Publications by authors named "Kyung-Wan Baek"

21 Publications

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Draft genome of Semisulcospira libertina, a species of freshwater snail.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e32. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 52727, Korea.

Semisulcospira libertina, a species of freshwater snail, is widespread in East Asia. It is important as a food source. Additionally, it is a vector of clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, metagonimiasis, and other parasites. Although S. libertina has ecological, commercial, and clinical importance, its whole-genome has not been reported yet. Here, we revealed the genome of S. libertina through de novo assembly. We assembled the whole-genome of S. libertina and determined its transcriptome for the first time using Illumina NovaSeq 6000 platform. According to the k-mer analysis, the genome size of S. libertina was estimated to be 3.04 Gb. Using RepeatMasker, a total of 53.68% of repeats were identified in the genome assembly. Genome data of S. libertina reported in this study will be useful for identification and conservation of S. libertina in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5808/gi.21039DOI Listing
September 2021

Two Types of Mouse Models for Sarcopenia Research: Senescence Acceleration and Genetic Modification Models.

J Bone Metab 2021 Aug 31;28(3):179-191. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

Sarcopenia leads to loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength due to aging; it was recently given a disease code (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification, M62.84). As a result, in recent years, sarcopenia-related research has increased. In addition, various studies seeking to prevent and treat sarcopenia by identifying the various mechanisms related to the reduction of skeletal muscle properties have been conducted. Previous studies have identified muscle synthesis and breakdown; investigating them has generated evidence for preventing and treating sarcopenia. Mouse models are still the most useful ones for determining mechanisms underlying sarcopenia through correlations and interventions involving specific genes and their phenotypes. Mouse models used to study sarcopenia often induce muscle atrophy by hindlimb unloading, denervation, or immobilization. Though it is less frequently used, the senescence-accelerated mouse can also be useful for sarcopenia research. Herein, we discuss cases where senescence-accelerated and genetically engineered mouse models were used in sarcopenia research and different perspectives to use them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11005/jbm.2021.28.3.179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441530PMC
August 2021

Comparative analysis of the association between various serum vitamin D biomarkers and sarcopenia.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Sep 5;35(9):e23946. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.

Background: Vitamin D status is associated with muscle strength and maintenance of muscle fibers. However, which serum vitamin D biomarker better reflects sarcopenia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between various serum vitamin D biomarkers (total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], bioavailable 25(OH)D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH) D], and vitamin D metabolite ratio [VMR]) and sarcopenia.

Methods: The data for 83 hip fracture patients were finally included in the analysis. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Measurements of 24,25(OH) D and 25(OH)D were made using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The VMR was calculated by dividing serum 24,25(OH) D by serum 25(OH)D and then multiplying by 100. Based on total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin concentrations, bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using the equations from the other previous studies.

Results: Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were significantly (p = 0.030) decreased in the sarcopenia group compared with the non-sarcopenia group. Results of ROC analysis for the diagnosis of sarcopenia using serum level of bioavailable of 25(OH)D revealed that the cutoff point for bioavailable 25(OH)D was 1.70 ng/ml (AUC = 0.649, p < 0.001). In the group with a bioavailable 25(OH)D less than 1.70 ng/ml, the incidence of sarcopenia increased by 3.3 times (odds ratio: 3.33, p = 0.013).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that bioavailable 25(OH)D was associated with sarcopenia among the various serum vitamin D biomarkers. Bioavailable vitamin D might be helpful for assessing the risk of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418464PMC
September 2021

Differential gene expression profile by RNA sequencing study of elderly osteoporotic hip fracture patients with sarcopenia.

J Orthop Translat 2021 Jul 14;29:10-18. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, South Korea.

Background: The purpose of this study was to report the RNA sequencing profile according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia in elderly patients with osteoporotic hip fracture. Therefore, an important genetic factor candidate for sarcopenia causing hip fracture in elderly with osteoporosis has been identified.

