Publications by authors named "László G Nagy"

52 Publications

Mycology: Rediscovery of a lost model fungus highlights the origin of mycorrhizal symbioses.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr;31(7):R342-R344

Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most frequent symbioses of land plants. By reisolating a long-lost fungus from nature, a new study cracks the genomics of an enigmatic fungal-cyanobacterial partnership and reestablishes a valuable model for understanding the AM symbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Gene family expansions and transcriptome signatures uncover fungal adaptations to wood decay.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

INRAE, Aix Marseille Univ, UMR1163, Biodiversité et Biotechnologie Fongiques, Marseille, 13009, France.

Because they comprise some of the most efficient wood-decayers, Polyporales fungi impact carbon cycling in forest environment. Despite continuous discoveries on the enzymatic machinery involved in wood decomposition, the vision on their evolutionary adaptation to wood decay and genome diversity remains incomplete. We combined the genome sequence information from 50 Polyporales species, including 26 newly sequenced genomes and sought for genomic and functional adaptations to wood decay through the analysis of genome composition and transcriptome responses to different carbon sources. The genomes of Polyporales from different phylogenetic clades showed poor conservation in macrosynteny, indicative of genome rearrangements. We observed different gene family expansion/contraction histories for plant cell wall degrading enzymes in core polyporoids and phlebioids and captured expansions for genes involved in signalling and regulation in the lineages of white rotters. Furthermore, we identified conserved cupredoxins, thaumatin-like proteins and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases with a yet uncharacterized appended module as new candidate players in wood decomposition. Given the current need for enzymatic toolkits dedicated to the transformation of renewable carbon sources, the observed genomic diversity among Polyporales strengthens the relevance of mining Polyporales biodiversity to understand the molecular mechanisms of wood decay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15423DOI Listing
February 2021

Hallmarks of Basidiomycete Soft- and White-Rot in Wood-Decay -Omics Data of Two Species.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 11;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, 6726 Szeged, Hungary.

Wood-decaying Basidiomycetes are among the most efficient degraders of plant cell walls, making them key players in forest ecosystems, global carbon cycle, and in bio-based industries. Recent insights from -omics data revealed a high functional diversity of wood-decay strategies, especially among the traditional white-rot and brown-rot dichotomy. We examined the mechanistic bases of wood-decay in the conifer-specialists and using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. spp. (Fungi, Basidiomycota) include devastating pathogens of temperate forests and saprotrophs that decay wood. They have been discussed as white-rot species, though their response to wood deviates from typical white-rotters. While we observed an upregulation of a diverse suite of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, unlike white-rotters, they possess and express an atypical wood-decay repertoire in which pectinases and expansins are enriched, whereas lignin-decaying enzymes (LDEs) are generally downregulated. This combination of wood decay genes resembles the soft-rot of Ascomycota and appears widespread among Basidiomycota that produce a superficial white rot-like decay. These observations are consistent with ancestral soft-rot decay machinery conserved across asco- and Basidiomycota, a gain of efficient lignin-degrading ability in white-rot fungi and repeated, complete, or partial losses of LDE encoding gene repertoires in brown- and secondarily soft-rot fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827401PMC
January 2021

Fruiting body form, not nutritional mode, is the major driver of diversification in mushroom-forming fungi.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 30;117(51):32528-32534. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610;

With ∼36,000 described species, Agaricomycetes are among the most successful groups of Fungi. Agaricomycetes display great diversity in fruiting body forms and nutritional modes. Most have pileate-stipitate fruiting bodies (with a cap and stalk), but the group also contains crust-like resupinate fungi, polypores, coral fungi, and gasteroid forms (e.g., puffballs and stinkhorns). Some Agaricomycetes enter into ectomycorrhizal symbioses with plants, while others are decayers (saprotrophs) or pathogens. We constructed a megaphylogeny of 8,400 species and used it to test the following five hypotheses regarding the evolution of morphological and ecological traits in Agaricomycetes and their impact on diversification: 1) resupinate forms are plesiomorphic, 2) pileate-stipitate forms promote diversification, 3) the evolution of gasteroid forms is irreversible, 4) the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis promotes diversification, and 5) the evolution of ECM symbiosis is irreversible. The ancestor of Agaricomycetes was a saprotroph with a resupinate fruiting body. There have been 462 transitions in the examined morphologies, including 123 origins of gasteroid forms. Reversals of gasteroid forms are highly unlikely but cannot be rejected. Pileate-stipitate forms are correlated with elevated diversification rates, suggesting that this morphological trait is a key to the success of Agaricomycetes. ECM symbioses have evolved 36 times in Agaricomycetes, with several transformations to parasitism. Across the entire 8,400-species phylogeny, diversification rates of ectomycorrhizal lineages are no greater than those of saprotrophic lineages. However, some ECM lineages have elevated diversification rates compared to their non-ECM sister clades, suggesting that the evolution of symbioses may act as a key innovation at local phylogenetic scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922539117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768725PMC
December 2020

genomes resolve the evolution of fungal bioluminescence.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 23;117(49):31267-31277. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan;

