Publications by authors named "L R Abuladze"

6 Publications

[Artificial intelligence for diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures using a morphometric analysis model, based on convolutional neural networks].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2020 Oct 24;66(5):48-60. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Research and Practical Clinical Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies.

Background: Pathological low-energy (LE) vertebral compression fractures (VFs) are common complications of osteoporosis and predictors of subsequent LE fractures. In 84% of cases, VFs are not reported on chest CT (CCT), which calls for the development of an artificial intelligence-based (AI) assistant that would help radiology specialists to improve the diagnosis of osteoporosis complications and prevent new LE fractures.

Aims: To develop an AI model for automated diagnosis of compression fractures of the thoracic spine based on chest CT images.

Materials And Methods: Between September 2019 and May 2020 the authors performed a retrospective sampling study of ССТ images. The 160 of results were selected and anonymized. The data was labeled by seven readers. Using the morphometric analysis, the investigators received the following metric data: ventral, medial and dorsal dimensions. This was followed by a semiquantitative assessment of VFs degree. The data was used to develop the Comprise-G AI mode based on CNN, which subsequently measured the size of the vertebral bodies and then calculates the compression degree. The model was evaluated with the ROC curve analysis and by calculating sensitivity and specificity values.

Results: Formed data consist of 160 patients (a training group - 100 patients; a test group - 60 patients). The total of 2,066 vertebrae was annotated. When detecting Grade 2 and 3 maximum VFs in patients the Comprise-G model demonstrated sensitivity - 90,7%, specificity - 90,7%, AUC ROC - 0.974 on the 5-FOLD cross-validation data of the training dataset; on the test data - sensitivity - 83,2%, specificity - 90,0%, AUC ROC - 0.956; in vertebrae demonstrated sensitivity - 91,5%, specificity - 95,2%, AUC ROC - 0.981 on the cross-validation data; for the test data sensitivity - 79,3%, specificity - 98,7%, AUC ROC - 0.978.

Conclusions: The Comprise-G model demonstrated high diagnostic capabilities in detecting the VFs on CCT images and can be recommended for further validation.
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October 2020

Factors associated with incidence of depressiveness among the middle-aged and older Estonian population.

SAGE Open Med 2020 20;8:2050312120974167. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Objective: Relatively scant research among older Estonian population describes factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms. This study identifies factors associated with the incidence of depressiveness among middle-aged and older Estonians over 2- and 4-year periods.

Method: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression models are used to identify the factors associated with the incidence of depressiveness over 2- and 4-year periods. The data were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) 2011-2015 which included Estonian population aged 53 years and older in 2013. After excluding those younger than 53 years, not interviewed 2 years later, those with depressive symptoms at baseline in 2013, and missing values for depressiveness or other variables, our analytical sample comprised 2513 people.

Results: Among those who were not depressive in 2013, 21.9% became depressive within 2 years; 16.1% of non-depressive individuals since 2011 became depressive by 2015. No age differences in incidence remained in adjusted models. Women have almost 50% higher odds of becoming depressive. A previous history of depressiveness and the presence of everyday activity limitations were important factors increasing the incidence of depression.

Discussion: Changes related to the individual's unique ageing experience are important explanatory factors related to the likelihood of developing depressive symptoms, rather than age itself. To diminish the incidence of depressive symptoms among older Estonian population, public health interventions should attempt to address factors which complicate existing health problems and facilitate continued independence and community involvement, both of which contribute to overall satisfaction with life.
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November 2020

Prevalence of and factors associated with underdiagnosis of pediatric asthma in Batumi, Georgia.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2020 Jan - Feb;48(1):73-77. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Background And Objective: A recent survey in Batumi, Georgia showed a low prevalence of asthma in children (1.8%). A potential explanation is underdiagnosis of asthma. To investigate this, we conducted a follow up to the survey with the objective of estimating the level of childhood asthma underdiagnosis and to describe factors related to it.

Methods: Subjects included 437 survey participants who had a history of asthma-like symptoms and no diagnosis of asthma. All children underwent clinical examination (spirometry, skin prick tests, FeNO measurement) to identify new cases of asthma. The distribution of host and environmental factors was compared between the group with newly identified asthma and a group of 59 children with previously known asthma (diagnosed asthma).

