Publications by authors named "Lahong Ju"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59 in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):395-400

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To study the eating out behavior and its impact on obesity among Chinese residents aged 18-59.

Methods: Multistage stratified random sampling method was used to collect data in 302 monitoring sites of the China National Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Nutrition Surveillance of adults in 31 provinces of China from 2015. A total of 53 887 subjects were included in this study by data cleaning. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010 were used as a standard population of the data result for 2015. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The number and percentage of cases were used to describe the eating behaviors of different characteristics of the population, Statistical analysis was conducted by using SURVEYFREQ process, and Chi-square test was used to comparative analysis. Multi-factor analysis was conducted to the relationship between eating out frequency and different characteristics and obesity by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression.

Results: In 2015, proportions of eating out for all the three meals was 36. 1% of Chinese residents aged 18-59 in the past week, that of were 41. 3% and 24. 3% of Chinese residents aged 18-44 and 45-59, respectively. Proportions of Chinese residents was 12. 2% for eating out 1-6 times a week, 15. 8% for eating out 7-13 times a week, and 8. 1% for eating out 14-21 times a week. Results from the multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 18-44 years old, male, urban, highly educated, family per capita annual income ≥ 20 000 yuan, unmarried, on the job and school students chose to eat out more commonly. No statistical association was noticed between the frequency of eating out and obesity in women, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity than those who not ate out, with OR=1. 8(95%CI 1. 3-2. 5).

Conclusion: Proportions of eating out increased for Chinese residents aged 18-59, men who ate out 14-21 times a week showed higher risk of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.008DOI Listing
May 2021

[Energy and macronutrient intakes of farmers at different levels of physical activity in China from 2010 to 2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):409-414

National Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the intake and structure of energy and macronutrients of farmers under three kinds of job types: working, farming and housework in China, and analyzes the intake status under different work intensity.

Methods: Based on the data of China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012, this paper analyzed the dietary intake of farmers over 18 years old at three job types and different work intensities.

Results: The energy intake of farmers in China was 2149. 5 kcal/d, and that of men and women were 2345. 2 kcal/d and 1985. 4 kcal/d, respectively. Farming farmers took in the highest energy and the domestic farmers took in the lowest energy. The average protein intake of farmers was 60. 8 g, 66. 0 g for men and 56. 4 g for women. The protein intake of working, farming and housework farmers, showed a downward trend. The fat intake of farmers was 66. 6 g, including 71. 9 g for men and 62. 1 g for women. With the three main forms of working, farming and housework, the fat intake showed a downward trend. The carbohydrate intake of farmers was 327. 5 g, including 354. 6 g for men and 304. 7 g for women, with farming farmers taking in the highest carbohydrate. Among the working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the intake of carbohydrate increased in turn, but protein and fat had no obvious characteristics; among the farming workers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, carbohydrate, protein and fat showed an increasing trend. There were also differences in the dietary structure characteristics among the three job types of working, farming and housework. The proportion of energy from protein and fat was higher in working farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was close to 35%, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate was the highest in farming farmers, the proportion of high-quality protein was only 27%, the proportion of high-quality protein in household farmers was 30%, and the ratio of fat to energy in both farming and household farmers was less than 30%. Among working farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of energy from carbohydrate increased, while the proportion of protein from animal food decreased; among farming farmers, under the light, medium and heavy work intensity, the proportion of protein from animal food increased slightly.

Conclusion: There are some differences in the energy and macronutrients intake among the working farmers, farming farmers and household farmers in China. The farming farmers have the most energy intake, and with the increase of work intensity, the proportion of carbohydrate intake increases, and the protein intake is insufficient, especially the heavy work intensity. The nutrition needs of the population should get more attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.010DOI Listing
May 2021

[Status of fresh vegetables and fruit consumption among Chinese aged 60 years old and above in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):401-408

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analysis the fresh vegetables and fresh fruit consumption among the elders aged 60 and above of China in 2015.

Methods: The consumption of fresh vegetables and fresh fruits in the past 12 months was calculated by using the food frequency questionnaire data of 58 335 elderly people aged 60 and above from "China National Chronic Diseases and Nutrition Surveillance of Adults(2015)", and the intake status was evaluated according to the recommended intake of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016).

Results: The consumption rate of fresh vegetables among the elderly in China was 98. 7%, the median intake of the whole population was 270. 0 g, the median intake of the consumer population was 300. 0 g, and the proportion of under-intake was 49. 6%. The fresh fruit consumption rate was 84. 2%, the median intake of the whole population was 30. 0 g, and the median intake of the consumer population was 50. 0 g. The proportion of insufficient intake of fresh fruits reached 85. 2%. The frequency of intake of fresh vegetables was mainly 2 times/day, accounting for 45. 9%; fresh vegetables intake 1-3 times/week and ≥2 times/day were 38. 7% and 35. 6%, respectively. The consumption rate and intake of fresh vegetables and fruits were both higher in urban areas than in rural areas, and decrease significantly with increasing age, lower educational background and lower income. In addition, the consumption rate and intake were lower in elderly living alone.