Mushroom-forming fungi in the order Agaricales represent an independent origin of bioluminescence in the tree of life; yet the diversity, evolutionary history, and timing of the origin of fungal luciferases remain elusive. We sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five bonnet mushroom species ( spp.), a diverse lineage comprising the majority of bioluminescent fungi. Two species with haploid genome assemblies ∼150 Mb are among the largest in Agaricales, and we found that a variety of repeats between species were differentially mediated by DNA methylation. We show that bioluminescence evolved in the last common ancestor of mycenoid and the marasmioid clade of Agaricales and was maintained through at least 160 million years of evolution. Analyses of synteny across genomes of bioluminescent species resolved how the luciferase cluster was derived by duplication and translocation, frequently rearranged and lost in most species, but conserved in the lineage. Luciferase cluster members were coexpressed across developmental stages, with the highest expression in fruiting body caps and stipes, suggesting fruiting-related adaptive functions. Our results contribute to understanding a de novo origin of bioluminescence and the corresponding gene cluster in a diverse group of enigmatic fungal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010761117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733832PMC
December 2020

Transcriptome data reveal conserved patterns of fruiting body development and response to heat stress in the mushroom-forming fungus Flammulina filiformis.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(10):e0239890. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Mushroom-forming fungi are complex multicellular organisms that form the basis of a large industry, yet, our understanding of the mechanisms of mushroom development and its responses to various stresses remains limited. The winter mushroom (Flammulina filiformis) is cultivated at a large commercial scale in East Asia and is a species with a preference for low temperatures. This study investigated fruiting body development in F. filiformis by comparing transcriptomes of 4 developmental stages, and compared the developmental genes to a 200-genome dataset to identify conserved genes involved in fruiting body development, and examined the response of heat sensitive and -resistant strains to heat stress. Our data revealed widely conserved genes involved in primordium development of F. filiformis, many of which originated before the emergence of the Agaricomycetes, indicating co-option for complex multicellularity during evolution. We also revealed several notable fruiting-specific genes, including the genes with conserved stipe-specific expression patterns and the others which related to sexual development, water absorption, basidium formation and sporulation, among others. Comparative analysis revealed that heat stress induced more genes in the heat resistant strain (M1) than in the heat sensitive one (XR). Of particular importance are the hsp70, hsp90 and fes1 genes, which may facilitate the adjustment to heat stress in the early stages of fruiting body development. These data highlighted novel genes involved in complex multicellular development in fungi and aid further studies on gene function and efforts to improve the productivity and heat tolerance in mushroom-forming fungi.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239890PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567395PMC
November 2020

Large-scale genome sequencing of mycorrhizal fungi provides insights into the early evolution of symbiotic traits.

Nat Commun 2020 10 12;11(1):5125. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Université de Lorraine, Institut national de recherche pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l' environnement, UMR Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, Centre INRAE Grand Est-Nancy, 54280, Champenoux, France.

Mycorrhizal fungi are mutualists that play crucial roles in nutrient acquisition in terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal symbioses arose repeatedly across multiple lineages of Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Considerable variation exists in the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to acquire carbon from soil organic matter. Here, we present a combined analysis of 135 fungal genomes from 73 saprotrophic, endophytic and pathogenic species, and 62 mycorrhizal species, including 29 new mycorrhizal genomes. This study samples ecologically dominant fungal guilds for which there were previously no symbiotic genomes available, including ectomycorrhizal Russulales, Thelephorales and Cantharellales. Our analyses show that transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis involve (1) widespread losses of degrading enzymes acting on lignin and cellulose, (2) co-option of genes present in saprotrophic ancestors to fulfill new symbiotic functions, (3) diversification of novel, lineage-specific symbiosis-induced genes, (4) proliferation of transposable elements and (5) divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18795-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550596PMC
October 2020

Unmatched Level of Molecular Convergence among Deeply Divergent Complex Multicellular Fungi.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 08;37(8):2228-2240

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center, Szeged, Hungary.

Convergent evolution is pervasive in nature, but it is poorly understood how various constraints and natural selection limit the diversity of evolvable phenotypes. Here, we analyze the transcriptome across fruiting body development to understand the independent evolution of complex multicellularity in the two largest clades of fungi-the Agarico- and Pezizomycotina. Despite >650 My of divergence between these clades, we find that very similar sets of genes have convergently been co-opted for complex multicellularity, followed by expansions of their gene families by duplications. Over 82% of shared multicellularity-related gene families were expanding in both clades, indicating a high prevalence of convergence also at the gene family level. This convergence is coupled with a rich inferred repertoire of multicellularity-related genes in the most recent common ancestor of the Agarico- and Pezizomycotina, consistent with the hypothesis that the coding capacity of ancestral fungal genomes might have promoted the repeated evolution of complex multicellularity. We interpret this repertoire as an indication of evolutionary predisposition of fungal ancestors for evolving complex multicellular fruiting bodies. Our work suggests that evolutionary convergence may happen not only when organisms are closely related or are under similar selection pressures, but also when ancestral genomic repertoires render certain evolutionary trajectories more likely than others, even across large phylogenetic distances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403615PMC
August 2020

Novel phylogenetic methods are needed for understanding gene function in the era of mega-scale genome sequencing.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 03;48(5):2209-2219

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, Temesvari krt 62. Szeged 6726, Hungary.

