation between the CEI and liver pathology was evaluated. The diagnostic and follow-up values of the CEI, LSM, and serologic markers were compared.

Results: Thirty-nine patients with CHC were enrolled [average age, 42.3 ± 14.4 years; 20/39 (51.3%) male]. Twenty-one enrolled patients had eligible paired Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver tissues after achieving SVR. The mHAI median significantly decreased after SVR [baseline 6.0 (4.5-13.5) SVR 2.0 (1.5-5.5), = 3.322, = 0.017], but the median stage of fibrosis did not notably change ( > 0.05). Sixty pairs of qualified MRI and liver tissue samples were available for use to analyze the relationship between the CEI and hepatic pathology. The CEI was negatively correlated with the mHAI ( = -0.56, < 0.001) and Ishak score ( = -0.69, < 0.001). Further stratified analysis showed that the value of the CEI decreased with the progression of the stage of fibrosis rather than with the grade of necroinflammation. For patients with Ishak score ≥ 5, the areas under receiver operating characteristics curve of the CEI, LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 were approximately at baseline, 0.87-0.93, and after achieving SVR, 0.83-0.91. The CEI cut-off value was stable (baseline 1.58 and SVR 1.59), but those of the APRI (from 1.05 to 0.24), FIB-4 (from 1.78 to 1.28), and LSM (from 10.8 kpa to 7.1 kpa) decreased dramatically. The APRI and FIB-4 cannot be used as diagnostic means for SVR in patients with Ishak score ≥ 3 ( > 0.05). Seven patients achieved fibrosis regression after achieving SVR. In these patients, the CEI median increased (from 1.71 to 1.83, = -1.981, = 0.048) and those of the APRI (from 1.71 to 1.83, = -2.878, = 0.004) and LSM (from 6.6 to 4.8, = -2.366, = 0.018) decreased. However, in patients without fibrosis regression, the medians of the APRI, FIB-4, and LSM also changed significantly ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI has good diagnostic value for staging fibrosis in patients with CHC. It can be used for fibrotic-change monitoring post SVR in patients with CHC treated with DAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v28.i20.2214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157620PMC
May 2022

Enterochromaffin Cells-Gut Microbiota Crosstalk: Underpinning the Symptoms, Pathogenesis, and Pharmacotherapy in Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBIs) are common conditions in community and clinical practice. As specialized enteroendocrine cells, enterochromaffin (EC) cells produce up to 95% of total body serotonin and coordinate luminal and basolateral communication in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. EC cells affect a broad range of gut physiological processes, such as motility, absorption, secretion, chemo/mechanosensation, and pathologies, including visceral hypersensitivity, immune dysfunction, and impaired gastrointestinal barrier function. We aim to review EC cell and serotonin-mediated physiology and pathophysiology with particular emphasis on DGBIs. We explored the knowledge gap and attempted to suggest new perspectives of physiological and pathophysiological insights of DGBIs, such as (1) functional heterogeneity of regionally distributed EC cells throughout the entire GI tract; (2) potential pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by EC cell defect in DGBIs; (3) cellular and molecular mechanisms characterizing EC cells and gut microbiota bidirectional communication; (4) differential modulation of EC cells through GI segment-specific gut microbiota; (5) uncover whether crosstalk between EC cells and (i) luminal contents; (ii) enteric nervous system; and (iii) central nervous system are core mechanisms modulating gut-brain homeostasis; and (6) explore the therapeutic modalities for physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms mediated through EC cells. Insights discussed in this review will fuel the conception and realization of pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic clues to improve the management and clinical care of DGBIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm22008DOI Listing
June 2022

Case Report: A Novel Intronic Mutation in Associated With Fatal Encephalomyopathy and Mitochondrial Disease in Infant.

Front Pediatr 2022 31;10:889089. Epub 2022 May 31.

Laboratory Department, Dongguan Children's Hospital Affiliated to Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Background: The gene is located on chromosome Xq26.1 and encodes a flavoprotein essential for nuclear disassembly in apoptotic cells. Mutations in this gene can cause variable clinical phenotypes, but genotype-phenotype correlations of -related disorder have not yet been fully determined because of the clinical scarcity.

Case Presentation: We describe a 4-month-old infant with mitochondrial encephalopathy, carrying a novel intronic variant in (NM_004208.4: c.1164 + 5G > A). TA cloning of the complementary DNA (cDNA) and Sanger sequencing revealed the simultaneous presence of an aberrant transcript with exon 11 skipping (89 bp) and a normal transcript through analysis of mRNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts, which is consistent with direct RNA sequencing results.