Methods: The patient group involved subjects over 65 years who had undergone hip fracture surgery. Among 323 hip fracture (HF) patients identified from May 2017 to December 2019, 162 HF patients (90 non-sarcopenia and 72 sarcopenia groups), excluding subjects with high energy trauma and non-osteoporosis, were finally included in the analysis. For RNA sequencing, each patient with hand grip strength (HGS) values in the top 10% were enrolled in the control group and with the bottom 10% in the patient group. After excluding patients with poor tissue quality, 6 patients and 5 patients were selected for sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, respectively. For qPCR validation, each patient with HGS values in the top 20% and bottom 20% was enrolled in the control and patient groups, respectively. After excluding patients with poor tissue quality, 12 patients and 12 patients were enrolled in the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, respectively. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria for low muscle strength (hand grip strength below 18 ​kg in women and 28 ​kg in men) and low muscle mass (SMI below 5.4 ​kg/m in women and 7.0 ​kg/m in men). The libraries were prepared for 100 bp paired-end sequencing using TruSeq Stranded mRNA Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina, CA, USA). The gene expression counts were supplied to Deseq2 to extract possible gene sets as differentially expressed genes (DEG) that discriminate between sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups that were carefully assigned by clinical observation. For the classification of the candidate genes from DEG analysis, we used the public databases; gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for validation.

Results: Samples collected were subjected to RNAseq using the Illumina platform. A total of 11 samples from both sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups were sequenced. Fifteen genes (RUNX 1, NGFR, CH3L1, BCL3, PLA2G2A, MYBPH, TEP1, SEMA6B, CSPG4, ACSL5, SLC25A3, NDUFB5, CYC1, ACAT1, and TCAP) were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEG) in both the groups.In the qPCR results, the expression levels of and gene in the OS group were significantly lower than in the non-OS groups whereas an increase in mRNA level was observed in the OS samples ( ​< ​0.05).

Conclusions: In summary, this study detected gene expression difference according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia in elderly osteoporosis female patients with hip fracture. We have also identified 15 important genes (RUNX 1, NGFR, CH3L1, BCL3, PLA2G2A, MYBPH, TEP1, SEMA6B, CSPG4, ACSL5, SLC25A3, NDUFB5, CYC1, ACAT1, TCAP), a few GO categories and biological pathways that may be associated with the osteosarcopenia. Our study may provide effective means for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment sarcopenia in elderly osteoporosis female patients.

The Translational Potential Of This Article: These findings provide a novel insight into the effects of aging on the response in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Further studies are underway to identify the specific signalling pathways involved. These results reveal potential therapeutic targets that could aid the regenerative capacity of aging skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2021.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138673PMC
July 2021

Validation of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Analysis of Body Composition in Mice.

J Bone Metab 2020 Nov 30;27(4):291-299. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

Background: As an instrument for measuring body composition in experimental animals, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is ideal for accuracy, cost, and measurement efficiency. However, there is too little insight into the effectiveness of the various aspects of applying DXA to experimental animals. We investigated whether to compare and verify the precision and accuracy of DXA and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) animal body composition analyzers.

Methods: We used 30 Institution of Cancer Research mice in the study. First, in order to evaluate the reproducibility of DXA and NMR, we did repeated measurements by repositioning each mouse in anesthesia and euthanasia states. Subsequently, the accuracy of each device was evaluated by comparing the weight measured before the experiment, the weight of the tissue extracted from the mice after the experiment, and the measured DXA and NMR. In addition, when measuring the body composition of animals, we compared the time and the measurable body composition parameters and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of the 2 devices.

Results: Compared to NMR, DXA had the advantage of a fast measurement of bone composition and rapid image analysis. In addition, DXA showed a higher correlation (>95%) with fat mass, lean mass baseline than did NMR (>85%).

Conclusions: In conclusion, DXA was confirmed to have higher precision and measurement accuracy than did NMR. Therefore, DXA is an effective method for evaluating the body composition of experimental animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11005/jbm.2020.27.4.291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746482PMC
November 2020

Trichinella spiralis infection ameliorated diet-induced obesity model in mice.