Ongoing large-scale genome sequencing projects are forecasting a data deluge that will almost certainly overwhelm current analytical capabilities of evolutionary genomics. In contrast to population genomics, there are no standardized methods in evolutionary genomics for extracting evolutionary and functional (e.g. gene-trait association) signal from genomic data. Here, we examine how current practices of multi-species comparative genomics perform in this aspect and point out that many genomic datasets are under-utilized due to the lack of powerful methodologies. As a result, many current analyses emphasize gene families for which some functional data is already available, resulting in a growing gap between functionally well-characterized genes/organisms and the universe of unknowns. This leaves unknown genes on the 'dark side' of genomes, a problem that will not be mitigated by sequencing more and more genomes, unless we develop tools to infer functional hypotheses for unknown genes in a systematic manner. We provide an inventory of recently developed methods capable of predicting gene-gene and gene-trait associations based on comparative data, then argue that realizing the full potential of whole genome datasets requires the integration of phylogenetic comparative methods into genomics, a rich but underutilized toolbox for looking into the past.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz1241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049691PMC
March 2020

Comparative genomics reveals the origin of fungal hyphae and multicellularity.

Nat Commun 2019 09 9;10(1):4080. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, BRC-HAS, Temesvari krt 62, 6726, Szeged, Hungary.

Hyphae represent a hallmark structure of multicellular fungi. The evolutionary origins of hyphae and of the underlying genes are, however, hardly known. By systematically analyzing 72 complete genomes, we here show that hyphae evolved early in fungal evolution probably via diverse genetic changes, including co-option and exaptation of ancient eukaryotic (e.g. phagocytosis-related) genes, the origin of new gene families, gene duplications and alterations of gene structure, among others. Contrary to most multicellular lineages, the origin of filamentous fungi did not correlate with expansions of kinases, receptors or adhesive proteins. Co-option was probably the dominant mechanism for recruiting genes for hypha morphogenesis, while gene duplication was apparently less prevalent, except in transcriptional regulators and cell wall - related genes. We identified 414 novel gene families that show correlated evolution with hyphae and that may have contributed to its evolution. Our results suggest that hyphae represent a unique multicellular organization that evolved by limited fungal-specific innovations and gene duplication but pervasive co-option and modification of ancient eukaryotic functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12085-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733946PMC
September 2019

Comparative genomics reveals unique wood-decay strategies and fruiting body development in the Schizophyllaceae.

New Phytol 2019 10 1;224(2):902-915. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center, HAS, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.

Agaricomycetes are fruiting body-forming fungi that produce some of the most efficient enzyme systems to degrade wood. Despite decades-long interest in their biology, the evolution and functional diversity of both wood-decay and fruiting body formation are incompletely known. We performed comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of wood-decay and fruiting body development in Auriculariopsis ampla and Schizophyllum commune (Schizophyllaceae), species with secondarily simplified morphologies, an enigmatic wood-decay strategy and weak pathogenicity to woody plants. The plant cell wall-degrading enzyme repertoires of Schizophyllaceae are transitional between those of white rot species and less efficient wood-degraders such as brown rot or mycorrhizal fungi. Rich repertoires of suberinase and tannase genes were found in both species, with tannases restricted to Agaricomycetes that preferentially colonize bark-covered wood, suggesting potential complementation of their weaker wood-decaying abilities and adaptations to wood colonization through the bark. Fruiting body transcriptomes revealed a high rate of divergence in developmental gene expression, but also several genes with conserved expression patterns, including novel transcription factors and small-secreted proteins, some of the latter which might represent fruiting body effectors. Taken together, our analyses highlighted novel aspects of wood-decay and fruiting body development in an important family of mushroom-forming fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16032DOI Listing
October 2019

Model Choice, Missing Data, and Taxon Sampling Impact Phylogenomic Inference of Deep Basidiomycota Relationships.

Syst Biol 2020 01;69(1):17-37

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, BRC-HAS, Szeged 6726, Hungary.

Resolving deep divergences in the tree of life is challenging even for analyses of genome-scale phylogenetic data sets. Relationships between Basidiomycota subphyla, the rusts and allies (Pucciniomycotina), smuts and allies (Ustilaginomycotina), and mushroom-forming fungi and allies (Agaricomycotina) were found particularly recalcitrant both to traditional multigene and genome-scale phylogenetics. Here, we address basal Basidiomycota relationships using concatenated and gene tree-based analyses of various phylogenomic data sets to examine the contribution of several potential sources of bias. We evaluate the contribution of biological causes (hard polytomy, incomplete lineage sorting) versus unmodeled evolutionary processes and factors that exacerbate their effects (e.g., fast-evolving sites and long-branch taxa) to inferences of basal Basidiomycota relationships. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo and likelihood mapping analyses reject the hard polytomy with confidence. In concatenated analyses, fast-evolving sites and oversimplified models of amino acid substitution favored the grouping of smuts with mushroom-forming fungi, often leading to maximal bootstrap support in both concatenation and coalescent analyses. On the contrary, the most conserved data subsets grouped rusts and allies with mushroom-forming fungi, although this relationship proved labile, sensitive to model choice, to different data subsets and to missing data. Excluding putative long-branch taxa, genes with high proportions of missing data and/or with strong signal failed to reveal a consistent trend toward one or the other topology, suggesting that additional sources of conflict are at play. While concatenated analyses yielded strong but conflicting support, individual gene trees mostly provided poor support for any resolution of rusts, smuts, and mushroom-forming fungi, suggesting that the true Basidiomycota tree might be in a part of tree space that is difficult to access using both concatenation and gene tree-based approaches. Inference-based assessments of absolute model fit strongly reject best-fit models for the vast majority of genes, indicating a poor fit of even the most commonly used models. While this is consistent with previous assessments of site-homogenous models of amino acid evolution, this does not appear to be the sole source of confounding signal. Our analyses suggest that topologies uniting smuts with mushroom-forming fungi can arise as a result of inappropriate modeling of amino acid sites that might be prone to systematic bias. We speculate that improved models of sequence evolution could shed more light on basal splits in the Basidiomycota, which, for now, remain unresolved despite the use of whole genome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syz029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115942PMC
January 2020