Conclusion: We verified the pathogenic effect of the c.1164 + 5G > A splicing variant, which disturbed normal mRNA splicing. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of and point out the necessity of intronic sequence analysis and the importance for integrative functional studies in the interpretation of sequence variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.889089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9194441PMC
May 2022

Identification of Heparan Sulfate in Dilated Cardiomyopathy by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 27;9:900428. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Heparan sulfate (HS) forms heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), such as syndecans (SDCs) and glypicans (GPCs), to perform biological processes in the mammals. This study aimed to explore the role of HS in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods: Two high throughput RNA sequencing, two microarrays, and one single-cell RNA sequencing dataset of DCM hearts were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and integrated for bioinformatics analyses. Differential analysis, pathway enrichment, immunocytes infiltration, subtype identification, and single-cell RNA sequencing analysis were used in this study.

Results: The expression level of most HSPGs was significantly upregulated in DCM and was closely associated with immune activation, cardiac fibrosis, and heart failure. Syndecan2 (SDC2) was highly associated with collagen I and collagen III in cardiac fibroblasts of DCM hearts. HS biosynthetic pathway was activated, while the only enzyme to hydrolyze HS was downregulated. Based on the expression of HSPGs, patients with DCM were classified into three molecular subtypes, i.e., C1, C2, and C3. Cardiac fibrosis and heart failure were more severe in the C1 subtype.

Conclusion: Heparan sulfate is closely associated with immune activation, cardiac fibrosis, and heart failure in DCM. A novel molecular classification of patients with DCM is established based on HSPGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.900428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197211PMC
May 2022

Metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease in individuals of normal weight.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Storr Liver Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) affects up to a third of the global population; its burden has grown in parallel with rising rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. MAFLD increases the risk of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, death and liver transplantation and has extrahepatic consequences, including cardiometabolic disease and cancers. Although typically associated with obesity, there is accumulating evidence that not all people with overweight or obesity develop fatty liver disease. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of patients with MAFLD are of normal weight, indicating the importance of metabolic health in the pathogenesis of the disease regardless of body mass index. The clinical profile, natural history and pathophysiology of patients with so-called lean MAFLD are not well characterized. In this Review, we provide epidemiological data on this group of patients and consider overall metabolic health and metabolic adaptation as a framework to best explain the pathogenesis of MAFLD and its heterogeneity in individuals of normal weight and in those who are above normal weight. This framework provides a conceptual schema for interrogating the MAFLD phenotype in individuals of normal weight that can translate to novel approaches for diagnosis and patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41575-022-00635-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Promoting the term MAFLD: China in action.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jul;7(7):598

MAFLD Research Center, Department of Hepatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China; Institute of Hepatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment for the Development of Chronic Liver Disease in Zhejiang Province, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(22)00127-3DOI Listing
July 2022

Artificial intelligence improves pathologist agreement for fibrosis scores in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2022.05.027DOI Listing
June 2022

A multi-omics analysis for the prediction of neurocognitive disorders risk among the elderly in Macao.

Clin Transl Med 2022 Jun;12(6):e909

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao SAR, China.

Background: Due to the increasing ageing population, neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) have been a global public health issue, and its prevention and early diagnosis are crucial. Our previous study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between specific populations and NCDs, but the biological characteristics of the vulnerable group predispose to NCDs are unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the predictors for the vulnerable group by a multi-omics analysis.

Methods: Multi-omics approaches, including metagenomics, metabolomic and proteomic, were used to detect gut microbiota, faecal metabolites and urine exosome of 8 normal controls and 13 vulnerable elders after a rigorous screening of 400 elders in Macao. The multi-omics data were analysed using R and Bioconductor. The two-sided Wilcoxon's rank-sum test, Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and the linear discriminant analysis effective size were applied to investigate characterized features. Moreover, a 2-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate cognitive function change of the elderly.

Results: Compared with the control elders, the metagenomics of gut microbiota showed that Ruminococcus gnavus, Lachnospira eligens, Escherichia coli and Desulfovibrio piger were increased significantly in the vulnerable group. Carboxylates, like alpha-ketoglutaric acid and d-saccharic acid, and levels of vitamins had obvious differences in the faecal metabolites. There was a distinct decrease in the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (eIF2α) and amine oxidase A (MAO-A) according to the proteomic results of the urine exosomes. Moreover, the compound annual growth rate of neurocognitive scores was notably decreased in vulnerable elders.