Conclusion: China& apos; s elderly people aged 60 and above have insufficient intake of vegetables and fruits. Health education and dietary guidance should be carried out, and intervention measures should be taken for key populations to effectively promote a reasonable diet for the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.009DOI Listing
May 2021

[Intakes of energy and macronutrients in 6-11 years old age group in 2016-2017 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):389-394

National Institute for Nutrition and Health of China CDC, Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in 6-11 years old age group in 2016-2017 in China.

Methods: Multi-stage cluster randomization sampling method was used to collect the data from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance of Children and Lactating Mothers in 2016-2017 in 257 surveillance sites of 31 provinces. 24-h dietary recalls for three consecutive days were used to obtain the dietary information. The intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate were calculated by the China Food Composition, and the intakes of protein were assessing by Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes(DRIs).

Results: A total of 8777 children in 6-11(9. 2±1. 6) years old group were recruited in this surveillance, the number of boys and girls were 4364 and 4413, respectively. The general intakes of energy were 1591. 7 kcal and that of boys and girls were 1624. 1 kcal and 1559. 7 kcal, respectively. The energy intakes in urban children were higher than rural children. The energy intakes in the east region were the highest and the middle region were the lowest. The general protein intakes were 50. 0 g, and that of boys and girls were 50. 9 g and 49. 1 g, respectively. The intakes of protein in urban children were higher than in rural. The intakes of protein in east region were higher than that in the middle and west regions. The ratios that above RNI of protein intakes were 52. 4%, and the ratios of urban and rural were 63. 0% and 42. 9%, respectively. The general fat intakes were 69. 6 g and that of boys and girls were 71.4 g and 67.8 g, respectively. The fat intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, but in the rural of the west the fat intakes were higher than in the urban of the east. The general intakes of carbohydrate were 196. 3 g, and that of boys and girls were 199. 5 g and 193. 2 g, respectively. The carbohydrate intakes in urban children were higher than in rural, and in the west region the intakes of carbohydrate were higher than in the east region. But in the rural populations, the carbohydrate intakes in the west region were higher than that in the east region.

Conclusion: Comparing with 2010-2013, obvious changes of energy and macronutrients intakes in China 6-11 y children were observed in 2016-2017 surveillance. Inadequate intakes of protein were still the problem in rural children populations. The increase of fat intake was larger and more significant in the western region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.007DOI Listing
May 2021

The Status of Dietary Energy and Nutrients Intakes among Chinese Elderly Aged 80 and Above: Data from the CACDNS 2015.

Nutrients 2021 May 12;13(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

This study analyzed the status of dietary energy and nutrients intakes among the oldest-old in China. Data was obtained from the China Adult Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance in 2015 (CACDNS 2015). We enrolled 1929 Chinese elderly people aged 80 and above who participated in both 3-day 24-h dietary recalls and household condiments weighing. The dietary intakes were calculated based on Chinese Food Composition Tables and assessed using Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The dietary intakes of energy and most nutrients were all below the EAR or AI, except for fat, vitamin E, niacin, iron and sodium. As a result, daily dietary intakes of energy and most nutrients were inadequate in the oldest-old in China, especially vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin B, folate and calcium, with the prevalence of deficiency more than 90%. Furthermore, the prevalence of inadequacy of vitamin C, zinc, selenium and magnesium was also high with the proportion below the EAR more than 60%. Approximately 30% of the subjects with dietary vitamin E intake did not reach AI, and more than 90% of subjects have reached AI in the intake of sodium, while more than 90% did not reach AI in potassium. The mean intakes of niacin and iron have reached EAR, but around 15% were still faced with the risk of deficiency. In addition, although the dietary energy intake was below EER, the energy contribution from fat in total population and all subgroups (region, age, gender, education level, material status, household income level groups) all exceeded the recommended proportion of 30% from the DRIs and close to or over 35%, is a significant concern. For the majority of nutrients, higher daily dietary intakes and lower prevalence of deficiencies were found in the oldest-old living in urban areas, aged 80-84 years, with high school and above education level, living with spouse and from high household income family. These findings indicates that the dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were inadequate, while the energy contribution from fat and dietary sodium intake were too high among the oldest-old in China. Most oldest-old were at high risk of nutritional deficiency, particularly for those who living in rural areas, with lower education level and from low household income.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150709PMC
May 2021

[Status of undernutrition of left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):230-236

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze and describe the status and characteristics of undernutrition among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance among 0-5 Years Old Children and Lactating Women in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used, and 4576 participants under 6 years old from 55 sites of 30 provinces, autonomous region and municipalities were involved. Definition of undernutrition were according to the WHO 2006 growth standard in children less than 5 years old and the WHO 2007 growth reference in children of 5 years old. Results were computed by post stratification weight based on national census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010.

