Publications by authors named "Laëtitia Gardès"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High dispersal capacity of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, revealed by landscape genetic analyses.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Feb 3;14(1):93. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: In the last two decades, recurrent epizootics of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus have been reported in the western Palearctic region. These viruses affect domestic cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants and are transmitted by native hematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides dispersal is known to be stratified, i.e. due to a combination of dispersal processes occurring actively at short distances and passively or semi-actively at long distances, allowing individuals to jump hundreds of kilometers.

Methods: Here, we aim to identify the environmental factors that promote or limit gene flow of Culicoides obsoletus, an abundant and widespread vector species in Europe, using an innovative framework integrating spatial, population genetics and statistical approaches. A total of 348 individuals were sampled in 46 sites in France and were genotyped using 13 newly designed microsatellite markers.

Results: We found low genetic differentiation and a weak population structure for C. obsoletus across the country. Using three complementary inter-individual genetic distances, we did not detect any significant isolation by distance, but did detect significant anisotropic isolation by distance on a north-south axis. We employed a multiple regression on distance matrices approach to investigate the correlation between genetic and environmental distances. Among all the environmental factors that were tested, only cattle density seems to have an impact on C. obsoletus gene flow.

Conclusions: The high dispersal capacity of C. obsoletus over land found in the present study calls for a re-evaluation of the impact of Culicoides on virus dispersal, and highlights the urgent need to better integrate molecular, spatial and statistical information to guide vector-borne disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04522-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860033PMC
February 2021

The tree that hides the forest: cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the Palaearctic vector Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at the European level.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 20;13(1):265. Epub 2020 May 20.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: Culicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Methods: Portion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Results: Our analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04114-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238629PMC
May 2020

Red deer () Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Snapshots.

Viruses 2019 09 27;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 27.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France, (C.V.).

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a -borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer () (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008-2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832957PMC
September 2019

Update of the species checklist of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Morocco.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Sep 24;12(1):459. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: Investigations of Culicoides fauna, including inventories, were carried out in Morocco at different periods after the country had faced major bluetongue and African horse sickness outbreaks. However, no comprehensive reference publication has provided a clear overview of the Culicoides species diversity. This study reviewed available data on Culicoides biting midge species in Morocco from 1968 to 2015 (published and grey literature in French and English) in order to revise the current checklist, in light of state of the art taxonomic and systematic knowledge, and confirmed the checklist with morphological and molecular identifications of specimens collected from the region of Rabat.

Methods: Literature related to Culicoides collections in Morocco was collated. Authors were contacted to obtain raw data and additional information for the collections. Fresh Culicoides material was collected and examined from two sites around Rabat, the capital of Morocco. Each collected individual was examined and morphologically identified, if possible, to the species level. In addition, molecular identification was performed to separate closely related species, to confirm difficult morphological identifications and to confirm new species records.

Results: A total of 6121 individuals of Culicoides spp. were collected and analyzed and at least 17 species were identified: C. cataneii/C. gejgelensis, C. circumscriptus, C. fagineus, C. festivipennis, C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. kingi, C. longipennis, C. montanus, C. newsteadi, C. obsoletus, C. paolae, C. parotti, C. puncticollis, C. sahariensis, C. scoticus and C. subfagineus. Seven species were confirmed using phylogenetic analyses. Two new species records for Morocco are reported: C. paolae and C. subfagineus.

Conclusions: The Moroccan fauna of Culicoides now includes 54 valid species. Further work would certainly increase this total, as one of the clades we identified was not affiliated to any described and valid species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3720-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757417PMC
September 2019

DNA barcoding and molecular identification of field-collected Culicoides larvae in the Niayes area of Senegal.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 3;11(1):615. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: Biting midge species of the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) comprise more than 1300 species distributed worldwide. Several species of Culicoides are vectors of various viruses that can affect animals, like the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), known to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The ecological and veterinary interest of Culicoides emphasizes the need for rapid and reliable identification of vector species. However, morphology-based identification has limitations and warrants integration of molecular data. DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) is used as a rapid and authentic tool for species identification in a wide variety of animal taxa across the globe. In this study, our objectives were as follows: (i) establish a reference DNA barcode for Afrotropical Culicoides species; (ii) assess the accuracy of cox1 in identifying Afrotropical Culicoides species; and (iii) test the applicability of DNA barcoding for species identification on a large number of samples of Culicoides larvae from the Niayes area of Senegal, West Africa.

