Publications by authors named "Lídia Raquel Carvalho"

58 Publications

How temperature variation affects white-rot fungi mycelial growth dynamics: a nonlinear mixed models approach.

Fungal Biol 2021 11 1;125(11):860-868. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Bioestatistic, Plant Biology, Parasitology and Zoology Department, Bioscience Institute (IBB), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to model mycelial growth in a factorial experiment with two species of white rot fungi growing at five temperatures. The nonlinear models evaluated were logistic, Gompertz, Weibull and von Bertalanffy. The adjustments were performed first by evaluating the fixed and mixed-effects models with random effects, added to the fixed parameters. Then, the best adjusted model was improved by an adequated covariance structure, and dummy variables were added to the parameters asymptote (α) and abscissa of the inflection point (β) in the model in order to verify the effect of the experiment factors, species and temperatures on the regression parameters. The criteria used to compare models were residual variance and Akaike information criterion. Gompertz and von Bertalanffy mixed-effects models were better adjusted. The parameters differed between species. Moreover, the linear and quadratic effects of temperature evaluated in each species were significant. The models were reparametrized in order to consider two parameters of interest: velocity (μ) at the inflection point and lag time (λ). The maximum growth velocity was obtained at 25.4 °C by S. ostrea, while T. villosa was achieved at 30.5 °C; both fungi suffered less lag time by increasing the temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2021.05.007DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of magnesium sulphate on the onset time of rocuronium at different doses: a randomized clinical trial.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Sep-Oct;71(5):482-488. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão de Anestesiologia, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Rocuronium may provide excellent onset time, but high doses are required for effective action. Several strategies have managed to shorten rocuronium onset time, including the use of Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO).

Methods: One hundred and eighty patients were randomized into six groups according to rocuronium dose received (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 mg.kg) and the administration of saline or MgSO (60 mg.kg). Correlations between tissue perfusion and rocuronium onset time was determined by variations in perfusion index.

Results: Median (quartiles) rocuronium onset times were 85.5 (74.0-92.0); 76.0 (52.0-87.0) and 50.0 (41.0-59.5) seconds for 0.3, 0.6 mg.kg and 1.2 mg.kg doses, respectively. MgSO decreased rocuronium onset at doses of 0.3 mg.kg (60.0 [48.0-74.3] seconds) and 0.6 mg.kg (44.0 [39.0-49.0] seconds) but not at 1.2 mg.kg (38.0 [33.5-56.3] seconds) (p < 0.001). Perfusion index variations in groups that received MgSO were greater than in controls. A negative correlation between shorten onset and increased perfusion index was observed in rocuronium doses of 0.3 mg.kg (r = -0.50; p < 0.001) and 0.6 mg.kg (r = -0.424; p < 0.001), but not for 1.2 mg.kg dose (r = -0.25; p = 0.07).

Conclusion: MgSO reduces rocuronium onset time at doses of 0.3 mg.kg and 0.6 mg.kg being that the latter has a similar effect when compared to the dose of 1.2 mg.kg, with or without the use of MgSO. TRIAL REGISTRY AT: http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/ REGISTRY NUMBER: RBR-96CY3K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.07.023DOI Listing
October 2021

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil: A systematic review.

Med Mycol 2021 Oct;59(10):946-957

Department of Drugs and Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14800-903 Araraquara, Brazil.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (CVV) is a condition in which signs and symptoms are related to inflammation caused by Candida spp infection. It is the second leading cause of vaginitis in the world, representing a public health problem. The present systematic review comes with the proposal of analyze and identify the available evidence on CVV prevalence in Brazil, pointing out its variability by regions. For this, a systematic literature review was carried out with meta-analysis of cross-sectional and cohort studies, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guide recommendations, and was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020181695). The databases used for survey were LILACS, Scielo, Scopus, PUBMED, Web of Science and CINAHL. Fifteen studies were selected to estimate CVV prevalence in the Brazilian territory. South and Southeast regions have higher prevalences than the North and Northeast regions, no data were found for the Midwest region. The estimated prevalence for Brazil is 18%, however, it is suggested that this number is higher due to underreporting and the presence of asymptomatic cases. Therefore, new epidemiological studies are recommended throughout Brazil, to elucidate the profile of this disease in the country, in addition to assisting in the elaboration of an appropriate prevention plan by state.

Lay Summary: Data found in the literature regarding the epidemiological profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil are obsolete and incomplete, so the present systematic review has the proposal to analyze and identify the evidence on vulvovaginal candidiasis prevalence in Brazil. The estimated prevalence is 18%; however, this number can be higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myab034DOI Listing
October 2021

An update on the occurrence of Paracoccidioides species in the Midwest region, Brazil: Molecular epidemiology, clinical aspects and serological profile of patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 04 7;15(4):e0009317. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratório de Biociência (LaBio), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Alimentos e Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic and endemic fungal infection in Latin American, mainly in Brazil. The majority of PCM cases occur in large areas in Brazil, comprising the South, Southeast and Midwest regions, with the latter demonstrating a higher incidence of the species Paracoccidioides lutzii.