Results: The prevalence of stunting was 10. 6% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 11. 6% in boys and 9. 4% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 7. 1% and 16. 6%. The prevalence of stunting showed a significant difference in sex(P=0. 022), general rural and poor rural(P=0. 006), three regions(P=0. 003), parental type of outing(P=0. 005), mother's education(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P<0. 001). The prevalence of underweight was 3. 2% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 3. 4% in boys and 2. 9% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 1. 6% and 2. 0%. The prevalence of stunting showed a significant difference in general rural and poor rural(P<0. 001), three regions(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P=0. 0144), mother's education(P<0. 001). The prevalence of wasting was 2. 3% among left-behind children under 6 years old in rural China in 2013. It was 2. 3% in boys and 2. 2% in girls. The rate of general rural area and poor rural area were 1. 5%, 3. 5%. The prevalence of stunting of general rural showed a significant difference in parental type of outing(P=0. 033), the prevalence of stunting of poor rural showed a significant difference in mother's education(P<0. 001), annual per capita household income(P=0. 020).

Conclusion: The undernutrition rate among left-behind children under the age of 6 in rural China should be paid attention, especially in the higher subgroups of poor rural areas, western regions, low-income families, mothers away from home and mothers with less than junior middle school education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.02.011DOI Listing
March 2021

[Intakes of dietary energy and macronutrients among the elderly aged 65 and above in China in 2015].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jan;50(1):37-45

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the intakes of dietary energy and macronutrients among the elderly aged 65 and above in China in 2015.

Methods: Data was from the China National Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Nutrition Surveillance of adults in 2015. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used. The valid dietary data of 18 161 the elderly aged 65 and above were extracted from 302 surveillance sites in 31 provinces. Consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary recall method and household cooking oils and condiments weighting method were applied to collect dietary intakes data. The intakes of daily energy and macronutrients were calculated using China Food Composition Tables 2004 and 2009, and the dietary quality were evaluated according to 2013 Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes.

Results: The study showed that the average intake of daily energy was 1595. 5 kcal, the average intake of carbohydrates, proteins and fats were 208. 7 g, 47. 9 g and 63. 6 g, respectively. The proportion of energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats were 52. 7%, 12. 1% and 35. 4%, respectively. The carbohydrates intake and proportion of energy from carbohydrates among urban elderly were 202. 3 g and 51. 4%, all lower than that in rural(213. 6 g and 53. 7%, P<0. 05). While the proteins intake and proportion of energy from proteins among urban elderly were 50. 8 g and 12. 9%, all higher than rural elderly(45. 6 g and 11. 5%, P<0. 001). The fats intake and proportion of energy from fats among urban elderly were 64. 1 g and 35. 9%, rural elderly were 63. 3 g and 35. 0%, there were no significant differences in fats intake and proportion of energy from fats between urban elderly and rural elderly(P>0. 05). The dietary intake of energy and macronutrients among the oldest old were lowest, especially those in rural areas, were 1394. 4 kcal, 182. 4 g, 40. 1 g and 56. 4 g. In 2015, the rate of energy lower than EER among the elderly was 75. 8%, and the rate of percentage of energy from carbohydrates lower than DRIs was 41. 5%. The rate of proteins lower than recommended nutrient intake was 76. 6%. The rate of percentage of energy from fats higher than dietary reference intakes was 64. 5%.

Conclusion: In China, the unreasonable dietary intake among the elderly aged 65 and above is severe, and the oldest old especially those in rural areas have the most serious deficiency in proteins intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.01.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of a Province-Wide Intervention With Salt Intake and Hypertension in Shandong Province, China, 2011-2016.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 06;180(6):877-886

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Importance: High salt intake is associated with hypertension, which is a leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Objective: To assess the association of a government-led, multisectoral, and population-based intervention with reduced salt intake and blood pressure in Shandong Province, China.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) program, a 5-year intervention to reduce sodium consumption in Shandong Province, China. Two representative samples of adults (aged 18-69 years) were surveyed in 2011 (15 350 preintervention participants) and 2016 (16 490 postintervention participants) to examine changes in blood pressure, and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to sodium intake. Urine samples were collected from random subsamples (2024 preintervention participants and 1675 postintervention participants) for measuring sodium and potassium excretion. Data were analyzed from January 20, 2017, to April 9, 2019.

Interventions: Media campaigns, distribution of scaled salt spoons, promotion of low-sodium products in markets and restaurants, and activities to support household sodium reduction and school-based sodium reduction education.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was change in urinary sodium excretion. Secondary outcomes were changes in potassium excretion, blood pressure, and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Outcomes were adjusted for likely confounders. Means (95% CIs) and percentages were weighted.

Results: Among 15 350 participants in 2011, 7683 (50.4%) were men and the mean age was 40.7 years (95% CI, 40.2-41.2 years); among 16 490 participants in 2016, 8077 (50.7%) were men and the mean age was 42.8 years (95% CI, 42.5-43.1 years). Among participants with 24-hour urine samples, 1060 (51.8%) were men and the mean age was 40.9 years (95% CI, 40.5-41.3 years) in 2011 and 836 (50.7%) were men and the mean age was 40.7 years (95% CI, 40.1-41.4 years) in 2016. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion decreased 25% from 5338 mg per day (95% CI, 5065-5612 mg per day) in 2011 to 4013 mg per day (95% CI, 3837-4190 mg per day) in 2016 (P < .001), and potassium excretion increased 15% from 1607 mg per day (95% CI, 1511-1704 mg per day) to 1850 mg per day (95% CI, 1771-1929 mg per day) (P < .001). Adjusted mean systolic blood pressure among all participants decreased from 131.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 129.8-133.8 mm Hg) to 130.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 127.7-132.4 mm Hg) (P = .04), and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.9 mm Hg (95% CI, 82.6-85.1 mm Hg) to 80.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 79.4-82.1 mm Hg) (P < .001). Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with dietary sodium reduction and hypertension improved significantly.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings suggest that a government-led and population-based intervention in Shandong, China, was associated with significant decreases in dietary sodium intake and a modest reduction in blood pressure. The results of SMASH may have implications for sodium reduction and blood pressure control in other regions of China and worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186913PMC
June 2020