Conclusions: The multi-omics characteristics of disturbed glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism (bacteria), vitamin digestion and absorption and tricarboxylic acid cycle in vulnerable elders can serve as predictors of NCDs risk among the elderly of Macao. Intervention with them may be effective therapeutic approaches for NCDs, and the underlying mechanisms merit further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.909DOI Listing
June 2022

Study of diffusion and conduction in lithium garnet oxides LiLaZrTaO by machine learning interatomic potentials.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Jun 22;24(24):15025-15033. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Lithium garnet oxides are an attractive family of solid-state electrolytes due to their high Li-ion conductivity and good chemical stability against Li metal. Experimental study of these materials is often troubled by chemical contamination ( Al) or lithium loss, while computational study, theoretically with controlled composition, is often limited either by accuracy ( conventional interatomic potential) or efficiency ( density-function theory or DFT). In this work, we report the study of diffusion and conduction of lithium garnets by a machine learning interatomic potential (MLIP) that is approaching DFT accuracy but orders of magnitude faster. We found that this MLIP is more accurate than other commonly applied models to study lithium garnets and is able to predict diffusion and conduction properties that are consistent with experiments. Computational studies enabled by this MLIP, combined with experimental data, suggest that ionic conduction is non-Arrhenius and maximum conductivity occurs around = 6.6 to 6.8 in LiLaZrTaO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00591cDOI Listing
June 2022

Ultrasound imaging of extensive peripheral macrocysts in chronic total combined rhegmatogenous-traction retinal detachment.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Sep 1;27:101604. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: To report a case of a 42-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) complicated by tractional retinal detachments (TRD) bilaterally with a rare finding on B-scan ultrasonography.

Observations: On B-scan ultrasound, a total combined rhegmatogenous-TRD was observed, accompanied by extensive retinal macrocysts that appeared nearly confluent for 360°.

Conclusions And Importance: Retinal macrocysts are rare but important clinical entities that help drive management, as their presence typically suggests a chronic retinal detachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2022.101604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168472PMC
September 2022

Dabrafenib vs dabrafenib + trametinib in BRAF-mutated radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer - results of a randomized, phase 2, open-label, multicenter trial.

Thyroid 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Arthur G James Cancer Hospital and Richard J Solove Research Institute, 24600, Division of Medical Oncology, Columbus, Ohio, United States;

Background Oncogenic BRAF mutations are commonly found in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer, and reports have shown efficacy of BRAF inhibitors in these tumors. We investigated the difference in response between dabrafenib monotherapy and dabrafenib+trametinib therapy in patients with BRAF-mutated radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods In this open-label randomized phase 2 multicenter trial, patients aged ≥18 years with BRAF-mutated radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, and with progressive disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 within 13 months prior to enrollment were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive dabrafenib alone, or dabrafenib+trametinib. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by modified RECIST (minor response of -20% to -29%, partial and complete response) within the first 24 weeks of therapy. Trial Registration Number: NCT01723202 Results A total of 53 patients were enrolled. The objective response rate (modified RECIST) was 42% (11/26, 95% CI: 23%-63%) with dabrafenib versus 48% (13/27, 95% CI: 29%-68%) with dabrafenib+trametinib (p=0.67). Objective response rate (RECIST 1.1) was 35% (9/26, 95% CI: 17%-56%) with dabrafenib and 30% (8/27, 95% CI: 14%-51%) with dabrafenib+trametinib. Most common treatment-related adverse events included skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (17/26, 65%), fever (13/26, 50%), hyperglycemia (12/26, 46%) with dabrafenib alone, and fever (16/27, 59%), nausea, chills, fatigue (14/27, 52% each) with dabrafenib+trametinib. There were no treatment-related deaths. Conclusions Combination dabrafenib+trametinib was not superior in efficacy when compared to dabrafenib monotherapy in patients with BRAF-mutated radioiodine refractory progressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2022.0115DOI Listing
June 2022