Methodology And Main Findings: This study presents clinical, molecular and serological data of thirteen new PCM cases during 2016 to 2019 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, located in the Midwest region, Brazil. From these thirteen cases, sixteen clinical isolates were obtained and their genomic DNAs were subjected to genotyping by tub1 -PCR-RFLP. Results showed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis sensu stricto (S1) (11/16; 68.8%), Paracoccidioides restrepiensis (PS3) (4/16; 25.0%) and P. lutzii (1/16; 6.2%) as Paracoccidiodes species. Therefore, in order to understand whether the type of phylogenetic species that are circulating in the state influence the reactivity profile of serological tests, we performed double agar gel immunodiffusion (DID), using exoantigens from genotyped strains found in this series of PCM cases. Overall, our DID tests have been false negative in about 30% of confirmed PCM cases. All patients were male, most with current or previous rural activity, with ages ranging from 17 to 59 years, with 11 patients (84.6%) over 40 years of age. No clinical or epidemiological differences were found between Paracoccidioides species. However, it is important to note that the only case of P. lutzii died as an outcome.

Conclusions: This study suggests P. brasiliensis sensu stricto (S1) as the predominant species, showing its wide geographic distribution in Brazil. Furthermore, our findings revealed, for the first time, the occurrence of P. restrepiensis (PS3) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Despite our setbacks, it would be interesting to provide the complete sequencing of these clinical isolates to complement the molecular information presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055028PMC
April 2021

Oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation and gene expression in occupationally exposed university hospital anesthesia providers.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 02 20;62(2):155-164. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil.

Considering the importance and lack of data of toxicogenomic approaches on occupational exposure to anesthetics, we evaluated possible associations between waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) exposure and biological effects including oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and transcriptional modulation. The exposed group was constituted by anesthesia providers who were mainly exposed to the anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane (10 ppm) and to a lesser degree to nitrous oxide (150 ppm), and the control group was constituted by physicians who had no exposure to WAGs. The oxidative stress markers included oxidized DNA bases (comet assay), malondialdehyde (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]), nitric oxide metabolites (ozone-chemiluminescence), and antioxidative markers, including individual antioxidants (HPLC) and antioxidant defense marker (ferric reducing antioxidant power by spectrophotometry). The inflammatory markers included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (chemiluminescent immunoassay) and the proinflammatory interleukins IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17A (flow cytometry). Telomere length and gene expression related to DNA repair (hOGG1 and XRCC1), antioxidant defense (NRF2) and inflammation (IL6, IL8 and IL17A) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences (p > .0025) between the groups were observed for any parameter evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the study, the findings suggest that occupational exposure to WAGs is not associated with oxidative stress or inflammation when evaluated in serum/plasma, with DNA damage evaluated in lymphocytes and leucocytes or with molecular modulation assessed in peripheral blood cells in university anesthesia providers. However, it is prudent to reduce WAGs exposure and to increase biomonitoring of all occupationally exposed professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22420DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy and safety of glucose, glucose and polidocanol combination, liquid polidocanol and polidocanol foam in the treatment of reticular veins: A randomized study in rabbits.

Phlebology 2021 May 8;36(4):303-312. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, School of Medicine of Botucatu, Paulista State University, UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of sclerosing agents injected in dorsal veins of rabbit ears.

Methods: Sixty ears of 30 rabbits were randomly allocated in: 1% liquid polidocanol, 1% polidocanol foam, 0.2% polidocanol-glucose 70% solution, glucose 75% or 0.9% saline. Outcomes included efficacy (luminal occlusion), complications (phlebitis, neovascularization, ulceration at the puncture site, necrosis and local inflammation) and histology (sclerosis, recanalization vein and surrounding tissues inflammation, blood extravasation, recanalization, lymphangiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and neoangiogenesis).

Results: Sclerosis was superior in Foam Group (76.9%), but also with 30.7% necrosis ( = 0.003), 46.15% ulceration ( = 0.003), and 69.2% local inflammation ( < 0.0001). Neovascularization were similar. Histology showed 38.5% phlebitis (p = 0.004) and necrosis ( = 0.03) in the foam group.

Conclusions: Sclerosis with foam and liquid polidocanol were superior to the other groups, but specially polidocanol foam at the expense of greater frequency of adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268355520964293DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of laryngeal sequelae on voice- and swallowing-related outcomes in paracoccidioidomycosis.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2020 Aug 17;26:e20200008. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Background: The present study was carried out aiming to evaluate the impact of laryngeal sequelae on the quality of life of treated paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Otorhinolaryngology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-two PCM patients considered clinically and immunologically cured were included: 16 with laryngeal involvement during the active phase of the disease (laryngeal PCM group) and 16 without laryngeal involvement (control group). They were submitted to structured interview, otorhinolaryngology examination, videolaryngoscopy, videoendoscopic swallowing study, completed two questionnaires for voice self-assessment - Voice-related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) - and were asked to score their voices on a scale from zero to 10 (self-assessment of vocal quality).

Results: Dysphonia was present in 50% of the cases. Patients with laryngeal PCM presented worse voice-related quality of life scores on the V-RQOL and poorer vocal quality self-assessment than the control group. No significant differences in the VHI were found between the groups. None of the participants developed dysphagic sequelae, although some minor changes were observed on videoendoscopic examination.