Transcriptomic atlas of mushroom development reveals conserved genes behind complex multicellularity in fungi.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 22;116(15):7409-7418. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged 6726, Hungary;

The evolution of complex multicellularity has been one of the major transitions in the history of life. In contrast to simple multicellular aggregates of cells, it has evolved only in a handful of lineages, including animals, embryophytes, red and brown algae, and fungi. Despite being a key step toward the evolution of complex organisms, the evolutionary origins and the genetic underpinnings of complex multicellularity are incompletely known. The development of fungal fruiting bodies from a hyphal thallus represents a transition from simple to complex multicellularity that is inducible under laboratory conditions. We constructed a reference atlas of mushroom formation based on developmental transcriptome data of six species and comparisons of >200 whole genomes, to elucidate the core genetic program of complex multicellularity and fruiting body development in mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes). Nearly 300 conserved gene families and >70 functional groups contained developmentally regulated genes from five to six species, covering functions related to fungal cell wall remodeling, targeted protein degradation, signal transduction, adhesion, and small secreted proteins (including effector-like orphan genes). Several of these families, including F-box proteins, expansin-like proteins, protein kinases, and transcription factors, showed expansions in Agaricomycetes, many of which convergently expanded in multicellular plants and/or animals too, reflecting convergent solutions to genetic hurdles imposed by complex multicellularity among independently evolved lineages. This study provides an entry point to studying mushroom development and complex multicellularity in one of the largest clades of complex eukaryotic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817822116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462078PMC
April 2019

Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 18;3(4):668-678. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary.

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443077PMC
April 2019

Pezizomycetes genomes reveal the molecular basis of ectomycorrhizal truffle lifestyle.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 12 12;2(12):1956-1965. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1136 INRA-Université de Lorraine, Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, Centre INRA-Grand Est-Nancy, Champenoux, France.

Tuberaceae is one of the most diverse lineages of symbiotic truffle-forming fungi. To understand the molecular underpinning of the ectomycorrhizal truffle lifestyle, we compared the genomes of Piedmont white truffle (Tuber magnatum), Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum), Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum), pig truffle (Choiromyces venosus) and desert truffle (Terfezia boudieri) to saprotrophic Pezizomycetes. Reconstructed gene duplication/loss histories along a time-calibrated phylogeny of Ascomycetes revealed that Tuberaceae-specific traits may be related to a higher gene diversification rate. Genomic features in Tuber species appear to be very similar, with high transposon content, few genes coding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, a substantial set of lineage-specific fruiting-body-upregulated genes and high expression of genes involved in volatile organic compound metabolism. Developmental and metabolic pathways expressed in ectomycorrhizae and fruiting bodies of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum are unexpectedly very similar, owing to the fact that they diverged ~100 Ma. Volatile organic compounds from pungent truffle odours are not the products of Tuber-specific gene innovations, but rely on the differential expression of an existing gene repertoire. These genomic resources will help to address fundamental questions in the evolution of the truffle lifestyle and the ecology of fungi that have been praised as food delicacies for centuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0710-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Genomics and Development of Lentinus tigrinus: A White-Rot Wood-Decaying Mushroom with Dimorphic Fruiting Bodies.

Genome Biol Evol 2018 12 1;10(12):3250-3261. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Lentinus tigrinus is a species of wood-decaying fungi (Polyporales) that has an agaricoid form (a gilled mushroom) and a secotioid form (puffball-like, with enclosed spore-bearing structures). Previous studies suggested that the secotioid form is conferred by a recessive allele of a single locus. We sequenced the genomes of one agaricoid (Aga) strain and one secotioid (Sec) strain (39.53-39.88 Mb, with 15,581-15,380 genes, respectively). We mated the Sec and Aga monokaryons, genotyped the progeny, and performed bulked segregant analysis (BSA). We also fruited three Sec/Sec and three Aga/Aga dikaryons, and sampled transcriptomes at four developmental stages. Using BSA, we identified 105 top candidate genes with nonsynonymous SNPs that cosegregate with fruiting body phenotype. Transcriptome analyses of Sec/Sec versus Aga/Aga dikaryons identified 907 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) along four developmental stages. On the basis of BSA and DEGs, the top 25 candidate genes related to fruiting body development span 1.5 Mb (4% of the genome), possibly on a single chromosome, although the precise locus that controls the secotioid phenotype is unresolved. The top candidates include genes encoding a cytochrome P450 and an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, which may play a role in development, based on studies in other fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305247PMC
December 2018