Results: Clinical investigation identified 107 cases of undiagnosed asthma. The corrected asthma prevalence estimate was 5.1% (95%CI: 4.4%-5.9%) suggesting that 65% of asthma cases were undiagnosed. Compared to children with diagnosed asthma, children with undiagnosed asthma were younger (8.2±1.6 vs. 9.3±2.1; p=0.0005), had less frequent history of allergic disorders (38.3% vs. 64.4%; p=0.001), and a lower prevalence of parental asthma (1.8% vs. 8.4%; p=0.04). The groups did not differ in terms of environmental characteristics except for more exposure to passive smoking in the undiagnosed asthma group (p=0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed results of simple analyses.

Conclusion: In Batumi, 65% of children with asthma remain undiagnosed. Older age of a child, coexisting allergic disorders, and parental asthma seem to facilitate diagnosis. Implementation of current diagnostic guidelines should improve diagnostic accuracy of pediatric asthma in Batumi.
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September 2020

Associations between self-rated health and health behaviour among older adults in Estonia: a cross-sectional analysis.

BMJ Open 2017 06 9;7(6):e013257. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia.

Objectives: The population of Estonia has one of the lowest life expectancies and health statuses in Europe. This is reflected in a lower perception of health among older adults. This study focuses on the role of health behaviour (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and nutrition) in self-rated health, accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations and long-term illnesses as well as satisfaction with life of older Estonian men and women.

Design: We use representative cross-sectional data from Wave 4 of the Estonian Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, conducted mainly in 2011.

Participants: Frequencies, χ tests and logistic regression models include respondents aged 50 years and older, with no upper age limit (n=6660).

Results: Men have 20% higher odds (CI 1.02 to 1.43) of poor self-rated health. Being of foreign origin (OR 1.48; CI 1.24 to 1.77), having a basic (2.50; CI 2.06 to 3.00) or secondary (1.71; CI 1.43 to 2.04) education, being retired (2.00; CI 1.65 to 2.44) or staying at home (1.49; CI 1.16 to 1.93) and having activity limitations (3.25; CI 2.77 to 3.80) or long-term illnesses (4.78; CI 4.08 to 5.60) are related to poor self-rated health. Never being involved in vigorous (2.30; CI 1.90 to 2.79) or moderate physical activity (1.41; CI 1.02 to 1.94), and consuming legumes and eggs less frequently (1.25; CI 1.08 to 1.45) is associated with poorer self-rated health. Lower satisfaction with life accounts for some of the variation (2.28; CI 1.92 to 2.71).

Conclusions: There is a strong cumulative effect of one's previous life course on the self-rated health of older adults in Estonia, suggesting that public health policies have long-term consequences rather than immediate consequences. Health services supporting health behaviours and targeting vulnerable population groups with specific sociodemographic characteristics and health problems may influence self-rated health for some. Public health services emphasising social activities or psychological aspects may be most successful in improving self-rated health of older Estonians through satisfaction with life.
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June 2017

Childhood asthma in Batumi, Georgia: Prevalence and environmental correlates.

J Asthma 2018 01 13;55(1):43-49. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

d Department of Epidemiology , School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia , Katowice , Poland.

Objective: A relative lack of data for Eastern Europe and unknown epidemiology of childhood asthma in Batumi (Georgia) justified a study aimed at determining the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and related respiratory conditions, a comparison of the prevalence of these conditions between urban and rural children, and identification of their environmental correlates.

Methods: Subjects of the cross-sectional population-based study were 3238 urban and 2081 rural children aged 5-17 years whose respiratory status was assessed using the ISAAC questionnaire.

Results: The overall prevalence of asthma was larger in rural children than in urban children (2.8% vs. 1.8%, respectively; p = 0.01). Spastic bronchitis occurred with similar frequency in urban (7.8%) and rural children (6.5%). Compared with urban children, rural subjects had dry cough at night (13.1 vs 8.2%, p < 0.001) and attacks of dyspnea (4.7 vs 2.4%, p < 0.001) more often. The prevalence of other symptoms did not differ significantly between urban and rural subjects. Results of multivariate analyses showed that both asthma and spastic bronchitis were associated (p < 0.05) with parental history of asthma, dampness in the house, and poor financial standing of the family. In addition, asthma was related to coal/wood-based heating whereas spastic bronchitis was associated with passive smoking and lower parental education.

Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma in the examined population. Nosological tradition and similar correlates of asthma and spastic bronchitis suggest that some cases of asthma might be included in the diagnostic category of spastic bronchitis.
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January 2018