Conclusion: There were no dysphagia complaints and only a few mild changes were found on the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, suggesting that this evaluation should be performed only in specific cases. Patients with laryngeal involvement presented worse V-RQOL and self-assessment voice quality. This study contributes to the current knowledge of the functional assessment of the larynx affected by PCM and the impact of dysphonia on quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433646PMC
August 2020

Presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in candidates for kidney transplantation.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Sep 6;98:470-477. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Laboratory of Clinical Parasitology, Graduate Program in Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Objectives: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a progressive disease that, left untreated, is typically fatal. The purpose of this investigation was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in hemodialysis patients who had received multiple blood transfusions at a private clinic in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Midwest Brazil.

Methods: Fifty randomly selected volunteers were interviewed for collection of demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological data. Indirect immunofluorescence (titers positive when ≥1:40) and rK39 immunochromatographic tests were employed for serological investigation.

Results: Males predominated (60%). Age ranged from 20 to 77 years. Most subjects reported being on hemodialysis for at least one year (94%) and 84% were candidates for kidney transplantation, 67% of whom were on the waiting list. Leishmania sp. infection was detected in 32%. Contact with infected dogs was the only variable associated with infection.

Conclusions: Under immunocompromised conditions, VL is opportunistic and potentially fatal. Despite existing risks, screening for VL is not performed in asymptomatic donors and recipients. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in these patients reinforces the need for infection screening before immunosuppressive treatment is initiated to reduce not only the risks of VL development and severity, but also mortality rates in cases of reactivation of latent infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Dynamics of plasma micronutrient concentrations and their correlation with serum proteins and thyroid hormones in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(12):e0226609. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Faculty of Medicine- FAMED, Center for Biological and Health Sciences- CCBS, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil.

Minerals, such as zinc, copper, and iron are reported to play roles in chronic infectious diseases; however, their role in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the micronutrient dynamics and their correlation with serum proteins and thyroid hormones in patients with PCM. In 14 patients with PCM and 10 healthy subjects, we evaluated the body mass index (BMI) along with serum levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, zinc, copper, magnesium, albumin, globulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (free T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Evaluations were conducted at the first appointment, before treatment, and at the end of the first, second, fourth, and sixth month of PCM treatment. The control group was only evaluated once. We observed that before treatment, patients with PCM, had higher levels of copper and lower level of iron than those of the control group. After one month of treatment, the iron levels increased, whereas the levels of copper after six months of treatment. Reduction in inflammatory activity, indicated by the normalization of C-reactive protein, ferritin, albumin, and globulin levels, was observed during treatment. However, no correlation was observed between the serum levels of minerals and inflammatory activity or thyroid function in this study. In conclusion, our results showed higher serum copper levels in control group compared to those in pretreatment patients; the clinical importance of this observation should be investigated in further studies. After treatment, serum copper levels showed a tendency to decrease. In addition, serum iron levels were decreased at the stage of active disease, and were increased after treatment. Thus, serum iron levels can be used as a better biomarker for treatment control.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6932777PMC
April 2020

Comprehensiveness, readability, and reliability of Brazilian websites available for lay people's guidance on adenotonsillectomy.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jan-Feb;87(1):66-73. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Oftalmologia, Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adenotonsillectomy is an invasive surgical procedure, which may encourage the search for information by the lay population through online search engines. The quality of this information, however, requires an evaluation due to the wide diversity of the available content.

Objective: To evaluate the quality, in terms of ethical principles, readability and comprehensiveness, of the most accessed websites concerning guidance to parents/guardians related to their children's recommended adenotonsillectomy.

Methods: The websites mentioned on the first 10 pages obtained after the search using "removal", "tonsils" and "adenoids" as keywords, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were selected. All were assessed using the Flesch Readability Index and Health on the Net Code tools, in addition to an evaluation of the content by two independent evaluators. The data were described, and the inter-rater agreement was calculated by the Kappa coefficient.

Results: 34 websites were found, of the 100 assessed ones, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria using the Google and Yahoo! Tools. Sixteen (47%) pages were considered reasonably difficult/difficult to read according to the Flesch Readability Index. Most of them met less than half of the analyzed ethical requirements according to the Health on the Net Code, and the overall comprehensiveness average was considered insufficient.

Conclusion: A deficit of overall quality (comprehensiveness, readability, and ethical principles) was demonstrated for the websites available to parents or guardians about the adenotonsillectomy procedure in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2019.06.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Overview of artemisinin effectiveness during outset years of its implementation in the western Brazilian Amazon.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 29;114:e190075. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Laboratório de Biociência, Alimentos e Nutrição, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Background: The elimination of malaria depends on the blocking of transmission and of an effective treatment. In Brazil, artemisinin therapy was introduced in 1991, and here we present a performance overview during implementation outset years.

Methods: It is a retrospective cohort (1991 to 2002) of patients treated in a tertiary centre of Manaus, with positive microscopic diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, under treatment with using injectable or rectal artemisinin derivatives, and followed over 35-days to evaluate parasite clearance, death and recurrence.

Findings: This cohort outcome resulted 97.6% (1554/1593) of patients who completed the 35-day follow-up, 0.6% (10/1593) of death and 1.8% (29/1593) of follow-up loss. All patients that died and those that presented parasitaemia recurrence had pure P. falciparum infections and received monotherapy. Considering patients who completed 35-day treatment, 98.2% (1527/1554) presented asexual parasitaemia clearance until D4 and 1.8% (27/1554) between D5-D10. It is important to highlight that had no correlation between the five treatment schemes and the sexual parasite clearance. Finally, it is noteworthy that we were able to observe also gametocytes carriage during all follow-up (D0-D35).