Int J Parasitol 2021 01 20;51(1):63-71. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Republic of Korea; Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 50612, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide, and genetic and environmental factors are known to regulate the development of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Emerging studies indicate that innate and adaptive immune cell responses in adipose tissue play critical roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Parasitic helminths are the strongest natural inducers of type 2 inflammatory responses, and several studies have revealed that helminth infections inversely correlate with metabolic syndrome. Hence, this study investigated whether helminth infections could have preventative effects on high fat diet-induced obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were maintained on either a low fat diet (LFD, 10% fat) or a high fat diet (HFD, 60% fat) for 6 weeks after Trichinella spiralis infection. The mice were randomly divided into four groups and were fed a normal diet, LFD, LFD after T. spiralis infection (Inf + LFD), a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD after T. spiralis infection (HFD + inf). All groups were assayed for body weight, food efficiency ratio (FER), total body weight gain (g)/total food intake amount (g) fat weight, and blood biochemical parameters. Our data indicate that the HFD + inf group significantly reduced body weight gain, fat mass, total cholesterol, and FER. Analysis of immune cell composition by flow cytometry revealed that T. spiralis promoted strong decreases in proinflammatory adipose macrophages (F4/80CD11c) and T cells. The alterations in microbiota from fecal samples of mice were analyzed, which showed that T. spiralis infection decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes, thereby restoring the previously increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, elimination of T. spiralis retained the protective effects in the HFD-fed obese mice whereas flubendazole (FLBZ) treatment increased levels of the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. In summary, we provided novel data suggesting that helminth infection protects against obesity and the protection was closely related to M2 macrophage proliferation, an inhibiting proinflammatory response. In addition, it alters the microbiota in the gut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.07.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of lifelong spontaneous exercise on the M1/M2 macrophage polarization ratio and gene expression in adipose tissue of super-aged mice.

Exp Gerontol 2020 11 12;141:111091. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Physical Education, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In the adipose tissue (AT), an increase in the M1 macrophage (M1Ø)/M2 macrophage (M2Ø) polarization ratio can be a risk factor enhancing the inflammatory response during aging, as well as increasing the risk of chronic disease, thereby reducing lifespan, or at least reducing "healthy" lifespan. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the AT M1Ø/M2Ø polarization ratio at the final lifespan stage in aged and control animals performing lifelong spontaneous wheel running. Based on flow cytometric analysis, the AT ratio of macrophages revealed M2Ø polarization following lifelong spontaneous exercise (LSE) regardless of age. However, for Icam1 and Tnf, the qPCR analysis showed no difference in gene expressions in young mice; Arg1 expression was higher in Young-EXE (exercising) than in Young-CON (control) mice (p < .0001). In Old-EXE, Icam1 (p < .0001) and Tnf (p < .0001) expression were lower than in Old-CON; for Arg1, gene expression in Old-EXE was higher than in Old-CON (p < .0001). LSE prevents deterioration of physical fitness owing to aging, maintaining high M2Ø polarization levels in the AT. Additionally, LSE does not downregulate Icam1 and Tnf in the AT but appears to suppress the increased M1Ø polarization ratio attributed to aging by upregulating Arg1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111091DOI Listing
November 2020

Regular moderate aerobic exercise improves high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 pathway suppression.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 09 8;9(5):472-478. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Division of Sport Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (MGAT1) is reported to play a key role in the development of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, this study investigated the effect of exercise on suppression of the MGAT1 pathway in NAFLD tissue of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HFD containing 45% fat for 6 weeks. Upon confirmation that NAFLD had been induced in the obese animals, they were divided into HFD-fed groups provided with exercise (HFD + EXE) or without exercise (HFD) and a group given dietary adjustment (DA) only, for a further 6 weeks of intervention treatment. The 6-week regular moderate aerobic exercise consisted of an accommodation phase with increasing exercise. Lipid accumulation in the liver tissue was determined by Oil Red O staining. The MGAT1 and liver lipogenic gene mRNA levels were measured by qPCR, and their protein levels by western blot assay.

Results: Oil Red O staining showed that NAFLD was successfully induced by HFD-fed. The gene expression of MGAT1 was significantly lower in HFD + EXE than HFD. However, there was no significant difference between HFD + EXE and DA. The protein expression of MGAT1 was significantly lower in HFD + EXE than both HFD and DA. Messenger RNA and protein expression of other lipogenic genes were not different among groups. These data indicate that exercise suppresses MGAT1 pathway regardless of HFD feeding; in part, this effect could be greater than DA.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that exercise can improve NAFLD, which is probably due to suppression of MGAT1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2018.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498633PMC
September 2020

Rodent Model of Muscular Atrophy for Sarcopenia Study.