[Provincial prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children in China in 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 Mar;49(2):190-194

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To study the provincial prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children in China in 2013.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance among 0-5 years Children and Lactating Women in 2013. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used among 0-5 years children from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities and selected 55 districts/counties. The weight and height measurement was conducted using a standard method. The questionnaire was used to collect the information of children. The WHO 2006 growth standard and WHO 2007 growth reference were used to define the overweight and obesity in children. The data was calculated using the post-stratified weight based on provincial census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2010.

Results: The sample participants were 32 861 in 2013. The provincial prevalence of overweight was in 3. 3%-16. 1% and in 0. 6%-9. 7% for obesity. Among the provinces with urban survey sites, the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was Shandong(14. 3% and 5. 2%), the lowest was Hainan(3. 3% and 0. 6%). Among the provinces with rural survey sites, the highest rate of overweight was Shanxi(16. 1%)and the lowest was Qinghai(3. 3%), while the highest rate of obesity was Shanxi(9. 7%)and the lowest was Qinghai(0. 7%). Among the provinces with both urban and rural survey sites, the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was in Hebei(14. 3% and 6. 6%), the lowest was in Guizhou(3. 5% and 0. 9%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among 0-5 years old children was higher in central and middle region in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2020.02.004DOI Listing
March 2020

[Status of hypertension awareness, treatment and control among adults in China in 2010-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):913-918

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the hypertension awareness, treatment and control among adults in China in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities and selected 150 districts/counties. The sample was adults aged 18 and over selected through the method of Probability Proportion to Size(PPS). The mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure. Each person had three measurements. The questionnaire was used to collect the information of hypertension awareness and control.

Results: The sample participants were 120 428 in 2010-2012. Among adults with hypertension, 46. 5%were aware of their hypertension, 41. 1% reported taking hypertension medicine in the last two weeks, and 13. 8% controlled the blood pressure. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control in women(49. 5%, 44. 2% and 14. 6%) than those of men(43. 0%, 37. 4% and 12. 9%). The three rates were increased with age. The prevalence of control was 33. 6% among the treated hypertensive individuals. It was higher for men and the rate was decreased with age. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates in urban area(52. 7%, 47. 9%, 17. 9% and 37. 3%) than those in rural area(39. 5%, 33. 4%, 9. 2% and 27. 6%). The rates of overall, gender, and age groups were decreased in large city, medium and small city, general county, and poor county.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates among Chinese adults was increased in 2010-2012. But the rates were still keep a low level. The region and age differences need pay attention.
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November 2019

[Cognition and control of weight among 15-49 years old women of childbearing age in China during 2010-2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):888-944

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the weight recognition and control among women aged 15-49 in China.

Methods: Data was from the China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used. The data of 35 664(16 914 urban women and 18 750 rural women) 15-49 years old women of childbearing age was used. The basic information was collected by questionnaires. Physical measurement indexes such as height and weight were collected.

Results: Among overweight and obese women of childbearing age, only 34. 9%(95%CI 34. 2%-35. 6%) of them correctly judged themselves overweight or obese, and 61. 4%(95% CI 60. 6%-62. 1%) of them thought they were normal weight; 10. 8%(95%CI10. 3%-11. 2%) of the normal-weight women thought they were overweight; while 3. 0%(95% CI 2. 6%-3. 4%) of the low-weight women thought they were overweight. Only17. 1%(95% CI 16. 4%-17. 8%) of overweight and obese women of childbearing age take weight control measures. In addition, 3. 6%(95% CI 3. 1%-4. 1%) of low-weight women of childbearing age and 9. 7%(95% CI 9. 3%-10. 1%) of normal-weight women took weight control measures, respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was higher than that of women aged 25-34 and 35-49, 14. 8%(95% CI 13. 3%-16. 4%), 12. 2%(95% CI 11. 1%-13. 2%) and 10. 0%(95% CI9. 3%-10. 1%), respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was the highest among normal weight women and overweight and obese women, 13. 9%(95% CI 13. 1%-14. 7%) and 26. 9%(95% CI 26. 4%-27. 4%), respectively.

Conclusion: At present, there were more women of childbearing age in China who could not correctly assess their own body weight, leading to the inability to take correct weight control measures.
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November 2019

[Prevalence and variation of hypotension in Chinese adult residents in 2002-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Nov;48(6):869-875

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and variation of hypotension in Chinese adults residents in 2002 and 2010-2012.