Main Conclusions: Artemisinin derivatives remained effective in the treatment of falciparum malaria during first 12-years of use in north area of Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760190075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489370PMC
June 2019

Treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis in Central-West Brazil.

J Bras Pneumol 2019 Apr 18;45(2):e20180167. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

Methods: We studied 188 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the Central-West Region of Brazil from 2000 to 2010, to assess their compliance to treatment. In order to be considered compliant, patients needed to present two established criteria: (1) receive medicines from the pharmacy, and (2) achieve a self-reported utilization of at least 80% of the dispensed antifungal compounds prescribed since their previous appointment.

Results: Most patients were male (95.7%), had the chronic form of the disease (94.2%), and were treated with cotrimoxazole (86.2%). Only 44.6% of patients were treatment compliant. The highest loss to follow-up was observed in the first 4 months of treatment (p < 0.02). Treatment compliance was higher for patients with than for those without pulmonary involvement (OR: 2.986; 95%CI 1.351-6.599), and higher for patients with than without tuberculosis as co-morbidity (OR: 2.763; 95%CI 1.004-7.604).

Conclusions: Compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis treatment was low, and the period with the highest loss to follow-up corresponds to the first four months. Pulmonary paracoccidioidal involvement or tuberculosis comorbidity predicts a higher compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-3713/e20180167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733749PMC
April 2019

Ceruloplasmin, transferrin and apolipoprotein A-II play important role in treatment's follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis patients.

PLoS One 2018 25;13(10):e0206051. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo-Brazil.

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by thermodymorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis complex, (Paracoccidioides spp.). Patients with PCM reveal specific cellular immune impairment. Despite the effective treatment, quiescent fungi can lead to relapse, usually late, the serological diagnosis of which has been deficient. The present study was carried out with the objective of investigating a biomarker for the identification of PCM relapse and another molecule behaving as an immunological recovery biomarker; therefore, it may be used as a cure criterion. In the evolutionary analysis of the proteins identified in PCM patients, comparing those that presented with those that did not reveal relapse, 29 proteins were identified. The interactions observed between the proteins, using transferrin and haptoglobin, as the main binding protein, were strong with all the others. Patient follow-up suggests that cerulosplamin may be a marker of relapse and that transferrin and apolipoprotein A-II may contribute to the evaluation of the treatment efficacy and avoiding a premature decision.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206051PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201901PMC
April 2019

[Ultrasound dynamics of gastric content volumes after the ingestion of coconut water or a meat sandwich. A randomized controlled crossover study in healthy volunteers].

Braz J Anesthesiol 2018 Nov - Dec;68(6):584-590. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Medicina, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Background: Adequate preoperative fasting is critical in preventing pulmonary aspiration of gastric content. We proposed to study the sonographic gastric content dynamics after the ingestion of liquid or solid food in healthy volunteers and confront it with current guidelines for preoperative fasting times.

Methods: We performed a prospective, crossover, evaluator-blinded study involving 17 healthy volunteers of both sexes. Each participant fasted for 10h and was subjected to a baseline gastric ultrasound, intake of 400mL of coconut water or a 145g, 355kcal meat sandwich, and sonographic gastric evaluations after 10min and every hour until the stomach was completely empty.

Results: At baseline, all subjects had an empty stomach. At 10min, gastric content [mean + standard deviation (SD)] was 240.4 + 69.3 and 248.2 + 119.2mL for liquid and solid foods, respectively (p>0.05). Mean + SD gastric emptying times were 2.5 + 0.7 and 4.5 + 0.9h for liquid and solid foods, respectively (p<0.001). For the drink, the stomach was completely empty in 59% and 100% of the subjects after two and four hours, and for the sandwich, 65% and 100% of the subjects after four and seven hours, respectively.

Conclusions: Sonographic gastric dynamics for coconut water and a meat sandwich resulted in complete gastric emptying times higher and lower, respectively, than those suggested by current guidelines for preoperative fasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjan.2018.06.008DOI Listing
May 2019

Serological proteomic biomarkers to identify Paracoccidioides species and risk of relapse.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(8):e0202804. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

The sensitivity of the double agar gel immunodiffusion test is about 90% in patients with untreated paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), but it is much lower in cases of relapse. In addition, serum from patients with PCM caused by Paracoccidioides lutzii, frequent in the Midwest region of Brazil, do not react with the classical antigen obtained from Pb B-339. These findings showed the need for alternative diagnostic methods, such as biological markers through proteomics. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the safe identification of PCM relapse and specific proteins that could distinguish infections caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from those produced by Paracoccidioides lutzii. Proteomic analysis was performed in serum from 9 patients with PCM caused by P. brasiliensis, with and without relapse, from 4 patients with PCM produced by P. lutzii, and from 3 healthy controls. The comparative evaluation of the 29 identified plasma proteins suggested that the presence of the immunoglobulin (Ig) alpha-2 chain C region and the absence of Ig heavy chain V-III TIL indicate infection by P. lutzii. In addition, the absence of complement factor B protein might be a predictor of relapse. The evaluation of these proteins in a higher number of patients should be carried out in order to validate these findings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202804PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114792PMC
February 2019

Evaluation of the hepatobiliary system in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis treated with cotrimoxazole or itraconazole.

Med Mycol 2018 Jul;56(5):531-540

Tropical Diseases Department, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Campus Botucatu, Brazil.

