Publications by authors named "L R Salgado"

200 Publications

Bryozoa from the reefs off the Amazon River mouth: checklist, thirteen new species, and notes on their ecology and distribution.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 29;4950(1):zootaxa.4950.1.1. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Diretoria de Pesquisa, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil..

The reef system off the Amazon River mouth extends from Amapá state to Maranhão state along the Brazilian Equatorial Margin, encompassing more than 10,000 km2 of rhodolith beds and high-relief hard structures on the outer shelf and upper slope. This unique hard bottom mosaic is remarkable for being influenced by the turbid and hyposaline plume from the world's largest river, and also for representing a connectivity corridor between the Caribbean and Brazil. Bryozoans were recently recognized as major reef builders in the Southwestern Atlantic, but their diversity off the Amazon River mouth remained unknown. Here, we report on recent collections obtained from 23 to 120 m depth in Northern Brazil. Sixty-five bryozoan taxa were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, including 57, five and three taxa of Cheilostomatida, Cyclostomatida and Ctenostomatida, respectively. Cribrilaria smitti and three genera (Cranosina, Glabrilaria and Thornelya) are new records for Brazil, and 13 new species are herein described: Antropora cruzeiro n. sp., Cranosina gilbertoi n. sp., Cribrilaria lateralis n. sp., Crisia brasiliensis n. sp., Glabrilaria antoniettae n. sp., Micropora amapaensis n. sp., Parasmittina amazonensis n. sp., Plesiocleidochasma arcuatum n. sp., Poricella bifurcata n. sp., Pourtalesella duoavicularia n. sp., Stephanollona domuspusilla n. sp., Therenia dianae n. sp., and Thornelya atlanticoensis n. sp. Our results highlight the biodiversity significance of the Amazon reefs and the need for more comprehensive sampling to clarify the role of bryozoans in modern turbid-zone reefs and rhodolith beds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4950.1.1DOI Listing
March 2021

A systematic review of craniospinal irradiation for leptomeningeal disease: past, present, and future.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a rare but deadly complication of cancer in which the disease spreads to the cerebrospinal fluid and seeds the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) involves treatment of the entire CNS subarachnoid space and is occasionally used as a last-resort palliative therapy for LMD.

Methods: This review examined literature describing the role of CSI for LMD from solid and hematologic malignancies in adults. A search for studies published until September 1, 2020 was conducted using PubMed database.

Results: A total of 262 unique articles were identified. Thirteen studies were included for analysis in which a total of 275 patients were treated with CSI for LMD. Median age at time of irradiation was 43 years, and most patients had KPS score of 70 and higher. The most common cancers resulting in LMD were acute lymphocytic leukemia, breast cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Median CSI dose was 30 Gy and 18% of patients were treated with proton radiation. 52% of patients had stable-to-improved neurologic symptoms. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 5.3 months. Patients treated with marrow-sparing proton radiation had median OS of 8 months. The most common treatment toxicities were hematologic and gastrointestinal events.

Conclusions: Despite advances in systemic and radiation therapies, LMD remains a devastating end-stage complication of some malignancies. Treatment-related toxicities can be a significant barrier to CSI delivery. In select patients with LMD, marrow-sparing proton CSI may provide safer palliation of symptoms and prolong survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-021-02615-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional beverages improve insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis modulating lysophospholipids in diet-induced obese rats.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 6;9(4):1961-1971. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

CICATA-Querétaro Instituto Politécnico Nacional Querétaro México.

Hypercaloric beverages increase the prevalence of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), diets with polyphenolic compounds improved these alterations. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the consumption of three functional beverages (prepared with: Roselle, green tea, cinnamon, Malabar tamarind, and peppermint in different proportions) on insulin resistance and NAFLD and their relation to liver phospholipid regulation in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat and fructose (HFF) diet. The consumption of beverages showed lower liver triglycerides compared to HFF control group, being the called beverage B the successful triggering up to 30.1%. The consumption of functional beverages improved insulin resistance and decreased the abundance of LysoPC (20:2), LysoPC (16:0), LysoPC (14:0), LysoPE (18:0), LysoPC (15:0), and LysoPC (20:1), with beverage C being the one with the meaningful effect. The results indicate that the functional beverage consumption improves insulin resistance, and decrease the degree of NAFLD, these through modifications of lysophosphatidylcholines, and lipids metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020945PMC
April 2021

Decadal (2006-2018) dynamics of Southwestern Atlantic's largest turbid zone reefs.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247111. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Instituto de Biologia and SAGE-COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Tropical reefs are declining rapidly due to climate changes and local stressors such as water quality deterioration and overfishing. The so-called marginal reefs sustain significant coral cover and growth but are dominated by fewer species adapted to suboptimal conditions to most coral species. However, the dynamics of marginal systems may diverge from that of the archetypical oligotrophic tropical reefs, and it is unclear whether they are more or less susceptible to anthropogenic stress. Here, we present the largest (100 fixed quadrats at five reefs) and longest time series (13 years) of benthic cover data for Southwestern Atlantic turbid zone reefs, covering sites under contrasting anthropogenic and oceanographic forcing. Specifically, we addressed how benthic cover changed among habitats and sites, and possible dominance-shift trends. We found less temporal variation in offshore pinnacles' tops than on nearshore ones and, conversely, higher temporal fluctuation on offshore pinnacles' walls than on nearshore ones. In general, the Abrolhos reefs sustained a stable coral cover and we did not record regional-level dominance shifts favoring other organisms. However, coral decline was evidenced in one reef near a dredging disposal site. Relative abundances of longer-lived reef builders showed a high level of synchrony, which indicates that their dynamics fluctuate under similar drivers. Therefore, changes on those drivers could threaten the stability of these reefs. With the intensification of thermal anomalies and land-based stressors, it is unclear whether the Abrolhos reefs will keep providing key ecosystem services. It is paramount to restrain local stressors that contributed to coral reef deterioration in the last decades, once reversal and restoration tend to become increasingly difficult as coral reefs degrade further and climate changes escalate.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247111PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899327PMC
February 2021

Where are we with proton beam therapy for thoracic malignancies? Current status and future perspectives.

Lung Cancer 2021 02 31;152:157-164. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

New York Proton Center, New York, NY, United States.

Radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role in the curative treatment of a variety of thoracic malignancies. However, delivery of tumoricidal doses with conventional photon-based RT to thoracic tumors often presents unique challenges. Extraneous dose deposited along the entrance and exit paths of the photon beam increases the likelihood of significant acute and delayed toxicities in cardiac, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal structures. Furthermore, safe dose-escalation, delivery of concomitant systemic therapy, or reirradiation of a recurrent disease are frequently not feasible with photon RT. In contrast, protons have distinct physical properties that allow them to deposit a high irradiation dose in the target, while leaving a negligible exit dose in the adjacent organs at risk. Proton beam therapy (PBT), therefore, can reduce toxicities with similar antitumor effect or allow for dose escalation and enhanced antitumor effect with the same or even lower risk of adverse events, thus potentially improving the therapeutic ratio of the treatment. For thoracic malignancies, this favorable dose distribution can translate to decreases in treatment-related morbidities, provide more durable disease control, and potentially prolong survival. This review examines the evolving role of PBT in the treatment of thoracic malignancies and evaluates the data supporting its use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.12.025DOI Listing
February 2021