Methods: Data of the blood pressure measurements from 2002 and 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS), a multistage stratified cluster random sampling survey was conducted in 2002, and the sample size was 147 488, 64 869 males, 82 619 females, 50 123 urban residents, 97 365 rural residents, 71 078 northern residents and 76 410 southern residents. A multi-stage stratified and population-proportional cluster random sampling method was used in 2010-2012, and the sample size of was 120 427, 52 499 males, 67 928 females, 60 214 urban residents, 60 213 rural residents, 53 863 northern residents and 66 564 southern residents. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009 was used as a standard population of the data result for 2002 and 2010-2012. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The prevalence of hypotension and 95%CI in different populations were calculated. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates, multi-factor analysis was conducted by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression.

Results: In 2002, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 3. 0%, 1. 9% in males, 4. 1% in females, 2. 7% in urban residents, 3. 3% in rural residents, 2. 8% in northern residents and 3. 2% in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(4. 3%). Among people with different body mass index(BMI), the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 0%). From 2010 to 2012, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 2. 1%, 1. 1% in males, 3. 2% in females, 1. 9% in urban residents, 2. 2% in rural residents, 1. 8% in northern residents and 2. 3%in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(3. 1%). Among people with different BMI, the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 4%). The total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents in China from 2010 to 2012 was lower than that in 2002, and the difference was statistically significant(χ~2= 624. 3, P <0. 0001). In 2002 and 2010-2012, the prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China decreased with the increase of age, and the prevalence of hypotension in men and women also decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. The differences were statistically significant. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis also showed that lower age group, women and people with low weight were more prone to develop hypotension.

Conclusion: In 2002 and 2010-2012, the total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China, and that of hypotension in both men and women decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. 18-44 age group, women and low weight group are more likely to have low blood pressure. Compared with 2002, the total prevalence of hypotension in Chinese adult residents showed a decreasing trend from 2010 to 2012.
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November 2019

[Association between drinking and metabolic syndrome among adults in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019 Jul;48(4):531-536

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome(MS) among Chinese men and women aged 18 years and older.

Methods: The 2010᾿012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS) used multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method to select study participants. Basic information, health-related behaviors and diseases history were collected by questionnaire. Drink information was collected by food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated NCEP ATP III criteria. A total of 102 591 participants aged 18 years and older were included in the analysis. Logistic regression model was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and MS. Restricted cubic spline(RCS) was performed to explore the dose response relation of alcohol intake and MS.

Results: The drink rate was 33. 66% in Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Compared with non-drinkers, men who consumed⇿0 g/time had a lower MS prevalence(OR=0. 77, 95%CI 0. 66-0. 90). There was a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not among women. In men, there was no association between drinking type and MS. The OR of MS were 0. 91(95%CI 0. 81-1. 03), 0. 90(95%CI 0. 75-1. 08), 0. 85(95%CI 0. 54-1. 36), and 0. 96(95%CI 0. 84-1. 10) among men who consumed liquor, beer, wine, and mixed liquor. Compared with non-drinkers, women who drink liquor or mixed liquor had a decrease MS prevalence. The OR were 0. 74(95%CI 0. 56-0. 98) and 0. 78(95%CI 0. 66-0. 91). The association between drinking frequency and MS had no statistical significance and the P-trend was 0. 11 in men and 0. 31 in women.

Conclusion: There is a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not in women. Men consumed >20 g/time have an increased MS prevalence.
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July 2019

Female Condom Use and Its Acceptability Among HIV-serodiscordant Couples in China.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):428-439

Lahong Ju, MD, is an Associate Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention and National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Cynthia X. Shi, MSc, is a Doctoral Student, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Fan Lv, PhD, is a Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Houlin Tang, PhD, is an Associate Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Gang Zeng, PhD, is an Associate Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Peng Xu, PhD, is a Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Wanying Chen, MD, is an Assistant Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Huijing He, MD, is an Assistant Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Liping Ma, MD, is an Assistant Professor, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Linglin Zhang, MD, is a Professor, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Sichuan, China. Xi Chen, MD, is a Professor, Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan, China.

Intimate partners of people living with HIV are at risk of HIV infection. We assessed the acceptability of female condom use among 89 married, heterosexual, HIV-serodiscordant couples from Sichuan and Hunan provinces in China for this prospective observational cohort study. Participants used female condoms for 3 months, reporting use and attitudes in written logs and questionnaires. At the end of the study, 58.4% of couples expressed willingness to continue using female condoms. Factors associated with willingness to use female condoms were (a) the female partner reporting having experienced forced sex by the male partner, (b) applying a lubricant to the penis, (c) understanding the correct application method, (d) being married more than 20 years, and (e) experiencing no difficulty during the first use. Most HIV-serodiscordant couples found female condoms to be acceptable. Increasing access to female condoms could be an acceptable alternative barrier method to male condoms for preventing HIV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620342PMC
April 2020

[Prevalence of diabetes and change among 7 to 17 years old children and adolescents in China in 2002-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):705-715

National Institute for Nutrition and Food Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of diabetes from 7 to 17 years old children and adolescents in China, and analyze the change during 2002-2012.