One-step ultra-sensitive immunochromatographic strip authenticating an emergent fraud acetophenetidin in herbal tea.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Jul 25;165:113183. Epub 2022 May 25.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety / Nation-Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Precision Machining and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Herbal tea is a highly popular and widely consumed beverage. However, a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, acetophenetidin, was recently found to illegally occur in herbal tea for a fraud purpose. Due to the potential health risk and urgent requirement for on-site screening method, a one-step and high specificity strip for identifying acetophenetidin was developed for the first time. Assisted by computational chemistry, four haptens were designed to prepare immunogens and coating antigens for antibody generation, and a specific antibody with ultra-sensitivity and high specificity was generated, showing half maximal inhibitory (IC) of 16.46 ng/mL for acetophenetidin, less than 3.5% of cross-reactivity to analogs by ELISA. A gold nanoparticles immunochromatographic strip was developed for detection of acetophenetidin in herbal tea, demonstrating a cut-off value of 160 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 1.63 ng/mL. The recovery rates were ranged from 102.2% to 106.1% with coefficient of variation between 2.21% and 7.20%. The analysis of real samples (n = 20) by the strip was well correlated with that of the confirmatory method, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed strip has the potential to be used for rapid screening of acetophenetidin in herbal tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113183DOI Listing
July 2022

Disruption of Circadian Rhythms by Shift Work Exacerbates Reperfusion Injury in Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2022 05;79(21):2097-2115

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Division of Cardiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Shift work is associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and worsened prognosis. However, the mechanisms linking shift work and worsened prognosis in AMI remain unclear.

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the impact of shift work on reperfusion injury, a major determinant of clinical outcomes in AMI.

Methods: Study patient data were obtained from the database of the EARLY-MYO-CMR (Early Assessment of Myocardial Tissue Characteristics by CMR in STEMI) registry, which was a prospective, multicenter registry of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after reperfusion therapy. The primary endpoint was CMR-defined post-reperfusion infarct size. A secondary clinical endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up. Potential mechanisms were explored with the use of preclinical animal AMI models.

Results: Of 706 patients enrolled in the EARLY-MYO-CMR registry, 412 patients with STEMI were ultimately included. Shift work was associated with increased CMR-defined infarct size (β = 5.94%; 95% CI: 2.94-8.94; P < 0.0001). During a median follow-up of 5.0 years, shift work was associated with increased risks of MACE (adjusted HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.12-3.29; P = 0.017). Consistent with clinical findings, shift work simulation in mice and sheep significantly augmented reperfusion injury in AMI. Mechanism studies identified a novel nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1/cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 axis in the heart that played a crucial role in mediating the detrimental effects of shift work on myocardial injury.

Conclusions: The current study provided novel findings that shift work increases myocardial infarction reperfusion injury. It identified a novel nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1/cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 axis in the heart that might play a crucial role in mediating this process. (Early Assessment of Myocardial Tissue Characteristics by CMR in STEMI [EARLY-MYO-CMR] registry; NCT03768453).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2022.03.370DOI Listing
May 2022

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Stem Protein Nanoparticles Elicited Broad ADCC and Robust Neutralization against Variants in Mice.

Small 2022 Jun 23;18(25):e2200836. Epub 2022 May 23.

Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global pandemic. The virus is rapidly evolving, characterized by the emergence of several major variants. Stable prefusion spike protein (Pre) is the immunogen in current vaccines but is limited in protecting against different variants. Here, the immune responses induced by the relatively conserved stem subunit (S2) of spike protein versus Pre are investigated. Pre generates the most robust neutralization responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirus-based assessment but elicits less antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity than S2. By contrast, S2 induces the most balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with potent and broad ADCC activity although produces weaker neutralization. The immunogenicity of S2 and Pre improves by incorporating the two proteins into double-layered protein nanoparticles. The resulting protein nanoparticles Pre/S2 elicit higher neutralizing antibodies than Pre alone, and stronger ADCC than S2 alone. Moreover, nanoparticles produce more potent and balanced serum IgG antibodies than the corresponding soluble protein mixture, and the immune responses are sustained for at least four months after the immunization. Thus, the double-layered protein nanoparticles have the potential to be developed into broader SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with excellent safety profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202200836DOI Listing
June 2022

Scalable deeper graph neural networks for high-performance materials property prediction.

Patterns (N Y) 2022 May 27;3(5):100491. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA.

Machine-learning-based materials property prediction models have emerged as a promising approach for new materials discovery, among which the graph neural networks (GNNs) have shown the best performance due to their capability to learn high-level features from crystal structures. However, existing GNN models suffer from their lack of scalability, high hyperparameter tuning complexity, and constrained performance due to over-smoothing. We propose a scalable global graph attention neural network model DeeperGATGNN with differentiable group normalization (DGN) and skip connections for high-performance materials property prediction. Our systematic benchmark studies show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art prediction results on five out of six datasets, outperforming five existing GNN models by up to 10%. Our model is also the most scalable one in terms of graph convolution layers, which allows us to train very deep networks (e.g., >30 layers) without significant performance degradation. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/usccolumbia/deeperGATGNN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patter.2022.100491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9122959PMC
May 2022

Roadmap to sustainable plastic waste management: a focused study on recycling PET for triboelectric nanogenerator production in Singapore and India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Newcastle Research & Innovation Institute Singapore (NewRIIS), 80 Jurong East Street 21, #05-04, Singapore, 609607, Singapore.