A prospective study was performed in 200 paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 51 presenting the acute/subacute form (AF) and 149 the chronic form (CF), submitted to the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system at admission and during the follow-up treatment with cotrimoxazole (CMX) or itraconazole (ITC). This study aimed to better evaluate the involvement of the hepatobiliary system in PCM and the effect of these antifungal compounds on this system. Serum levels of direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were evaluated. At admission, all the variables showed changes with elevated values ranging from 6.2% for TB to 32.6% for GGT. After treatment, the incidence of elevated serum levels ranged from 3.6% for DB to 27.5% for ALT. The course of the alterations during the treatment showed regression to normal values in CMX-treated patients and persistence in ITC-treated patients but without the need to discontinue the therapy. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of the hepatobiliary involvement by Paracoccidioides sp. and to a safe follow-up of PCM patients under treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myx080DOI Listing
July 2018

Increased peripheral blood TCD4+ counts and serum SP-D levels in patients with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, during and after antifungal therapy.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2017 Nov;112(11):748-755

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Background: The main clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are the acute/subacute form (AF) and the chronic form (CF), and they both display considerable clinical variability. The immune responses of PCM patients, during and after treatment, remain neglected, mainly in the case of CF patients, due to the high prevalence of pulmonary sequelae.

Objective: To evaluate the distribution of whole blood T cell subsets, serum cytokines, and biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis in PCM patients, according to the clinical form and at different time points, during the antifungal therapy.

Methods: Eighty-seven PCM patients, from an endemic area in Brazil, were categorised into groups, according to the clinical form (AF or CF) and the moment of treatment. The peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets of these patients were analysed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The serum levels of cytokines, basic fibroblast growth factor and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) were also analysed.

Findings: In the CF patients, an expansion of the peripheral blood TCD4+ cells was observed during the treatment, and this persisted even after two years of antifungal treatment. In addition, these patients showed high serum levels of SP-D.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight the immunological changes CF patients undergo, during and after treatment, possibly due to the hypoxia triggered by pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760170046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5661897PMC
November 2017

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among inmates in Midwest Brazil.

PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0182248. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Graduate Program in Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a public health issue in developing countries, with prevalence rates as high as 90%, a figure set to escalate as the socioeconomic status of affected populations deteriorates. Investigating the occurrence of these infections among inmates is critical, since this group is more vulnerable to the spread of a number of infectious illnesses.

Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical, quantitative study was conducted in July 2015 at prison facilities located in Midwest Brazil to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infection among inmates. For detection of parasites, 510 stool samples were examined by ether centrifugation and spontaneous sedimentation.

Results: Eight parasitic species were detected, with an overall prevalence of 20.2% (103/510). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar were the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Endolimax nana was the predominant non-pathogenic species. Nearly half of the subjects (53/103; 51.4%) were positive for mixed infection. Logistic regression revealed that inmates held in closed conditions were more likely to contract parasitic infections than those held in a semi-open regime (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.19-3.25; p = 0.0085). A higher prevalence of parasitic infections was observed among individuals who had received no prophylactic antiparasitic treatment in previous years (OR = 10.2; 95% CI = 5.86-17.66; p < 0.001). The other factors investigated had no direct association with the presence of intestinal parasites.

Conclusion: Infections caused by directly transmissible parasites were detected. Without adequate treatment and prophylactic guidance, inmates tend to remain indefinitely infected with intestinal parasites, whether while serving time in prison or after release.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608187PMC
October 2017

Cyclosporine A attenuates apoptosis and necrosis after ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury in transiently hyperglycemic rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2017 Mar;32(3):203-210

PhD, Full Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Conception and design of the study, analysis and interpretation of data, critical revision, final approval of the version to be published.

Purpose:: To investigate the effects of cyclosporine A on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia in rats.

Methods: : In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury and transiently induced hyperglycemia by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, 2.5 g.kg-1, Wistar rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane or propofol and received intravenous cyclosporine A, 5 mg.kg-1, five minutes before reperfusion. Comparison groups were isoflurane and propofol sham groups and isoflurane and propofol ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury. Renal tubular cell viability was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry after cell culture and classified as early apoptosis, necrotic cells, and intact cells.

Results: : Early apoptosis was significantly higher in isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared to both cyclosporine A treated and sham groups. Necrosis percentage was significantly higher in propofol-anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The percentage of intact cells was lower in both, isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Conclusion: : In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury, cyclosporine A, 5 m.kg-1, administered five minutes before renal reperfusion in rats with acute-induced hyperglycemia under either isoflurano or propofol anesthesia, attenuated early apoptosis and preserved viability in renal tubular cells, regardless of the anesthetic used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-865020170030000004DOI Listing
March 2017

Noradrenaline and dobutamine effects on the volume expansion with normal saline in rabbits subjected to hemorrhage.

Acta Cir Bras 2016 Sep;31(9):621-628

Full Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Brazil. Manuscript writing, critical revision, supervised all phases of the study.

Purpose:: To evaluate the effects of dobutamine (DB), noradrenaline (NA), and their combination (NADB), on volume retention in rabbits submitted to hemorrhage.