Methods: Data was from China Nutrition and Health Survey( 2002) and China Nutrition and Health Surveillance( 2012). In 2002, 243 479 subjects were selected from 132 countries of mainland China by the multilevel stratified equal volume cluster random sampling method. In 2012, 183 137 subjects were selected from 205 countries of mainland China by the multilevel stratified equal proportional cluster random sampling. While 32161 and25376 plasma glucose test results were got in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Fasting plasma glucose and 2 h-OGTT levels were be used to diagnose diabetesbased on the guideline ofprevention and treatment for type 2 diabetes in China( 2010).

Results: In 2002, the average fasting blood-glucose of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 was( 4. 62± 0. 56 mmol/L), and in 2012, it was( 4. 91 ± 0. 67 mmol/L). In 2002, the prevalence of diabetes was 0. 24% among children and adolescents aged 7 to 17, the rate of impaired fasting blood-glucose was 0. 33%. In urban areas, the prevalence of diabetes was 0. 43%and the rate of impaired fasting blood-glucose was 0. 40%, and it was 0. 18% and 0. 29%in the rural areas. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 0. 52% among children and adolescents aged 7 to 17, the rate of impaired fasting blood-glucose was 1. 95%, the prevalence of diabetes was 0. 38% and the impaired fasting blood-glucose rate was 1. 59%in urban areas, and it was 0. 60% and 2. 11% in the rural areas.

Conclusion: From2002 to 2012, the mean of FPG, the prevalence of diabetes and the rate of impaired fasting blood-glucose were rising among Chinese children and adolescents aged 7 to 17. The growth prevalence of diabetes in China was obvious, but the differences between the urban and rural areas, between low age group and high age group were not obvious.
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September 2018

[Complementary feeding time among 0-5 years old children in 2013 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):695-699

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe complementary feeding time among 0-5 years old children in 2013 in China.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces( autonomous regions and municipalities) and selected 55 districts/counties. The study included 24 580 children aged 0-5 years. The basic situation and complementary feeding of children aged 0-5 years were collected by questionnaires.

Results: The average time for children aged 0-5 years in China to start complementary foods was 6. 1 months. The urban( 5. 7 months) was earlier than the rural( 6. 4 months), large cities, medium and small cities, general rural and poor rural areas were 5. 5, 5. 8, 6. 9 and 5. 5 months, respectively. The proportions of early complementary feeding( < 4 months) and late complementary feeding( > 9 months) were 10. 2 %( n = 2496) and 9. 5%( n = 2336), which were 7. 3% and 5. 5% respectively in urban area and 13. 1% and 13. 7%respectively in rural area. The proportions of early complementary feeding was the highest( 19. 6%) in poor rural areas, the proportions of late complementary feeding was the highest( 15%) in the general rural areas. The rate of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods was 82. 3%, the urban( 89. 4%) was higher than the rural( 73. 6%), and it was the lowest( 63. 4%) in the poor rural areas.

Conclusion: There were both early complementary feeding and late complementary feeding among 0-5 years children in China in 2013, and the regional difference were significant. It is more likely to add complementary foods too early or too late in rural areasthan in urban areas, especially in poor rural areas.
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September 2018

[Trends and food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents, 1992-2012].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;47(5):689-704

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the trends and food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents from 1992 to 2012.

Methods: Based on the dietary data of the China Nutrition and Health Surveys in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012, to compare the food sources composition of energy, protein and fat in Chinese residents. A stratified multistage cluster random sampling was used in 1992, and the sample size was100 201. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling survey was conducted in 2002, and the sample size was 68 962. A multi-stage stratified and population-proportional cluster random sampling method was used in 2010-2012, and the sample size of was63 993. Three consecutive 24-hour recalls method and face-to-face interviews were used in three dietary surveys, and household edible oil and condiment weighing were adopted in three surveys. The dietary energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intake, and the proportion of dietary pattern among the participants were analyzed based on the China Food Composition table.

Results: The average daily dietary energy intake in Chinese residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 was 2328. 3, 2250. 5 and 2172. 1 kcal, respectively. The carbohydrate intake was 378. 4, 321. 2 and 300. 8 g respectively, and the protein intake was 68. 0, 65. 9 and 64. 5 g, respectively. The fat intake was 58. 3, 76. 2 and 79. 9 g, respectively. The dietary energy in Chinese residents mainly came from cereals, and the proportion of cereals energy supply was 66. 8%, 57. 9% and 53. 1%, respectively. Dietary energy was mainly derived from carbohydrates, and the proportion of carbohydrate energy supply was 66. 2%, 58. 6% and 55. 0%, respectively. The proportion of fat energy supply was 22. 0%, 29. 6% and 32. 9%, respectively. The main food sources of protein was cereals. The proportion of protein intake in cereals was 61. 6%, 52. 0% and47. 3%, respectively. The proportion of high quality protein intake was 24. 0%, 32. 6%and 37. 0%, respectively. The main food sources of fat was plant food, and the proportion of plant fat intake was 62. 8%, 60. 8% and 64. 1%, respectively. The dietary energy in urban and rural residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 years was mainly derived from cereals. The nutrients of dietary energy were mainly derived from carbohydrates. The food sources of protein were mainly cereals. The food sources of fat were mainly plant food, and the proportion of high quality protein intake increased. The proportion of cereals supply in 2002 and 2010-2012 years was less than 50%. The fat supply of urban residents was 35. 0% and 36. 1% higher than that in 2002 and 2010-2012, and the proportion of high quality protein intake in rural residents was less than 40%.