This study explores the implications of plastic waste and recycling management on recyclates for manufacturing clean-energy harvesting devices. The focus is on a comparative analysis of using recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) production, in two densely populated Asian countries of large economies, namely Singapore and India. Of the total 930,000 tonnes of plastic waste generated in Singapore in 2019, only 4% were recycled and the rest were incinerated. In comparison, India yielded 8.6 million tonnes of plastic waste and 70% were recycled. Both countries have strict recycling goals and have instituted different waste and recycling management regulations. The findings show that the waste policies and legislations, responsibilities and heterogeneity in collection systems and infrastructure of the respective country are the pivotal attributes to successful recycling. Challenges to recycle plastic include segregation, adulterants and macromolecular structure degradation which could influence the recyclate properties and pose challenges for manufacturing products. A model was developed to evaluate the economic value and mechanical potential of PET recyclate. The model predicted a 30% loss of material performance and a 65% loss of economic value after the first recycling cycle. The economic value depreciates to zero with decreasing mechanical performance of plastic after multiple recycling cycles. For understanding how TENG technology could be incorporated into the circular economy, a model has estimated about 20 million and 7300 billion pieces of aerogel mats can be manufactured from the PET bottles disposed in Singapore and India, respectively which were sufficient to produce small-scale TENG devices for all peoples in both countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20854-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Hexavalent chromium triggers hepatocytes premature senescence via the GATA4/NF-κB signaling pathway mediated by the DNA damage response.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 May 16;239:113645. Epub 2022 May 16.

Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, PR China. Electronic address:

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a proven toxin, carcinogen and environmental pollutant. Oral intake of Cr(VI) has been shown to lead to an increasing incidence of primary hepatic carcinoma in the population. Cellular senescence is thought to be a natural barrier to malignant transformation of cells, but senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is secreted and regulated by senescent cells links cellular senescence to malignant transformation in a dynamic way. In the present research, we demonstrated novel mechanisms of premature hepatocytes senescence induced by Cr(VI). Continuous Cr(VI) stimulation led to DNA damaged in hepatocytes, and DNA damage response (DDR) signals were transmitted by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM)/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad-3-related protein (ATR), resulting in zinc finger transcription factor GATA4 escaping p62-mediated selective autophagy, thereby regulating nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) to induce premature senescence in hepatocytes. In contrast to the classical senescence pathway p53-p21 and Rb/p16, GATA4 can directly regulate the secretion of SASP during premature senescence. The results will provide valuable clues for targeted prevention and further individualized treatment of Cr(VI)-associated cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113645DOI Listing
May 2022

Identification of distinct genomic features reveals frequent somatic AHNAK and PTEN mutations predominantly in primary malignant melanoma presenting in the ureter.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Urology, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Background: Primary malignant melanoma of the ureter is extremely rare. Genetic variants to the increased risk of developing the disease have not yet been investigated.

Methods: Tumour mutation profiling for primary malignant melanoma of the ureter was performed by whole-exome sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify histopathological features and the variants of predisposing genes and driver mutation genes. Furthermore, we conducted a literature review and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-based study by searching public databases.

Results: We identified 38 somatic single nucleotide variants and 9 somatic insertions and deletions (INDELs) in tumour specimens. After filtering with the Cancer Gene Census database, seven predisposing genes and two driver mutation genes were identified. Moreover, the immunohistochemical profile showed that tumour cells were positive for Melan-A, melanoma gp100 human melanoma black 45 (HMB45), S100 beta and P53. The expression levels of two driver mutation genes (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and desmoyokin (AHNAK) and five predisposing genes (AT-rich interaction domain 1B (ARID1B), catalase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 3 (EIF4G3), ANK3 and collagen type I) were significantly downregulated in tumour tissues compared to paracancerous tissues. In the literature review and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-based study, patients with primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract had worse clinical outcomes than patients with primary urothelial carcinoma after 1:2 propensity score matching (P = 0.010). Additionally, Cox multivariate analysis for patients with primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract indicated that distant metastasis (hazard ratio = 1.185; P = 0.044) was an independent predictor for overall survival, and tumour focality (hazard ratio = 0.602; P = 0.017) and non-surgery (hazard ratio = 0.434; P = 0.003) were independent factors for tumour progression.