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

Authors:
Juan Carlos Zamora Måns Svensson Roland Kirschner Ibai Olariaga Svengunnar Ryman Luis Alberto Parra József Geml Anna Rosling Slavomír Adamčík Teuvo Ahti M Catherine Aime A Martyn Ainsworth László Albert Edgardo Albertó Alberto Altés García Dmitry Ageev Reinhard Agerer Begoña Aguirre-Hudson Joe Ammirati Harry Andersson Claudio Angelini Vladimír Antonín Takayuki Aoki André Aptroot Didier Argaud Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa Arne Aronsen Ulf Arup Bita Asgari Boris Assyov Violeta Atienza Ditte Bandini João Luís Baptista-Ferreira Hans-Otto Baral Tim Baroni Robert Weingart Barreto Henry Beker Ann Bell Jean-Michel Bellanger Francesco Bellù Martin Bemmann Mika Bendiksby Egil Bendiksen Katriina Bendiksen Lajos Benedek Anna Bérešová-Guttová Franz Berger Reinhard Berndt Annarosa Bernicchia Alona Yu Biketova Enrico Bizio Curtis Bjork Teun Boekhout David Boertmann Tanja Böhning Florent Boittin Carlos G Boluda Menno W Boomsluiter Jan Borovička Tor Erik Brandrud Uwe Braun Irwin Brodo Tatiana Bulyonkova Harold H Burdsall Bart Buyck Ana Rosa Burgaz Vicent Calatayud Philippe Callac Emanuele Campo Massimo Candusso Brigitte Capoen Joaquim Carbó Matteo Carbone Rafael F Castañeda-Ruiz Michael A Castellano Jie Chen Philippe Clerc Giovanni Consiglio Gilles Corriol Régis Courtecuisse Ana Crespo Cathy Cripps Pedro W Crous Gladstone Alves da Silva Meiriele da Silva Marjo Dam Nico Dam Frank Dämmrich Kanad Das Linda Davies Eske De Crop Andre De Kesel Ruben De Lange Bárbara De Madrignac Bonzi Thomas Edison E Dela Cruz Lynn Delgat Vincent Demoulin Dennis E Desjardin Paul Diederich Bálint Dima Maria Martha Dios Pradeep Kumar Divakar Clovis Douanla-Meli Brian Douglas Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos Paul S Dyer Ursula Eberhardt Damien Ertz Fernando Esteve-Raventós Javier Angel Etayo Salazar Vera Evenson Guillaume Eyssartier Edit Farkas Alain Favre Anna G Fedosova Mario Filippa Péter Finy Adam Flakus Simón Fos Jacques Fournier André Fraiture Paolo Franchi Ana Esperanza Franco Molano Gernot Friebes Andreas Frisch Alan Fryday Giuliana Furci Ricardo Galán Márquez Matteo Garbelotto Joaquina María García-Martín Mónica A García Otálora Dania García Sánchez Alain Gardiennet Sigisfredo Garnica Isaac Garrido Benavent Genevieve Gates Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad Tatiana B Gibertoni Tine Grebenc Irmgard Greilhuber Bella Grishkan Johannes Z Groenewald Martin Grube Gérald Gruhn Cécile Gueidan Gro Gulden Luis Fp Gusmão Josef Hafellner Michel Hairaud Marek Halama Nils Hallenberg Roy E Halling Karen Hansen Christoffer Bugge Harder Jacob Heilmann-Clausen Stip Helleman Alain Henriot Margarita Hernandez-Restrepo Raphaël Herve Caroline Hobart Mascha Hoffmeister Klaus Høiland Jan Holec Håkon Holien Karen Hughes Vit Hubka Seppo Huhtinen Boris Ivančević Marian Jagers Walter Jaklitsch AnnaElise Jansen Ruvishika S Jayawardena Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen Mikael Jeppson Peter Johnston Per Magnus Jørgensen Ingvar Kärnefelt Liudmila B Kalinina Gintaras Kantvilas Mitko Karadelev Taiga Kasuya Ivona Kautmanová Richard W Kerrigan Martin Kirchmair Anna Kiyashko Dániel G Knapp Henning Knudsen Kerry Knudsen Tommy Knutsson Miroslav Kolařík Urmas Kõljalg Alica Košuthová Attila Koszka Heikki Kotiranta Vera Kotkova Ondřej Koukol Jiří Kout Gábor M Kovács Martin Kříž Åsa Kruys Viktor Kučera Linas Kudzma Francisco Kuhar Martin Kukwa T K Arun Kumar Vladimír Kunca Ivana Kušan Thomas W Kuyper Carlos Lado Thomas Læssøe Patrice Lainé Ewald Langer Ellen Larsson Karl-Henrik Larsson Gary Laursen Christian Lechat Serena Lee James C Lendemer Laura Levin Uwe Lindemann Håkan Lindström Xingzhong Liu Regulo Carlos Llarena Hernandez Esteve Llop Csaba Locsmándi Deborah Jean Lodge Michael Loizides László Lőkös Jennifer Luangsa-Ard Matthias Lüderitz Thorsten Lumbsch Matthias Lutz Dan Mahoney Ekaterina Malysheva Vera Malysheva Patinjareveettil Manimohan Yasmina Marin-Felix Guilhermina Marques Rubén Martínez-Gil Guy Marson Gerardo Mata P Brandon Matheny Geir Harald Mathiassen Neven Matočec Helmut Mayrhofer Mehdi Mehrabi Ireneia Melo Armin Mešić Andrew S Methven Otto Miettinen Ana M Millanes Romero Andrew N Miller James K Mitchell Roland Moberg Pierre-Arthur Moreau Gabriel Moreno Olga Morozova Asunción Morte Lucia Muggia Guillermo Muñoz González Leena Myllys István Nagy László G Nagy Maria Alice Neves Tuomo Niemelä Pier Luigi Nimis Nicolas Niveiro Machiel E Noordeloos Anders Nordin Sara Raouia Noumeur Yuri Novozhilov Jorinde Nuytinck Esteri Ohenoja Patricia Oliveira Fiuza Alan Orange Alexander Ordynets Beatriz Ortiz-Santana Leticia Pacheco Ferenc Pál-Fám Melissa Palacio Zdeněk Palice Viktor Papp Kadri Pärtel Julia Pawlowska Aurelia Paz Ursula Peintner Shaun Pennycook Olinto Liparini Pereira Pablo Pérez Daniëls Miquel À Pérez-De-Gregorio Capella Carlos Manuel Pérez Del Amo Sergio Pérez Gorjón Sergio Pérez-Ortega Israel Pérez-Vargas Brian A Perry Jens H Petersen Ronald H Petersen Donald H Pfister Chayanard Phukhamsakda Marcin Piątek Meike Piepenbring Raquel Pino-Bodas Juan Pablo Pinzón Esquivel Paul Pirot Eugene S Popov Orlando Popoff María Prieto Álvaro Christian Printzen Nadezhda Psurtseva Witoon Purahong Luis Quijada Gerhard Rambold Natalia A Ramírez Huzefa Raja Olivier Raspé Tania Raymundo Martina Réblová Yury A Rebriev Juan de Dios Reyes García Miguel Ángel Ribes Ripoll Franck Richard Mike J Richardson Víctor J Rico Gerardo Lucio Robledo Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus Anna Ronikier Luis Rubio Casas Katerina Rusevska Günter Saar Irja Saar Isabel Salcedo Sergio M Salcedo Martínez Carlos A Salvador Montoya Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez J Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra Sergi Santamaria Josiane Santana Monteiro Hans Josef Schroers Barbara Schulz Geert Schmidt-Stohn Trond Schumacher Beatrice Senn-Irlet Hana Ševčíková Oleg Shchepin Takashi Shirouzu Anton Shiryaev Klaus Siepe Esteban B Sir Mohammad Sohrabi Karl Soop Viacheslav Spirin Toby Spribille Marc Stadler Joost Stalpers Soili Stenroos Ave Suija Stellan Sunhede Sten Svantesson Sigvard Svensson Tatyana Yu Svetasheva Krzysztof Świerkosz Heidi Tamm Hatira Taskin Adrien Taudière Jan-Olof Tedebrand Raúl Tena Lahoz Marina Temina Arne Thell Marco Thines Göran Thor Holger Thüs Leif Tibell Sanja Tibell Einar Timdal Zdenko Tkalčec Tor Tønsberg Gérard Trichies Dagmar Triebel Andrei Tsurykau Rodham E Tulloss Veera Tuovinen Miguel Ulloa Sosa Carlos Urcelay François Valade Ricardo Valenzuela Garza Pieter van den Boom Nicolas Van Vooren Aida M Vasco-Palacios Jukka Vauras Juan Manuel Velasco Santos Else Vellinga Annemieke Verbeken Per Vetlesen Alfredo Vizzini Hermann Voglmayr Sergey Volobuev Wolfgang von Brackel Elena Voronina Grit Walther Roy Watling Evi Weber Mats Wedin Øyvind Weholt Martin Westberg Eugene Yurchenko Petr Zehnálek Huang Zhang Mikhail P Zhurbenko Stefan Ekman