J Bone Metab 2020 May 31;27(2):97-110. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyoengsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

The hallmark symptom of sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength without the loss of overall body weight. Sarcopenia patients are likely to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than do healthy individuals. The sarcopenia population shows an annual increase of ~0.8% in the population after age 50, and the prevalence rate is rapidly increasing with the recent worldwide aging trend. Based on International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, a global classification of disease published by the World Health Organization, issued the disease code (M62.84) given to sarcopenia in 2016. Therefore, it is expected that the study of sarcopenia will be further activated based on the classification of disease codes in the aging society. Several epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have looked at the correlation between the prevalence of sarcopenia and several environmental factors. In addition, studies using cell lines and rodents have been done to understand the biological mechanism of sarcopenia. Laboratory rodent models are widely applicable in sarcopenia studies because of the advantages of time savings, cost saving, and various analytical applications that could not be used for human subjects. The rodent models that can be applied to the sarcopenia research are diverse, but a simple and fast method that can cause atrophy or aging is preferred. Therefore, we will introduce various methods of inducing muscular atrophy in rodent models to be applied to the study of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11005/jbm.2020.27.2.97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297619PMC
May 2020

High-intensity exercise improves cognitive function and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in obese mice maintained on high-fat diet.

J Exerc Rehabil 2020 Apr 28;16(2):124-131. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Division of Sport Science, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.

We wanted to find the intensity of exercise that could increase brain- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and improve spatial learning and memory without dietary control. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce obesity. Obesity-induced mice were exercised on a treadmill for 8 weeks at various exercise in-tensities: HFD-control (n=7), HFD-low-intensity exercise (HFD-LIE, n= 7, 12 m/min for 75 min), HFD-middle intensity exercise (HFD-MIE, n=7, 15 m/min for 60 min) and HFD-high-intensity exercise (HFD-HIE, n=7, 18 m/min for 50 min). One week before sacrificing mice, the Morris wa-ter maze test was performed, and the hippocampus was immediately removed after sacrifice. The expression levels of BDNF (encoded by the gene ) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the hippo-campus were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction and western blot. In the last probe test of the Morris water maze test, occupancy in the target quadrant was sig-nificantly higher in the HFD-HIE group (<0.05) than in the other groups. In addition, mRNA expression from the promoter region was found to be significantly higher in the HFD-HIE group than in the other groups (<0.001). Although there were some differences in the levels of signifi-cance, the expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were significantly higher in the HFD-HIE group than in the other groups. Therefore, rela-tively high-intensity aerobic exercise can resist the adverse effects of a high-fat diet on the brain without dietary control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.2040050.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248433PMC
April 2020

Genome based quantification of VHSV in multiple organs of infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using real-time PCR.

Genes Genomics 2020 07 24;42(7):773-777. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Institute for Medical Science, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, S. Korea, 34, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan, 602-703, South Korea.

Background: Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is a serious viral disease that infects the olive flounder in South Korea. The Korean aquaculture industry experienced an economic loss caused by the high infectivity and mortality.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the infection density of VHSV in various organs of the olive flounder including spleen, liver, kidney, stomach, esophagus, intestine, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. Olive flounders were collected from a local fish farm and injected subcutaneously with 10 PFU/fish.

Methods: Each 15 fish were sampled at 0, 3, and 7 days post challenge (dpc), respectively, to perform quantitative analysis of VHSV using SYBR-green based real-time PCR in various tissues including spleen, liver, head-kidney, body-kidney, muscle, esophagus, stomach, intestine, gill, and brain.

Results: Organs infected with VHSV were obtained after 3 and 7 days. Each organs were examined for viral infection using real-time PCR. The data obtained from this experiment revealed copy numbers higher than 10 copies per 100 ng cDNA in the spleen (15.26 ± 3.11 copies/100 ng of cDNA), muscle (11.24 ± 2.25 copies), and gill (14.23 ± 6.26 copies), but lower in liver, head-kidney, body-kidney, esophagus, brain and stomach.