Methods:: Thirty six rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups: SHAM, Control, Saline, DB, NA, DB+NA. All the animals, except for SHAM, were subjected to hemorrhage of 25% of the calculated blood volume. Control animals were replaced with their own blood. The other groups received NSS 3 times the volume withdrawn. The intravascular retention, hematocrit, diuresis, central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, NGAL, dry-to-wet lung weight ratio (DTWR) and the lung and kidney histology were analyzed.

Results:: Replacement with NSS and NA, DB or NA+DB did not produce differences in the intravascular retention. After hemorrhage, the animals presented a significant decrease in the MAP and CVP, which were maintained until volume replacement. Regarding NGAL, dry-to-wet-lung-weight ratio, lung and kidney histology, there were no statistical differences between the groups.

Conclusion:: The use of noradrenaline, dobutamine or their combination did not increase the intravascular retention of volume after normal saline infusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-865020160090000008DOI Listing
September 2016

Serum concentrations and renal expressions of IL-1 and TNF-a early after hemorrhage in rats under the effect of glibenclamide.

Acta Cir Bras 2016 Jul;31(7):434-41

Full Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Manuscript writing, supervised all phases of the study.

Purpose: To investigate changes in the serum concentration and renal expression of IL-1 and TNF-α cytokines in rats that received sevoflurane and glibenclamide prior to hemorrhage.

Methods: Two groups of sevoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n=10): G1 (control) and G2 (glibenclamide, 1 µg/g i.v.); hemorrhage of 30% blood volume (10% every 10 min), with replacement using Ringer solution, 5 ml/kg/h. Serum concentrations of IL-1 and TNF-α were studied in the first hemorrhage (T1) and 50 min later (T2), renal expression, at T2.

Results: In serum, G1 TNF-α (pg/mL) was T1=178.6±33.5, T2=509.2±118.8 (p<0.05); IL-1 (pg/mL) was T1=148.8±31.3, T2=322.6±115.4 (p<0.05); in G2, TNF-α was T1=486.2±83.6, T2=261.8±79.5 (p<0.05); IL-1 was T1=347.0±72.0, T2= 327.3±90.9 (p>0.05). The expression of TNF-α and IL-1 in the glomerular and tubular cells was significantly higher in the G2 group.

Conclusions: Hemorrhage and glibenclamide elevated TNF-α and IL-1 concentrations in serum and kidneys. High levels of TNF-α already present before the hemorrhage in the glibenclamide group may have attenuated the damages found in the kidneys after the ischemia event.
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July 2016

Evaluation of the Double Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test and of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

PLoS One 2015 13;10(8):e0134841. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Tropical Diseases Department, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

The diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depends on the radiologic image and the identification of specific antibodies. The present study aimed to evaluate accuracy parameters of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and of the determination of serum galactomannan level in the diagnosis of patients with CPA, comparing these results with the double agar gel immunodiffusion (DID) test. In addition, the prevalence of cross-reactivity and the serological progression after treatment were evaluated by comparing DID and ELISA. Six study groups were formed: G1: 22 patients with CPA, 17 of whom had Aspergillus fungus ball, one chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) and four chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA); G2: 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); G3: 23 patients with histoplasmosis (HST); G4: 50 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM); G5: 20 patients with cryptococcosis (CRC); and G6: 200 healthy controls. Serum antibodies were measured by DID and ELISA, with two antigen preparations--Aspergillus fumigatus (DID1, ELISA1) and a pool of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger antigens (DID2, ELISA2). The Platélia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) kit was used to measure galactomannan. The cut-off points of ELISA were determined for each antigen preparation and for the 95% and 99% confidence intervals. Despite the low sensitivity, DID was the technique of choice due to its specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio-especially with the antigen pool and due to the low frequency of cross-reactivity. ELISA1 and a 0.090 cut-off showed high sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value, but a high frequency of cross-reactivity with CRC. The best degree of agreement was observed between ELISA1 and ELISA2. The detection of serum galactomannan showed high sensitivity, comparable to ELISA2. The immunodiffusion test showed an excellent relationship with the progression after treatment, which made it the reaction of choice for patient follow-up.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134841PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4536220PMC
May 2016

Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014 Aug 1;14:255. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Botucatu Medical School, Paulista State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. The purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the official medical records of pregnant women). The study population consisted of two groups, each with 860 newborns. The case group comprised newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, while the control group comprised live newborns weighing greater than or equal to 2,500 grams. Adequacy of ANC was evaluated according to three measurements: 1. Adequacy of the number of ANC visits adjusted to gestational age; 2. Modified Kessner Index; and 3. Adequacy of ANC laboratory studies and exams summary measure according to parameters defined by the Ministry of Health in the Program for Prenatal and Birth Care Humanization.

Results: Analyses revealed that LBW was associated with the number of ANC visits adjusted to gestational age (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.32-2.34) and the ANC laboratory studies and exams summary measure (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.36-12.51). According to the modified Kessner Index, 64.4% of antenatal visits in the LBW group were adequate, with no differences between groups.

Conclusions: Our data corroborate the association between inadequate number of ANC visits, laboratory studies and exams, and increased risk of LBW newborns. No association was found between the modified Kessner Index as a measure of adequacy of ANC and LBW. This finding reveals the low indices of coverage for basic actions already well regulated in the Health System in Brazil. Despite the association found in the study, we cannot conclude that LBW would be prevented only by an adequate ANC, as LBW is associated with factors of complex and multifactorial etiology. The results could be used to plan monitoring measures and evaluate programs of health care assistance during pregnancy, at delivery and to newborns, focusing on reduced LBW rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-14-255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4131026PMC
August 2014

Prevalence and serological diagnosis of relapse in paracoccidioidomycosis patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 May 1;8(5):e2834. Epub 2014 May 1.