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 24;9(1):167-175. Epub 2018 May 24.

Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11 International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048565PMC
June 2018

Many roads to convergence.

Authors:
László G Nagy

Science 2018 07;361(6398):125-126

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 6726 Szeged, Hungary.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aau2409DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparative genomics provides insights into the lifestyle and reveals functional heterogeneity of dark septate endophytic fungi.

Sci Rep 2018 04 20;8(1):6321. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, 1117, Hungary.

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are a form-group of root endophytic fungi with elusive functions. Here, the genomes of two common DSE of semiarid areas, Cadophora sp. and Periconia macrospinosa were sequenced and analyzed with another 32 ascomycetes of different lifestyles. Cadophora sp. (Helotiales) and P. macrospinosa (Pleosporales) have genomes of 70.46 Mb and 54.99 Mb with 22,766 and 18,750 gene models, respectively. The majority of DSE-specific protein clusters lack functional annotation with no similarity to characterized proteins, implying that they have evolved unique genetic innovations. Both DSE possess an expanded number of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), including plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). Those were similar in three other DSE, and contributed a signal for the separation of root endophytes in principal component analyses of CAZymes, indicating shared genomic traits of DSE fungi. Number of secreted proteases and lipases, aquaporins, and genes linked to melanin synthesis were also relatively high in our fungi. In spite of certain similarities between our two DSE, we observed low levels of convergence in their gene family evolution. This suggests that, despite originating from the same habitat, these two fungi evolved along different evolutionary trajectories and display considerable functional differences within the endophytic lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24686-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910433PMC
April 2018

Complex multicellularity in fungi: evolutionary convergence, single origin, or both?