Conclusion: The dietary composition in urban and rural residents in 1992, 2002 and 2010-2012 was mainly composed of cereal and vegetable food. The proportion of energy supply from fat was very high and increased, the average dietary intake per reference man per day for protein intake was insufficient and decreased. The trend of average energy intake per reference man per day was from excessive intake to insufficient and decreased in Chinese residents and urban residents. The proportion of high quality protein intake was insufficient for the Chinese residents and rural residents. The proportion of energy supply from cereals and carbohydrate were low and decreased.
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September 2018

[Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among 18 years old and over adults in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):22-26

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among Chinese adults in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance: 2010-2012. Multi-stage stratified random cluster and probability proportionate sampling method was used, and 45 203 respondents aged 18 and over from 150 sites of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were involved in the analysis. The consumption rate of sugar-sweetened beverages, distribution of the classification of the consumption frequency and percentage of variety beverages consumption frequency were calculated.

Results: There were 50. 1% of Chinese adults in2010-2012 consuming sugar-sweetened beverages, men and women were 49. 2% and 50. 8%, for age groups of 18-44, 45-59 and 60 and over, the consumption rates were65. 4% %, 47. 0% % 36. 3%, respectively. The prevalence in cities was 49. 0% and in counties was 51. 3%. The rate of consuming 1 time/week and over was 15. 3% and consuming 1 time/day was 1. 3%. As the economical level decreased, the two rates decreased. Carbonated beverages had the highest consumption frequency( 39. 8%), and the lactic acid beverages had the lowest( 10. 8%). Consumption of carbonated beverages in men( 44. 8%) was higher than that in women( 35. 3%), while for the fruit and vegetable juice, lactic acid beverages, disposable milk beverages and coffee, the consumption in women were higher than that in men. As the economical level decreased, consumption of carbonated and disposable milk beverages were increasing, and lactic acid beverages and coffee were decreasing significantly.

Conclusion: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adults in 2010-2012 was relatively high. The targeted nutrition health education and intervention was needed and implemented to decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.
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January 2018

[Status and variation trend of eggs food intakes among residents in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):18-21

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To analyze the status and variation trend of eggs food intake among Chinese residents.

Methods: Multi-stage cluster randomization sampling method was used to collect data about eggs food intake among residents in 150 surveillance sites of China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 31 provinces of China from 2010 to 2012. Food frequency questionnaire and 24-hours recall for three consecutive days were used to collect information on eggs food consumption of the participants. The eggs food intake per standard people were calculated based on the China Food Composition.

Results: The proportion of residents reporting the frequency of 1 or more times per day for eggs food were 31. 3% in the children and 25. 8% in the adult and the estimated daily eggs food was24. 3 grams for all the residents. The estimated daily eggs food for the residents of urban( 29. 5 g) was higher than that of rural( 19. 4 g)( T = 47. 86, P < 0. 0001). The eggs food consumption frequency and intake showed a decreasing trend for the residents with different residential regions in an order of big cities, small and medium-sized cities, common rural area, and poverty rural area. In past 30 years, the eggs food intake was increased substantial in the residents from 1982 to 2002. Althought the total the eggs food intake was increased gradually for all residents from 2002 to 2010-2012, the eggs food intake was decreased slightly for both the residents in urban and rural areas during the period.

Conclusion: The consumption frequency and intake of eggs food among Chinese residents are still at a low level and exist regional differences. Some measures should be taken to guide reasonable eggs food consumption behavior among Chinese residents.
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January 2018

[Intakes of dietary sodium among 18 years old and over adults in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):13-17

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the age-standardized average intake of dietary sodium in Chinese adults of 18 years old and over in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces( autonomous regions and municipalities) and selected 150 districts/counties. The sample was selected through the method of probability proportion to size( PPS). The sample participants were adults aged 18 and over. The average sodium intake was calculated based on dietary data collected using the method of 3 consecutive day edible oil and seasonings weighting and 3 days 24-hour dietary recall. The result were calculated using the complex weight based on national census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009.

Results: The mean intake of sodium was( 5335. 7 ± 95. 3)mg/d and it was higher for men(( 5744. 9 ± 117. 8) mg/d) than for women(( 4918. 9 ±79. 4) mg/d). The age groups of 40-49(( 5602. 3 ± 152. 7) mg/d), 50-59(( 5640. 0± 113. 8) mg/d) and 60-69(( 5363. 5 ± 100. 8) mg/d) had higher sodium intake than those of other age groups. The sodium intake among the adults in rural(( 5352. 3 ±121. 7) mg/d) area was similar with that of urban(( 5319. 5 ± 145. 9) mg/d). Overall, the mean intake of sodium in medium and small cities(( 5378. 4 ± 170. 3) mg/d), general rural(( 5369. 8 ± 142. 7) mg/d) and poor rural areas(( 5335. 9 ± 231. 6) mg/d) was similar while big city was lowest(( 4993. 8 ± 150. 3) mg/d).