Tropical Diseases Department - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

A review of 400 clinical records of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 93 with the acute/subacute (AF) and 307 with the chronic form (CF), attended from 1977 to 2011, selected as to the schedule of release for study by the Office of Medical Records at the University Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-São Paulo State University--UNESP, was performed to detect cases in relapse. The control of cure was performed by clinical and serological evaluation using the double agar gel immunodiffusion test (DID). In the diagnosis of relapse, DID, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting assay (IBgp70 and IBgp43) were evaluated. Out of 400 patients, 21 (5.2%) went through relapse, 18 of them were male and 3 were female, 6∶1 male/female ratio. Out of the 21 patients in relapse, 15 (4.8%) showed the CF, and 6 (6.4%) the AF (p>0.05). The sensitivity of DID and ELISA before treatment was the same (76.1%). DID presented higher sensitivity in pre-treatment (80%) than at relapse (45%; p = 0.017), while ELISA showed the same sensitivity (80% vs 65%; p = 0.125). The serological methods for identifying PCM patients in relapse showed low rates of sensitivity, from 12.5% in IBgp70 to 65.0% in IBgp43 identification and 68.8% in ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA in diagnosing PCM relapse showed a strong tendency to be higher than DID (p = 0.06) and is equal to IBgp43 (p = 0.11). In sum, prevalence of relapse was not high in PCM patients whose treatment duration was based on immunological parameters. However, the used methods for serological diagnosis present low sensitivity. While more accurate serological methods are not available, we pay special attention to the mycological and histopathological diagnosis of PCM relapse. Hence, direct mycological, cytopathological, and histopathological examinations and isolation in culture for P. brasiliensis must be appropriately and routinely performed when the hypothesis of relapse is considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006716PMC
May 2014

Sour taste and cold temperature in the oral phase of swallowing in patients after stroke.

Codas 2013 ;25(2):164-8

Purpose: To determine the effect of sour flavor and cold temperature on oral transit time during swallowing.

Methods: Participants were 52 subjects (28 male and 24 female) with ages between 50 and 80 years (median=66 years), after ischemic stroke involving right or left side damage and mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Videofluoroscopy was performed to analyze the swallowing times. Each subject was assessed during swallowing of a paste consistency bolus offered in 5 ml spoons, with a total of four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour and sour-cold). After the exam, the oral transit time was measured using specific software. The oral transit time (starting at the beginning of the bolus movement in the mouth) and the total oral transit time (starting at the moment that the bolus is placed in the mouth) were measured.

Results: The association between sour and cold stimuli caused a significant decrease of oral transit time and total oral transit time.

Conclusion: Sour flavor and cold temperature reduced oral transit time in stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2317-17822013000200012DOI Listing
July 2014

Effects of propofol in lipid-based emulsion and in microemulsion on the incidence of endothelial lesion in rabbits.

Acta Cir Bras 2013 Dec;28(12):833-41

Purpose: To compare the incidence of endothelial injury after single-dose or continuous propofol infusion in conventional lipid-based emulsion (LE) versus microemulsion (ME).

Methods: Forty-two rabbits (2.5-4.5 Kg) were randomly allocated into seven groups of six animals each: SHAM- surgical treatment alone; Bolus Control Group - 3 mL-intravenous (IV) bolus of saline; Continuous Infusion Control Group - 3 mL- IV bolus of saline followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min; Bolus LE Propofol Group - IV bolus of LE propofol (3 mg/kg); Bolus ME Propofol Group - IV ME propofol bolus (3 mg/kg); Continuous LE Propofol Group - IV LE propofol bolus (3 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min; Continuous ME Propofol Group - IV ME propofol bolus (3 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the studied groups in blood pressure, in central venous pressure and in the biochemical profile. No significant differences were found in inflammatory mediators and in tissue analysis between the two emulsions.

Conclusion: Microemulsion and lipid-based emulsion propofol had similar inflammatory, biochemical and microscopy profiles. Thus, microemulsion propofol can be used as an alternative to lipid-based emulsion propofol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502013001200005DOI Listing
December 2013

Perioperative evaluation of tumescent anaesthesia technique in bitches submitted to unilateral mastectomy.

BMC Vet Res 2013 Sep 11;9:178. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Tumescent anaesthesia (TA) is a widely used technique in oncologic surgeries necessitating large resection margins. This technique produces transoperative and postoperative analgesia, reduces surgical bleeding, and facilitates tissue divulsion. This prospective, randomised, blind study evaluated the use of TA in bitches submitted to mastectomy and compared the effect of TA with an intravenous fentanyl bolus. A 2.5-mcg/kg intravenous fentanyl bolus (n = 10) was compared with TA using 0.275% lidocaine (n = 10) in bitches submitted to unilateral mastectomy. Sedation was performed by intramuscular (IM) injection of 0.05 mg/kg of acepromazine combined with 2 mg/kg of meperidine. Anaesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg of intravenous propofol and maintained with isoflurane/O2. Heart and respiratory rates; systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures; central venous pressure; SpO2; ETCO2; inspired and expired isoflurane concentrations; and temperature were measured transoperatively. Visual analogue scales for sedation and pain and the Glasgow composite and Melbourne pain scales were used for postoperative assessment. The surgeon investigated the quality of the surgical approach, considering bleeding and resection ability, and the incidence of postoperative wound complications.