Conclusion: The present study, together with previous data, demonstrated that the gill, spleen, and muscle are the major target organs of VHSV in olive flounder. Therefore, central monitoring of spleen, gill and muscle should be considered and might be necessary if anti-VHSV treatment is to be successful in infected olive flounder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00951-7DOI Listing
July 2020

Differences in macrophage polarization in the adipose tissue of obese mice under various levels of exercise intensity.

J Physiol Biochem 2020 Feb 15;76(1):159-168. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South Korea.

Animal studies have demonstrated that the ratio of M1 (M1Φ) to M2 (M2Φ) macrophage-specific gene expression in adipose tissue (AT) may be altered by chronic exercise; however, whether macrophage polarization is induced under these conditions has not yet been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic exercise on M1Φ/M2Φ polarization in the AT of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Exercise-induced differences in M1Φ/M2Φ polarization were verified via an exercise intensity study (EIS) in which different levels of exercise intensity were evaluated. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6 J mice by feeding them with an HFD for 6 weeks. The study consisted of four groups: control group (CON), HFD-fed group (HFD), HFD-fed with exercise group (HFD + EXE), dietary conversion from HFD to normal diet (ND) group (DC), and dietary conversion from HFD to ND group (DC + EXE). For EIS, the HFD + EXE group was divided into three subgroups: low- (LI), mid- (MI), and high- (HI) intensity exercise. The total intervention period was 8 weeks. M1Φ/M2Φ polarization was confirmed by flow cytometry. M2Φ polarization in the AT of obese mice was significantly higher in HFD + EXE mice than in HFD mice, despite the HFD intake. In the EIS, M2Φ polarization was most pronounced in HFD + EXE-HI mice than in HFD mice. It can be proposed that the enhanced insulin resistance and inflammation by obesity can be improved by the increase of M2Φ polarization which is achieved by relatively high-intensity exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-020-00731-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Exercise training reduces the risk of opportunistic infections after acute exercise and improves cytokine antigen recognition.

Pflugers Arch 2020 02 20;472(2):235-244. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

In general, acute exercise is thought to inhibit immune function and increase the risk of opportunistic infections, but there is some opposition to this due to a lack of quantitative evaluation. Therefore, we quantified the effect of exercise on immune function and observed the interaction between antigens and cytokines using an intramuscular infection with Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), a common parasitic infection model. C57BL/6 mice were used for a non-infection experiment and an infection (Inf) experiment. Each experiment was divided further into three groups: one control (CON) group, and an exercise pre-infection (PIE)-only group and exercise-sustained (ES) group, each of which was subjected to exercise for 7 weeks. All animals in the infection experiment were infected with T. spiralis 30 min after acute exercise. After infection, the ES and Inf-ES groups continued exercise for 7 additional weeks. The number of T. spiralis nurse cells remaining in skeletal muscles was fewer in the infected exercise groups compared with the infected control. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher in the Inf-CON group and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression was lower in the Inf-CON group than in the CON group, as measured by RT-PCR. In the infection experiment, only IL-10 had significant differences between the groups. Immunofluorescence revealed that most cytokines were specifically expressed around the antigenic nurse cells following exercise. In conclusion, exercise training does not increase the risk of opportunistic infections even after acute exercise, but rather reduces it. These results may be due to antigen-specific immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-019-02281-4DOI Listing
February 2020

Induction of Angiogenesis by Malarial Infection through Hypoxia Dependent Manner.

Korean J Parasitol 2019 Apr 30;57(2):117-125. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan 49267, Korea.

Malarial infection induces tissue hypoxia in the host through destruction of red blood cells. Tissue hypoxia in malarial infection may increase the activity of HIF1α through an intracellular oxygen-sensing pathway. Activation of HIF1α may also induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to trigger angiogenesis. To investigate whether malarial infection actually generates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, we analyzed severity of hypoxia, the expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors, and numbers of blood vessels in various tissues infected with Plasmodium berghei. Infection in mice was performed by intraperitoneal injection of 2×106 parasitized red blood cells. After infection, we studied parasitemia and survival. We analyzed hypoxia, numbers of blood vessels, and expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors including VEGF and HIF1α. We used Western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry to analyze various tissues from Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. In malaria-infected mice, parasitemia was increased over the duration of infection and directly associated with mortality rate. Expression of VEGF and HIF1α increased with the parasitemia in various tissues. Additionally, numbers of blood vessels significantly increased in each tissue type of the malaria-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. These results suggest that malarial infection in mice activates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis by stimulation of HIF1α and VEGF in various tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2019.57.2.117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526210PMC
April 2019

Genome based quantification of Miamiensis avidus in multiple organs of infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) by real-time PCR.