Conclusions: Our study is the first to provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of primary malignant melanoma of the ureter may be due to different genetic variations. The prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the urinary tract was poorer than that of primary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyac061DOI Listing
May 2022

Incidence, Treatment, and Survival of Patients With T-Cell Lymphoma, T-Cell Large Granular Leukemia, and Concomitant Plasma Cell Dyscrasias.

Front Oncol 2022 29;12:858426. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

T-Cell malignancies are a group of heterogeneous disorders composed of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and T-cell leukemias, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL). Cases of patients with combined T-cell malignancies and plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) are reported in the literature, but these are mostly limited to case reports or small case series with <10 patients. Here, we described the clinical course of 26 patients and report baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rates (ORRs) in this unique population. There was no survival difference in patients with CTCL or T-LGLL and concomitant PCD when treated with standard therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy when compared to historical controls. However, patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD had significantly inferior outcomes with rapid progression and worse OS and PFS at 1.7 years (p=0.006) and 4.8 months (p=0.08), respectively, when compared to historical controls for patients with PTCL, although the limited number of patients included in this analysis precludes drawing definitive conclusions. Treatment directed at the T-cell malignancy resulted in the eradication of the PCD clone in multiple patients (15.4%) including one with multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced a complete response after starting therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy. For patients with T-cell malignancies and concomitant PCD, treatment with standard T-cell-directed therapies is recommended based on this analysis with continued follow-up and monitoring of the concomitant PCD. Further studies are needed to definitively elucidate the increased risk of relapse in patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD, and larger, multi-center cohorts are needed to validate these findings across T-cell malignancies and PCDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.858426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106372PMC
April 2022

Metalloendopeptidase ADAM-like Decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1) in Colonic Subepithelial PDGFRα Cells Is a New Marker for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 30;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Metalloendopeptidase ADAM-Like Decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1) is an anti-inflammatory peptidase that is almost exclusively expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We have recently found abundant and selective expression of Adamdec1 in colonic mucosal PDGFRα cells. However, the cellular origin for this gene expression is controversial as it is also known to be expressed in intestinal macrophages. We found that Adamdec1 mRNAs were selectively expressed in colonic mucosal subepithelial PDGFRα cells. ADAMDEC1 protein was mainly released from PDGFRα cells and accumulated in the mucosal layer lamina propria space near the epithelial basement membrane. PDGFRα cells significantly overexpressed Adamdec1 mRNAs and protein in DSS-induced colitis mice. Adamdec1 was predominantly expressed in CD45 PDGFRα cells in DSS-induced colitis mice, with only minimal expression in CD45 CD64 macrophages. Additionally, overexpression of both ADAMDEC1 mRNA and protein was consistently observed in PDGFRα cells, but not in CD64 macrophages found in human colonic mucosal tissue affected by Crohn's disease. In summary, PDGFRα cells selectively express ADAMDEC1, which is localized to the colon mucosa layer. ADAMDEC1 expression significantly increases in DSS-induced colitis affected mice and Crohn's disease affected human tissue, suggesting that this gene can serve as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for intestinal inflammation and Crohn's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9103908PMC
April 2022

Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease: A population based observational study.

Hepatol Commun 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology on NAFLD Diagnosis, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a series of liver diseases based on liver steatosis and metabolic disorders. Steatosis, as the core factor in MAFLD diagnosis, and fibrosis, as the major determinant of adverse outcomes of MAFLD, need to be assessed simply and accurately. In this study, we explored the significance of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in evaluating liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with MAFLD. We included 2397 cases with MAFLD from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) database. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by vibration controlled transient elastography. Anthropometric parameters and demographic and serological data were obtained from the NHANES database. The association between MUAC and liver steatosis and fibrosis were evaluated by a multivariable linear regression model, a weighted generalized additive model, and smooth curve fitting using R. MUAC was positively associated with liver steatosis in every multivariate linear regression model (model 1: β = 3.3513; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7722-3.9304; model 2: β = 3.8492; 95% CI, 3.2441-4.4542; model 3: β = 2.4987; 95% CI, 1.8371-3.1604), and this positive association was consistent in both men and women and among different race groups (Mexican American, other Hispanic, non-Hispanic White, Black, Asian, and other race). On the other hand, MUAC was positively associated with liver fibrosis in every multivariate linear regression model, and this positive association also was consistent in both men and women and among non-Hispanic White and Black populations. Increased MUAC was positively associated with liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with MAFLD. This was particularly true for MUAC ≥ 42.0 cm. MUAC might be a simple and convenient evaluation tool for MAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1990DOI Listing
May 2022

Transcriptome profiling of subepithelial PDGFRα cells in colonic mucosa reveals several cell-selective markers.

