Publications by authors named "L Parker"

1,783 Publications

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Adaptation and psychometric validation of Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) in patients with type 2 diabetes in Quito, Ecuador: a cross-sectional study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Jul 31;19(1):189. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Public Health, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain.

Introduction: The Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18), structured in three dimensions (psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA) and disinhibited eating (DE)), assesses the psychological and behavioural burden of living with type 2 diabetes. The objectives were to adapt the DHP-18 linguistically and culturally for use with patients with type 2 DM in Ecuador, and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

Methods: Participants were recruited using purposive sampling through patient clubs at primary health centres in Quito, Ecuador. The DHP-18 validation consisted in the linguistic validation made by two Ecuadorian doctors and eight patient interviews. And in the psychometric validation, where participants provided clinical and sociodemographic data and responded to the SF-12v2 health survey and the linguistically and culturally adapted version of the DHP-18. The original measurement model was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reproducibility by administering DHP-18 in a random subgroup of the participants two weeks after (n = 75) using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed by establishing previous hypotheses of the expected correlations with the SF12v2 using Spearman's coefficient.

Results: Firstly, the DHP-18 was linguistically and culturally adapted. Secondly, in the psychometric validation, we included 146 participants, 58.2% female, the mean age was 56.8 and 31% had diabetes complications. The CFA indicated a good fit to the original three factor model (χ2 (132) = 162.738, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.990; TLI = 0.989; SRMR = 0.086 and RMSEA = 0.040. The BA dimension showed the lowest standardized factorial loads (λ) (ranging from 0.21 to 0.77), while λ ranged from 0.57 to 0.89 and from 0.46 to 0.73, for the PD and DE dimensions respectively. Cronbach's alphas were 0.81, 0.63 and 0.74 and ICCs 0.70, 0.57 and 0.62 for PD, BA and DE, respectively. Regarding convergent validity, we observed weaker correlations than expected between DHP-18 dimensions and SF-12v2 dimensions (r > -0.40 in two of three hypotheses).

Conclusions: The original three factor model showed good fit to the data. Although reliability parameters were adequate for PD and DE dimensions, the BA presented lower internal consistency and future analysis should verify the applicability and cultural equivalence of some of the items of this dimension to Ecuador.
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July 2021

Effects of inescapable stress on responses to social incentive stimuli and modulation by escitalopram.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Rationale: Stress is a well-known risk factor for anhedonia, and its impacts on social reward functions may be mitigated by its controllability. Moreover, there are questions about the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on improving social hedonic functioning deficits characteristic of major depression.

Objectives: The current study in male Sprague-Dawley rats investigated the effects of uncontrollable stress on responses to social incentive stimuli and possible modulation by the SSRI escitalopram (ESC).

Methods: The effects of inescapable foot-shocks on preferential responses to a conspecific, and to a compartment that was previously paired with the presence of a conspecific, were assessed in a Y-apparatus in rats that received 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg ESC.

Results: Although inescapable foot-shock exposure did not significantly alter the investigation of the conspecific, it did impair the response to the social-paired compartment and, importantly, this impairment was reversed by ESC.

Conclusion: These results indicate that psychophysical stress can negatively impact reactivity to learned social rewards and that SSRI administration can have positive therapeutic effects.
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July 2021

Implementation Science Strategies Promote Fidelity in The Food, Feeding, and Your Family Study.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Objective: Use of implementation science strategies to promote fidelity in the Food, Feeding, and Your Family study.

Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial with 3 conditions: control, in-class, or online, delivered in English or Spanish. Observations of 20% of classes.

Setting: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in 2 states.

Participants: EFNEP peer educators (n = 11).

Intervention: Parental feeding content incorporated into EFNEP lessons (in-class) or through text with links to videos/activities (online). Extensive educator training, scripted curriculum, frequent feedback.

Analysis: Assessment of fidelity compliance. Qualitative analysis of verbatim educator interviews and classroom observer comments.

Results: During 128 class observations (40-45 per condition), peer educators followed scripted lesson plan 78% to 89% of the time. There was no evidence of cross-contamination of parental feeding content in control and only minor sharing in online conditions. Variations with fidelity were primarily tied to the EFNEP curriculum, not the parent feeding content. Educators (n = 7) expressed favorable opinions about the Food, Feeding, and Your Family study, thought it provided valuable information, and appreciated support from EFNEP leadership.

Conclusions And Implications: Incorporating implementation science strategies can help ensure successful adherence to research protocols. With proper training and support, EFNEP peer educators can deliver an evidence-based curriculum as part of a complex research study.
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July 2021

Cross-sectional study of preprints and final journal publications from COVID-19 studies: discrepancies in results reporting and spin in interpretation.

BMJ Open 2021 07 16;11(7):e051821. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Editorial and Methods Department, Cochrane, London, UK.

Objective: To compare results reporting and the presence of spin in COVID-19 study preprints with their finalised journal publications.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: International medical literature.

Participants: Preprints and final journal publications of 67 interventional and observational studies of COVID-19 treatment or prevention from the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register published between 1 March 2020 and 30 October 2020.

Main Outcome Measures: Study characteristics and discrepancies in (1) results reporting (number of outcomes, outcome descriptor, measure, metric, assessment time point, data reported, reported statistical significance of result, type of statistical analysis, subgroup analyses (if any), whether outcome was identified as primary or secondary) and (2) spin (reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results so they are viewed more favourably).

Results: Of 67 included studies, 23 (34%) had no discrepancies in results reporting between preprints and journal publications. Fifteen (22%) studies had at least one outcome that was included in the journal publication, but not the preprint; eight (12%) had at least one outcome that was reported in the preprint only. For outcomes that were reported in both preprints and journals, common discrepancies were differences in numerical values and statistical significance, additional statistical tests and subgroup analyses and longer follow-up times for outcome assessment in journal publications.At least one instance of spin occurred in both preprints and journals in 23/67 (34%) studies, the preprint only in 5 (7%), and the journal publications only in 2 (3%). Spin was removed between the preprint and journal publication in 5/67 (7%) studies; but added in 1/67 (1%) study.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 preprints and their subsequent journal publications were largely similar in reporting of study characteristics, outcomes and spin. All COVID-19 studies published as preprints and journal publications should be critically evaluated for discrepancies and spin.
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July 2021