Results: A database of 230 cox1 sequences belonging to 42 Afrotropical Culicoides species was found to be reliable for species-level assignments, which enabled us to identify cox1 sequences of Culicoides larvae from the Niayes area of Senegal. Of the 933 cox1 sequences of Culicoides larvae analyzed, 906 were correctly identified by their barcode sequences corresponding to eight species of Culicoides. A total of 1131 cox1 sequences of adult and larval Culicoides were analyzed, and a hierarchical increase in mean divergence was observed according to two taxonomic levels: within species (mean = 1.92%, SE = 0.00), and within genus (mean = 17.82%, SE = 0.00).

Conclusions: Our study proves the efficiency of DNA barcoding for studying Culicoides larval diversity in field samples. Such a diagnostic tool offers great opportunities for investigating Culicoides immature stages ecology and biology, a prerequisite for the implementation of eco-epidemiological studies to better control AHSV in the Niayes region of Senegal, and more generally in sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3176-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276223PMC
December 2018

How do species, population and active ingredient influence insecticide susceptibility in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of veterinary importance?

Parasit Vectors 2015 Aug 28;8:439. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Cirad, UMR15 CMAEE; INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, 34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: Culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equines. Insecticides are often employed against Culicoides as a part of vector control measures, but systematic assessments of their efficacy have rarely been attempted. The objective of the present study is to determine baseline susceptibility of multiple Culicoides vector species and populations in Europe and Africa to the most commonly used insecticide active ingredients. Six active ingredients are tested: three that are based on synthetic pyrethroids (alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) and three on organophosphates (phoxim, diazinon and chlorpyrifos-methyl).

Methods: Susceptibility tests were conducted on 29,064 field-collected individuals of Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides imicola Kieffer and a laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen strain using a modified World Health Organization assay. Populations of Culicoides were tested from seven locations in four different countries (France, Spain, Senegal and South Africa) and at least four concentrations of laboratory grade active ingredients were assessed for each population.

Results: The study revealed that insecticide susceptibility varied at both a species and population level, but that broad conclusions could be drawn regarding the efficacy of active ingredients. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were found to inflict greater mortality than organophosphate active ingredients and the colony strain of C. nubeculosus was significantly more susceptible than field populations. Among the synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin was found to be the most toxic active ingredient for all species and populations.

Conclusions: The data presented represent the first parallel and systematic assessment of Culicoides insecticide susceptibility across several countries. As such, they are an important baseline reference to monitor the susceptibility status of Culicoides to current insecticides and also to assess the toxicity of new active ingredients with practical implications for vector control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1042-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551713PMC
August 2015

Towards the PCR-based identification of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting four species of the subgenus Avaritia.

Parasit Vectors 2014 May 14;7:223. Epub 2014 May 14.

Cirad, UMR15 CMAEE, 34398 Montpellier, France.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.

Methods: In this study, designed as an inter-laboratory ring trial with twelve partners from Europe and North Africa, we assess four PCR-based assays which are used routinely to differentiate the four species of Culicoides listed above. The assays based on mitochondrial or ribosomal DNA or microarray hybridisation were tested using aliquots of Culicoides DNA (extracted using commercial kits), crude lysates of ground specimens and whole Culicoides (265 individuals), and non-Culicoides Ceratopogonidae (13 individuals) collected from across Europe.