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2018 11 19;93(4):1778-1794. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, BRC-HAS, 62 Temesvári krt, 6726, Szeged, Hungary.

Complex multicellularity represents the most advanced level of biological organization and it has evolved only a few times: in metazoans, green plants, brown and red algae and fungi. Compared to other lineages, the evolution of multicellularity in fungi follows different principles; both simple and complex multicellularity evolved via unique mechanisms not found in other lineages. Herein we review ecological, palaeontological, developmental and genomic aspects of complex multicellularity in fungi and discuss general principles of the evolution of complex multicellularity in light of its fungal manifestations. Fungi represent the only lineage in which complex multicellularity shows signatures of convergent evolution: it appears 8-11 times in distinct fungal lineages, which show a patchy phylogenetic distribution yet share some of the genetic mechanisms underlying complex multicellular development. To explain the patchy distribution of complex multicellularity across the fungal phylogeny we identify four key observations: the large number of apparently independent complex multicellular clades; the lack of documented phenotypic homology between these clades; the conservation of gene circuits regulating the onset of complex multicellular development; and the existence of clades in which the evolution of complex multicellularity is coupled with limited gene family diversification. We discuss how these patterns and known genetic aspects of fungal development can be reconciled with the genetic theory of convergent evolution to explain the pervasive occurrence of complex multicellularity across the fungal tree of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12418DOI Listing
November 2018

Armillaria.

Curr Biol 2018 04;28(7):R297-R298

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, 6726, Hungary. Electronic address:

Lingering in forests around the world, some of the largest and oldest terrestrial organisms on earth hide in plain sight. In this Quick Guide, Sipos et al. shed light on the biology of the Armillaria fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.026DOI Listing
April 2018

Author Correction: Genome expansion and lineage-specific genetic innovations in the forest pathogenic fungi Armillaria.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 03;2(3):577

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 6726, Szeged, Hungary.

In the version of this Article originally published, it was incorrectly stated that "16,687 protein-coding genes were inferred for the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Armillaria"; the value was incorrect and it should have read "15,787". This has now been corrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0469-7DOI Listing
March 2018

Fungal Phylogeny in the Age of Genomics: Insights Into Phylogenetic Inference From Genome-Scale Datasets.

Adv Genet 2017 20;100:49-72. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The genomic era has been transformative for many fields, including our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between organisms. The wide availability of whole-genome sequences practically eliminated data availability as a limiting factor for inferring phylogenetic trees, providing hundreds to thousands of loci for analyses, leading to molecular phylogenetics gradually being replaced by phylogenomics. The new era has also brought new challenges: systematic errors (resulting from, e.g., model violation) can be more pronounced in phylogenomic datasets and can lead to strongly supported incorrect relationships, creating significant incongruence among studies. Here, we review common practices, technical and biological challenges of phylogenomic analyses, with examples illustrated from fungi. We compare major approaches of phylogenetic inference, and illustrate the advantages conferred and challenges presented in phylogenomic case studies across the fungal tree of life, including cases where genome-scale data could conclusively resolve contentious relationships, and others that remain challenging despite the flood of genomic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2017.09.008DOI Listing
July 2018

The genus Parasola: phylogeny and the description of three new species.

Mycologia 2017 Jul-Aug;109(4):620-629. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

g Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit , Institute of Biochemistry , BRC, HAS, Temesvári körút 62, H-6726 Szeged , Hungary.

Parasola represents an enigmatic lineage of veil-less, coprinoid fungi in Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The species-level taxonomy of the genus has been in a flux recently, resulting in the elimination of some long-established names and the description of new taxa. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Parasola using two nuc rDNA loci, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and 28S and identify several putatively undescribed species, of which three are formally described here (Parasola crataegi, P. ochracea, and P. plicatilis-similis) based on molecular and morphological data. Morphological descriptions for the new species and an identification key to accepted Parasola species are given. We revise and discuss our current understanding of the phylogeny of Parasola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2017.1386526DOI Listing
November 2018

Genome expansion and lineage-specific genetic innovations in the forest pathogenic fungi Armillaria.

Nat Ecol Evol 2017 Dec 30;1(12):1931-1941. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.

Armillaria species are both devastating forest pathogens and some of the largest terrestrial organisms on Earth. They forage for hosts and achieve immense colony sizes via rhizomorphs, root-like multicellular structures of clonal dispersal. Here, we sequenced and analysed the genomes of four Armillaria species and performed RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomic analysis on the invasive and reproductive developmental stages of A. ostoyae. Comparison with 22 related fungi revealed a significant genome expansion in Armillaria, affecting several pathogenicity-related genes, lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and lineage-specific genes expressed during rhizomorph development. Rhizomorphs express an evolutionarily young transcriptome that shares features with the transcriptomes of both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelia. Several genes show concomitant upregulation in rhizomorphs and fruiting bodies and share cis-regulatory signatures in their promoters, providing genetic and regulatory insights into complex multicellularity in fungi. Our results suggest that the evolution of the unique dispersal and pathogenicity mechanisms of Armillaria might have drawn upon ancestral genetic toolkits for wood-decay, morphogenesis and complex multicellularity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0347-8DOI Listing
December 2017

Six Key Traits of Fungi: Their Evolutionary Origins and Genetic Bases.