PLoS One 2022 13;17(5):e0261743. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, United States of America.

Subepithelial platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells found in the colonic mucosal tissue come in close contact with epithelial cells, immune cells, neurons, capillaries, and lymphatic networks. Mucosal subepithelial PDGFRα+ cells (MuPαC) are important regulators in various intestinal diseases including fibrosis and inflammation. However, the transcriptome of MuPαC has not yet been elucidated. Using Pdgfra-eGFP mice and flow cytometry, we isolated colonic MuPαC and obtained their transcriptome data. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified three novel, and selectively expressed, markers (Adamdec1, Fin1, and Col6a4) found in MuPαC. In addition, we identified a unique set of MuPαC-enriched genetic signatures including groups of growth factors, transcription factors, gap junction proteins, extracellular proteins, receptors, cytokines, protein kinases, phosphatases, and peptidases. These selective groups of genetic signatures are linked to the unique cellular identity and function of MuPαC. Furthermore, we have added this MuPαC transcriptome data to our Smooth Muscle Genome Browser that contains the transcriptome data of jejunal and colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle resident PDGFRα+ cells: (https://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome). This online resource provides a comprehensive reference of all currently known genetic transcripts expressed in primary MuPαC in the colon along with smooth muscle resident PDGFRα cells, SMC, and ICC in the murine colon and jejunum.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0261743PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106222PMC
May 2022

Metagenomic Profiling of the Ocular Surface Microbiome in Patients after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Ocular surface microbial dysbiosis and oGVHD.

Am J Ophthalmol 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangzhou 510060, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of the ocular surface microbiome in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the associations between the microbial dysbiosis and chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD).

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: Ocular surface samples from 48 healthy subjects and 76 patients after allo-HSCT, including 50 patients with chronic oGVHD and 26 patients without oGVHD were collected. Species-level composition of the ocular surface microbiome was surveyed via metagenomic shotgun sequencing. OGVHD was diagnosed and graded according to the International Chronic Ocular GVHD (ICO) Consensus Group criteria.

Results: The α-diversity of the microbiota was significantly decreased in patients after allo-HSCT. Nevertheless, we detected more types of viral species in the allo-HSCT group than the healthy group, especially anelloviruses. The mismatch of donor-recipient sex was only negatively associated with the α-diversity in male but not female recipients. Moreover, the microbiome of oGVHD patients was distinct from non-oGVHD patients. Gordonia bronchialis and Pseudomonas parafulva were enriched in oGVHD patients and positively associated with ICO score.

Conclusions: This study suggests that the ocular surface microbiome after allo-HSCT is characterized by a loss of diversity. Furthermore, the microbial dysbiosis at the ocular surface is associated with the status and severity of chronic oGVHD. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations of the potential microbial mechanism for oGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2022.04.026DOI Listing
May 2022

Bacteroides ovatus-mediated CD27 MAIT cell activation is associated with obesity-related T2D progression.

Cell Mol Immunol 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Clinical Immunology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly associated with obesity. However, the factors that drive the transition from excessive weight gain to glucose metabolism disruption are still uncertain and seem to revolve around systemic immune disorder. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which are innate-like T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, have been reported to be altered in obese people and to lead to metabolic dysfunction during obesity. By studying the immunophenotypes of blood MAIT cells from a cross-sectional cohort of obese participants with/without T2D, we found an elevation in CD27-negative (CD27) MAIT cells producing a high level of IL-17 under T2D obese conditions, which could be positively correlated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese people. We further explored microbial translocation caused by gut barrier dysfunction in obese people as a triggering factor of MAIT cell abnormalities. Specifically, accumulation of the bacterial strain Bacteroides ovatus in the peripheral blood drove IL-17-producing CD27 MAIT cell expansion and could be associated with T2D risk in obese individuals. Overall, these results suggest that an aberrant gut microbiota-immune axis in obese people may drive or exacerbate T2D. Importantly, CD27 MAIT cell subsets and Bacteroides ovatus could represent targets for novel interventional strategies. Our findings extend current knowledge regarding the clinical relevance of body mass index (BMI)-associated variation in circulating MAIT cells to reveal the role of these cells in obesity-related T2D progression and the underlying cellular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-022-00871-4DOI Listing
May 2022

Prevention of dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium and early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 Feb;47(2):219-225

Center of Anesthesiology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410005.