Results: A total of 800 molecular assays were implemented. The in-house assays functioned effectively, although specificity and sensitivity varied according to the molecular marker and DNA extraction method used. The Obsoletus group specificity was overall high (95-99%) while the sensitivity varied greatly (59.6-100%). DNA extraction methods impacted the sensitivity of the assays as well as the type of sample used as template for the DNA extraction.

Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of current use of species diagnostic assays and the future development of molecular tools for the rapid differentiation of cryptic Culicoides species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024274PMC
May 2014

First record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and diversity of species within the Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges in Senegal.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(12):e84316. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Cirad, UMR15 Contrôle des Maladies; INRA, UMR1309 Contrôle des Maladies, Montpellier, France.

The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084316PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3875552PMC
August 2014

Massive sorghum collection genotyped with SSR markers to enhance use of global genetic resources.

PLoS One 2013 2;8(4):e59714. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

Cirad, UMR AGAP, Montpellier, France.

Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059714PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614975PMC
October 2013

Host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of Culicoides in Western Europe.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(10):e48120. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des Maladies, Montpellier, France.

Feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. When the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. Our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of Palaearctic Culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, using drop traps and suction traps baited with four sheep, as bluetongue virus hosts. Collections were carried out in the field, a largely-open stable and an enclosed stable during six collection periods of 24 hours in April/May, in late June and in September/October 2010 in western France. A total of 986 Culicoides belonging to 13 species, mainly C. brunnicans and C. obsoletus, was collected on animal baits. Culicoides brunnicans was clearly exophagic, whereas C. obsoletus was able to enter stables. Culicoides brunnicans exhibited a bimodal pattern of host-seeking activity with peaks just after sunrise and sunset. Culicoides obsoletus was active before sunset in spring and autumn and after sunset in summer, thus illustrating influence of other parameters than light, especially temperature. Description of host-seeking behaviors allowed us to discuss control strategies for transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens, such as bluetongue virus. However, practical vector-control recommendations are difficult to provide because of the variation in the degree of endophagy and time of host-seeking activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048120PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483221PMC
August 2014

Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis) in southern Ivory Coast.

Parasit Vectors 2012 Jul 30;5:153. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

Institut Pierre Richet / Institut National de Santé Publique, BP V 47 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Background: Sleeping sickness, transmitted by G. p. palpalis, is known to be present in the Ivory Coast. G. p. palpalis has recently been reported to occur in several places within the town of Abidjan, including: (i) the Banco forest, (ii) the Abobo Adjamé University campus and (iii) the zoological park. Could these three places be treated sequentially, as separate tsetse populations, or should they be taken as one area comprising a single, panmictic population?

Methods: The amount of gene flow between these places provides strategic information for vector control. It was estimated by the use of both microsatellite DNA and morphometric markers. The idea was to assess the interest of the faster and much less expensive morphometric approach in providing relevant information about population structure. Thus, to detect possible lack of insect exchange between these neighbouring areas of Abidjan, we used both genetic (microsatellite DNA) and phenetic (geometric morphometrics) markers on the same specimens.Using these same markers, we also compared these samples with specimens from a more distant area of south Ivory Coast, the region of Aniassué (186 km north from Abidjan).

Results: Neither genetic nor phenetic markers detected significant differentiation between the three Abidjan G. p. palpalis samples. Thus, the null hypothesis of a single panmictic population within the city of Abidjan could not be rejected, suggesting the control strategy should not consider them separately. The markers were also in agreement when comparing G. p. palpalis from Abidjan with those of Aniassué, showing significant divergence between the two sites.

Conclusions: Both markers suggested that a successful control of tsetse in Abidjan would require the three Abidjan sites to be considered together, either by deploying control measures simultaneously in all three sites, or by a continuous progression of interventions following for instance the "rolling carpet" principle. To compare the geometry of wing venation of tsetse flies is a cheap and fast technique. Agreement with the microsatellite approach highlights its potential for rapid assessment of population structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492019PMC
July 2012

Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and signature of selection in Sorghum: lessons from physically anchored DArT markers.

PLoS One 2012 13;7(3):e33470. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

UMR AGAP, CIRAD, Montpellier, France.

Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. A total of 177 accessions were genotyped with 1122 informative physically anchored DArT markers. The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. Model-based (STRUCTURE software) and Neighbor-Joining diversity analyses led to the identification of 6 groups and confirmed previous evolutionary hypotheses. Results were globally consistent between the different marker systems. However, DArTs appeared more robust in terms of data resolution and bayesian group assignment. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r(2) decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. Effects on LD estimations of sample size and genetic structure were tested using i. random sampling, ii. the Maximum Length SubTree algorithm (MLST), and iii. structure groups. Optimizing population composition by the MLST reduced the biases in small samples and seemed to be an efficient way of selecting samples to make the best use of LD as a genome mapping approach in structured populations. These results also suggested that more than 100,000 markers may be required to perform genome-wide association studies in collections covering worldwide sorghum diversity. Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. In addition, evidence of selection near a homologous locus of FAR1 concurred with sorghum phenotypic diversity for sensitivity to photoperiod.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033470PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3302775PMC
August 2012

Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses.

Parasit Vectors 2011 Jun 27;4:119. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des maladies, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

Background: The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates.Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides).

Methods/results: Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites×4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed.

Conclusions: Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides biting rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145584PMC
June 2011

Adaptation of a species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of blood meal source in Culicoides (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera): applications on Palaearctic biting midge species, vectors of Orbiviruses.

Infect Genet Evol 2011 Jul 12;11(5):1103-10. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Cirad, UMR Contrôle des maladies, F-34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Culicoides are small biting midges involved worldwide in the transmission of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses. Feeding behaviours of Palaearctic biting midge species and their spatio-temporal dynamics remain unclear at the specific level. Three multiplex species-specific PCR-based assays were developed and used to identify blood meal source of engorged females of Palaearctic midge species of veterinary interest. Species-specific primers of potential hosts from livestock, domestic animals and wildlife (cattle, goat, sheep, red deer, roe deer, chamois, dog, pig, cat, horse) were designed and multiplexed from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The assays also make possible to identify whether multiple blood meals have been taken. The first results from several Culicoides populations sampled in France highlight the utility of this valuable diagnostic tool combined with species identification assays, and suggest that most of the Culicoides species may have an opportunistic feeding behaviour regarding the host distribution and density. Noteworthy is the peculiar trophic behaviour of Culicoides chiopterus showing clear trends to cattle. Information on host preference and feeding behaviours are crucial for a better understanding of vector-host interactions and disease epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.002DOI Listing
July 2011

Population genetics as a tool to select tsetse control strategies: suppression or eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 May 25;4(5):e692. Epub 2010 May 25.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)/Centre International de Recherche pour l'Elevage en zones Subhumides (CIRDES), UMR 177 IRD-Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), CIRDES 01 BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: The Government of Senegal has initiated the "Projet de lutte contre les glossines dans les Niayes" to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. "eradication" versus "suppression." To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira).

Methodology/principal Findings: Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (theta = 0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar - Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck.

Conclusion/significance: The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to (i) help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and (ii) find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2876113PMC
May 2010

A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.

BMC Plant Biol 2010 Apr 13;10:65. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

CIRAD, UR Multiplication Végétative, Av, Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Background: The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents.

Results: An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p < 0.05) from the expected Mendelian ratios. These skewed markers were distributed in different linkage groups for each parent. To solve some complex ordering of the markers on linkage groups, we associated tools such as tree-like graphic representations, recombination frequency statistics and cytogenetical studies to identify structural rearrangements and build parsimonious linkage group order. An illustration of such an approach is given for the P. Lilin parent.

Conclusions: We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2923539PMC
April 2010

The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009 17;3(3):e392. Epub 2009 Mar 17.

CIRDES/IRD UMR 177 IRD-CIRAD, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness.

Principal Findings: We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10
Conclusion/significance: Whatever their origin, the small effective population sizes suggest high levels of inbreeding in tsetse flies within the island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2652410PMC
March 2010