Results: The heart rate was lower and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration was higher in dogs treated with fentanyl than in dogs treated with TA. A fentanyl bolus was administered to 8 of 10 dogs treated with fentanyl and to none treated with TA. Intraoperative bleeding and the mammary gland excision time were lower in dogs treated with TA. The maximal mean and individual plasma lidocaine concentrations were 1426 ± 502 ng/ml and 2443 ng/ml at 90 minutes after infiltration, respectively. The Glasgow Composite Pain Scale scores were higher in dogs treated with fentanyl than in dogs treated with TA until 2 hours after extubation.

Conclusions: Compared with intravenous fentanyl, TA in bitches: may be easily performed in non-inflamed, ulcerated, adhered mammary tumours; has an isoflurane-sparing effect; improves transoperative and immediate postoperative analgesia; is apparently safe for use in clinical conditions as evidenced by the fact that it did not produce any adverse signs or lidocaine plasma concentrations compatible with toxicity; does not modify the recovery time; and facilitates the surgical procedure without interfering with wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-9-178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847451PMC
September 2013

Prozone effects in microscopic agglutination tests for leptospirosis in the sera of mice infected with the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2013 Aug;108(5):668-70

Centro de Laboratório Regional XI, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sorocaba, SP, Brasil.

Mice experimentally infected with a pathogenic strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola produced false negative results (prozone effect) in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This prozone effect occurred in several serum samples collected at different post-infection times, but it was more prominent in samples collected from seven-42 days post-infection and for 1:50 and 1:100 sample dilutions. This phenomenon was correlated with increased antibody titres in the early post-infection phase. While prozone effects are often observed in serological agglutination assays for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis and human syphilis, they are not widely reported in leptospirosis MATs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-0276108052013022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3970589PMC
August 2013

Do propofol and isoflurane protect the kidney against ischemia/reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia?

Acta Cir Bras 2013 Mar;28(3):161-6

UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To study the effect of isoflurane (Iso) or propofol (Prop) anesthesia on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during transient hyperglycemia.

Methods: Thirty six rats were randomly assigned into six groups of six animals each: PHS (Sham-Prop=1mg.kg-1.min-1 + Hyperglycemia=2.5g.kg-1 of glucose solution administered intraperitoneally); HIS (Sham-Iso + Hyperglycemia); PHI (Prop + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); IHI (Iso + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); PI (Prop + Ischemia), and II (Iso + Ischemia). After 30 minutes of anesthesia induction, right nephrectomy was performed (all animals) and the left renal artery was clamped during 25 minutes (ischemia). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and blood collection (to dose creatinine) and left kidney removal were performed for histological analysis, and flow cytometry (FCM): percentage of initial apoptosis (APTi) and viable cells (VC).

Results: Serum creatinine (mg/dL) was statistically different in groups PHI (3.60±0.40) and IHI (3.23±1.08), p<0.05. Histological analysis was statistically different in groups PHI (4.0[4.0;5.0]) and IHI (4.5[4.0;5.0]), p<0.05. APTi percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (73.2±7.1), and IHI (48.1±14). VC percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (25.8±6.9) and IHI (38.5±9.2), p<0.05.

Conclusions: Propofol and isoflurane showed the same level of protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the normoglycemic groups. Transient hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in IRI.
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March 2013

Histological and immunohistochemical study of the expression of p53 and ki-67 proteins in the mucosa of the tongue, pharynx and larynx of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

Inhal Toxicol 2012 Sep;24(11):723-31

Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Student of Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University- UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil.

Introduction: Head and neck cancers are linked to smoking. The most affected sites are the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Experimental studies show epithelial lesions caused by cigarette smoke.

Objectives: To investigate in rats the effects of acute cigarette smoke exposure on the mucosa of the tongue, pharynx and larynx.

Material And Method: Wistar rats were allocated into two groups of 20 animals: CG (control) receiving food and water ad libitum and TG (Tobacco) exposed to the smoke of 40 cigarettes/day for 60 days. Biopsy of their tongues, pharynxes and larynxes were subjected to histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical studies of protein p53 and ki-67.

Result: The histological analysis of tongue from the Tobacco group revealed epithelial hyperplasia (90%), basal cell hyperplasia (95%) and mild to moderate dysplasia (85%). In pharynx showed basal cell hyperplasia (85%), dysplasia (25%) and vascular congestion (95%). In larynx showed basal cell hyperplasia (70%), epithelial hyperplasia (55%), congestion (100%) and inflammatory infiltrate (25%). Morphometric analysis revealed that keratin layer thickness was greater in the tobacco group. P53 immunoexpression was negative in both groups. Ki-67 immunoexpression was positive in basal cell nuclei but in parabasal cell nuclei it was positive only in the Tobacco group.

Conclusions: The exposure of animals to cigarette smoke for 60 days resulted in benign lesions. The duration of exposure was not enough to cause the development cancer, as confirmed by the negative expression of p53 protein in all slides examined. Analysis of ki-67 expression showed intense epithelial proliferation in response to damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2012.715317DOI Listing
September 2012
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