Objectives: Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are common operative neurocognitive disorders, which places a heavy burden on patients, families and society. Therefore, it is very important to search for preventive drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a decrease the incidence of POD and POCD. But the specific effect of dexmedetomidine on elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and its potential mechanism are not clear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on preventing POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and the influence on the balance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.

Methods: This trial was designed as a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. One hundred and twenty hospitalized patients from January 2019 to December 2020, aged 60-80 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III and scheduled for hepatic lobectomy, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (=40) using a random number table: A C group, a Dex1 group, and a Dex2 group. After anesthesia induction, saline in the C group, dexmedetomidine [0.3 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex1 group, and dexmedetomidine [0.6 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex2 group were infused until the end of operation. The incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were compared among the 3 groups. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for assessing POD and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating POCD were recorded and venous blood samples were obtained for the determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 at the different time below: the time before anesthesia (T0), and the first day (T1), the third day (T2), the fifth day (T3), and the seventh day (T4) after operation.

Results: Compared with the C group, the incidences of bradycardia in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group increased (both <0.05) and there was no difference in hypotension in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group (both >0.05). The incidences of POD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 22.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. The incidences of POD in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both <0.05). However, there is no difference in the incidence of POD between the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (>0.05). The incidences of POCD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 30.0%, 12.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. The incidences of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both <0.05). And no obvious difference was seen in the incidence of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (>0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased and the level of IL-10 increased at each time points (from T1 to T4) in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all <0.05). Compared with the Dex1 group, the level of IL-1β at T2 and IL-10 from T1 to T3 elevated in the Dex2 group (all <0.05). Compared with the T0, the concentrations of NSE in C group at each time points (from T1 to T4) and in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group from T1 to T3 increased (all <0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of NSE decreased from T1 to T4 in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all <0.05).

Conclusions: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion can reduce the incidence of POCD and POD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy, and the protective mechanism appears to involve the down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulation of IL-10 expression, which lead to rebalance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2022.210280DOI Listing
February 2022

Constructing high-accuracy theoretical Raman spectra of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins based on a large fragment method.

Chem Phys Lett 2022 Aug 30;800:139663. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, 621900 Mianyang, China.

In order to control COVID-19, rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an urgent task. The target spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have been detected experimentally via Raman spectroscopy. However, there lacks high-accuracy theoretical Raman spectra of the spike proteins to as a standard reference for the clinic diagnostic purpose. In this paper, we propose a large fragment method to construct the high-precision Raman spectra for the spike proteins. The large fragment method not only reduces the calculation error but also improves the accuracy of the protein Raman spectra by completely calculating the interactions within the large fragment. The Pearson correlation coefficient of theoretical Raman spectra is greater than 0.929 or more. Compared with the experimental spectra, the characteristic patterns are easily visible. This work provides a detection standard for the spike proteins which shall bring a step closer to the fast recognition of SARS-CoV-2 Raman spectroscopy method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2022.139663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9055380PMC
August 2022

Programming Receptor Clustering with DNA Probabilistic Circuits for Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Recognition.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 May 6:e202203800. Epub 2022 May 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200241, P. R. China.

Developing strategies to enhance the recognition ability of immune cells is important to the success of cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we report programming receptor clustering on membrane with DNA probabilistic circuits for enhanced immune cell recognition. By designing the circuit output to activate receptors for binding to adjacent receptors, we can engineer DNA probabilistic circuits for programmable regulation of receptor clustering. The generated receptor clusters show higher binding affinity to target cancer cells and improved membrane-anchoring stability compared with monomers. We demonstrate that programming receptor clustering could allow to modulate the recognition capability of natural killer cells and control natural killer cell-cancer cell interactions to promote efficient cancer cell killing. This work provides insights for precise control over cellular recognition and opens new opportunities for the development of cell-based immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202203800DOI Listing
May 2022

Reconciling the debate on deamination on viral RNA.

Authors:
Lai Wei

J Appl Genet 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-022-00698-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065659PMC
May 2022
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