Microbiol Spectr 2017 07;5(4)

Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development. The traits highlighted here represent just a sample of the characteristics that have evolved in fungi, including polarized multicellular growth, fruiting body development, dimorphism, secondary metabolism, wood decay, and mycorrhizae. However, a great number of other important traits also underlie the evolution of the taxonomically and phenotypically hyperdiverse fungal kingdom, which could fill up a volume on its own. After reviewing the evolution of these six well-studied traits in fungi, we discuss how the recurrent evolution of phenotypic similarity, that is, convergent evolution in the broad sense, has shaped their phylogenetic distribution in extant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0036-2016DOI Listing
July 2017

Evolution: Complex Multicellular Life with 5,500 Genes.

Authors:
Laszlo G Nagy

Curr Biol 2017 06;27(12):R609-R612

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Center, HAS, Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

The origin of complex multicellularity was a major transition in evolution and is generally associated with higher genomic complexity. However, some complex multicellular fungi defy this principle, having small genomes that resemble those of unicellular yeasts rather than those of other complex multicellular organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.032DOI Listing
June 2017

Genetic Bases of Fungal White Rot Wood Decay Predicted by Phylogenomic Analysis of Correlated Gene-Phenotype Evolution.

Mol Biol Evol 2017 01 10;34(1):35-44. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, MA.

Fungal decomposition of plant cell walls (PCW) is a complex process that has diverse industrial applications and huge impacts on the carbon cycle. White rot (WR) is a powerful mode of PCW decay in which lignin and carbohydrates are both degraded. Mechanistic studies of decay coupled with comparative genomic analyses have provided clues to the enzymatic components of WR systems and their evolutionary origins, but the complete suite of genes necessary for WR remains undetermined. Here, we use phylogenomic comparative methods, which we validate through simulations, to identify shifts in gene family diversification rates that are correlated with evolution of WR, using data from 62 fungal genomes. We detected 409 gene families that appear to be evolutionarily correlated with WR. The identified gene families encode well-characterized decay enzymes, e.g., fungal class II peroxidases and cellobiohydrolases, and enzymes involved in import and detoxification pathways, as well as 73 gene families that have no functional annotation. About 310 of the 409 identified gene families are present in the genome of the model WR fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and 192 of these (62%) have been shown to be upregulated under ligninolytic culture conditions, which corroborates the phylogeny-based functional inferences. These results illuminate the complexity of WR and suggest that its evolution has involved a general elaboration of the decay apparatus, including numerous gene families with as-yet unknown exact functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw238DOI Listing
January 2017

NFAP2, a novel cysteine-rich anti-yeast protein from Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181: isolation and characterization.

AMB Express 2016 Dec 15;6(1):75. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.

The increasing incidence of fungal infections and damages due to drug-resistant fungi urges the development of new antifungal strategies. The cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from filamentous ascomycetes provide a feasible base for protection against molds due to their potent antifungal activity on them. In contrast to this, they show no or weak activity on yeasts, hence their applicability against this group of fungi is questionable. In the present study a 5.6 kDa anti-yeast protein (NFAP2) is isolated, identified and characterized from the ferment broth of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, NFAP2 and its putative homologs represent a new group of ascomycetous cysteine-rich antifungal proteins. NFAP2 proved to be highly effective against tested yeasts involving clinically relevant Candida species. NFAP2 did not cause metabolic inactivity and apoptosis induction, but its plasma membrane disruption ability was observed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antifungal activity was maintained after high temperature treatment presumably due to the in silico predicted stable tertiary structure. The disulfide bond-stabilized, heat-resistant folded structure of NFAP2 was experimentally proved. After further investigations of antifungal mechanism, structure and toxicity, NFAP2 could be applicable as a potent antifungal agent against yeasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-016-0250-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025423PMC
December 2016

Psathyloma, a new genus in Hymenogastraceae described from New Zealand.

Mycologia 2016 Mar-Apr;108(2):397-404. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Fungal Evolutionary Genomics Group, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Temesvári krt. 62, 6726, Szeged, Hungary.

A new genus Psathyloma is described based on collections of agarics from New Zealand. We describe two new species in the genus, Ps. leucocarpum and Ps. catervatim, both of which have been known and tentatively named for a long time awaiting a formal description. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analyses reveal that Psathyloma forms a strongly supported sister clade to Hebeloma, Naucoria and Hymenogaster Morphologically Psathyloma resembles Hebeloma from which it differs mainly by producing smooth basidiospores with a germ pore. The geographical range of the genus has been demonstrated to include several regions in the southern hemisphere. A survey of published environmental sequences reveals that Psathyloma spp. were isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips from Tasmania and Argentina, indicating an ectomycorrhizal association with southern beech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/15-143DOI Listing
June 2016