Conclusion: In2010-2012, the mean sodium intake among Chinese adults was still in a very high level. It was necessary to monitor the population sodium intakes and the strategies should be developed to reduce national salt/sodium intakes.
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January 2018

[Status of blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among 6-17 years old children and adolescents in 2010-2012 in China].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2018 Jan;47(1):1-6

National Institute for Nutrition and Food Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To describe the mean of systolic blood pressure( SBP), diastolic blood pressure( DBP), and the prevalence of hypertension among 6-17 years old children and adolescents in China in 2010-2012.

Methods: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. The total number was 35 657 which selected through the method of multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling and probability proportion to size( PPS). The study objects were 6-17 years old childrenand adolescents in 31 Provinces and 150 sites in China Mainland. Blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was defined using Blood pressure reference standards for Chinese children and adolescents( 2010). Age-standardized result were calculated incorporating a sample weighting using the national census from the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009.

Results: The overall mean SBP was 101 mmHg. It was 102 mmHg for boys and 99 mmHg for girls. It showed 94 mmHg and 105 mmHg in 6-11 and 12-17 age groups. The mean DBP was 65 mmHg. Both boys and girls were 65 mmHg. It was 61 mmHg and 68 mmHg in 6-11 and 12-17 age groups. The prevalence of hypertension was 12. 4% in children and adolescents in China. It was 12. 4% in boys and 12. 3% in girls. It showed 7. 3% in 6-11 age group and 15. 6% in 12-17 group. The SBP, DBP and prevalence of hypertension were increased with age. The mean SBP of poor rural area was lowest and there was no difference in SBP and hypertensive prevalence.

Conclusion: The government should pay more attention on blood pressure and hypertension in 6-17 years old children and adolescents. It is important to strengthen the surveillance and early detection and prevention.
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January 2018

[Prevalence of informing of HIV infection status during medical care seeking and influential factors among people living with HIV/AIDS].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2015 Oct;36(10):1109-12

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Email:

Objective: To understand the prevalence of informing doctors of the HIV infection status during medical care seeking and influential factors among people living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: The study was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS in 7 provinces in China, including those receiving HIV test, HIV counsel and HIV infection treatment. The data were analyzed with software SAS 9.2. Chi-square test was used to compare the informing rates in patients with different characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the influential factors.

Results: Of the 2 432 HIV/AIDS patients, 49.7% (716/1 442) didn't inform the doctors of their HIV infection status actively. The non-active informing rate was 51.9% (559/1 077) in males, 62.9% (212/337) in age group 18-30 years old, 58.1% (555/955) in those with a educational level >primary school, 65.7% (241/367) in those working in private/joint companies or the self employed and 62.5% (197/315) in those living in small cities. The non active informing rate was highest in those infected through sexual contact (66.3%, 275/415). Multivariate logical regression analysis indicated that those infected through illegal blood donation would like to inform of the HIV infection status actively (OR=0.083, 95% CI: 0.049-0.141) , but those working in private/joint companies or the self employed would like not to inform of the HIV infection status actively (OR=1.531, 95% CI: 1.017-2.304).

Conclusion: The non active informing rate of HIV infection status was high in people living with HIV/AIDS. It is necessary to conduct the targeted health education to encourage people living with HIV/AIDS to inform of their HIV infection status actively.
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October 2015

[Study on spousal notification in HIV discordant couples and associated factors in four provinces of China].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2015 Jun;36(6):565-8

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China; Email:

Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the ways of spousal notification and its associated factors among HIV discordant couples.

Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in Henan, Yunnan, Sichuan provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. Information including democratic characteristics, knowledge and behaviors correlated with HIV infections and ways of HIV infectious status notification was collected. 'Data information system' on AIDS prevention and control was used to collect information on the transmission route.

Results: A total of 770 pairs of HIV discordant couples were studied, among which 414 (53.77%) HIV positive respondents reported as self-notification, with another 44.68% were notified by medical staff. Factors associated with ways of notification included gender, nation, transmission route, and education level. HIV positive respondents who were female, under Han nationality, being paid blood donors, having had higher education level, were more likely to inform their HIV negative spouse by themselves.

Conclusion: Nationality and HIV transmission route of the HIV positive individuals were found as significant factors associated with ways of spousal notification. Therefore, HIV discordant couples notification should be strengthened, especially in the Minority-living areas and areas where HIV transmission was predomint through sexual contact and/or via injected drug use.
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June 2015

Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

PLoS One 2015 26;10(8):e0135705. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration to improve the QOL of PLWHA. The relatively lower scores the subjects received in social relation and environmental domains also suggest that social relation and environmental interventions need to be strengthened.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135705PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550400PMC
June 2016

Task shifting of HIV/AIDS case management to Community Health Service Centers in urban China: a qualitative policy analysis.

BMC Health Serv Res 2015 Jul 2;15:253. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 155 Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China.

Methods: A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs.

Results: It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services.

Conclusions: Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be implemented alongside with other efforts and resources such as increasing public funding, planned team building, professional training, coordination with other sectors and education on privacy protection as well as non-discrimination to make this approach more effective and sustainable. Policy makers need to ensure both political feasibility and resources accessibility to facilitate this shifting process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0924-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487980PMC
July 2015