Genes Genomics 2019 05 4;41(5):567-572. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Institute for Medical Science, Kosin University College of Medicine, 34, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan, 602-703, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Miamiensis avidus is the major parasitic pathogen affecting the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that M. avidus infections are becoming increasingly severe and frequent in the olive flounder farming industry.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the infection density of M. avidus in various organs of the olive flounder including spleen, liver, kidney, stomach, esophagus, intestine, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. Olive flounders were collected from a local fish farm.

Methods: Each fish was injected subcutaneously with 2.75 × 10 CFU M. avidus/ fish. Organs infected with M. avidus were obtained after 7 and 25 days. Each organ was examined for parasitic infection using real-time PCR. The primers were designed according to the sequences of 28 s in M. avidus, which was used as a target gene.

Results: Each organ was examined for parasitic infection using real-time PCR. The primers were designed according to the sequences of 28 s in M. avidus, which was used as a target gene. The levels of 28 s rRNA were used to calculate quantitative gene copy number. Real-time PCR of brain (60.58 ± 38.41), heart (64.03 ± 62.40), muscle (6.10 ± 3.12), gill (5.06 ± 4.56), intestine (2.38 ± 1.69), esophagus (4.22 ± 3.72), stomach (3.25 ± 2.68), kidney (0.81 ± 0.15), liver (0.63 ± 0.15), and spleen (11.18 ± 4.08) was performed at 3 days post-infection. At 7 days post-infection, heart (754.15 ± 160.85), brain (247.90 ± 62.91), spleen (38.81 ± 17.52), liver (7.47 ± 4.54), kidney (10.90 ± 3.41), stomach (19.50 ± 8.86), esophagus (39.37 ± 14.10), intestine (17.54 ± 12.63), gill (38.27 ± 20.20), and muscle (33.62 ± 15.07) were measured.

Conclusion: The present study, together with previous data, demonstrated that the gill, intestine, and brain are the major target organs of M. avidus in olive flounder. However, this does not mean that tiny amounts of DNA extracted from those tissues of fish during the early stages of infection can guarantee successful detection and/or quantification of M. avidus. Our data suggest that the brain might be the best organ for detection in the early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-019-00792-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Establishment and validation of ARMS (amplification-refractory mutation system) for identification of Anisakis species collected from Korean waters.

Gene 2019 Apr 28;691:125-131. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan 49267, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The identification of Anisakis species in Korean waters was performed using an amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS). ARMS is typically used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms or allele types in the same species. However, the application of ARMS for species identification has not been reported. We designed a tetra-primer binding the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 76 samples of Anisakis species and obtained reproducible results. ARMS revealed 380 bp and 130 bp ITS fragments in A. pegreffii, 380 bp and 280 bp fragments in A. simplex, a 130 bp fragments in A. typica and 380 bp, 280 bp and 130 bp fragments in an A. simplex - A. pegreffii hybrid. ARMS using a tetra-primer could be a more rapid, efficient, and reliable tool for monitoring Anisakis species more rapidly than restriction fragment length polymorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.045DOI Listing
April 2019

Effect of Muscle Strength by Infection during Chronic Phase.

Int J Med Sci 2018 22;15(8):802-807. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan 49267, Republic of Korea.

establishes a chronic infection in skeletal muscle by developing nurse cells within muscle fibers. During symbiosis in host, changes in the muscle fibers and inflammation may affect muscle function. : We investigated muscle strength and inflammation in infected mice during 1 to 48 weeks after infection. : Muscle strength decreased compared to that in uninfected control mice during the late infection stage. Additionally, inflammatory related cytokines increased significantly during early stage of infection and then rapidly decreased. In pathological study, nuclear infiltration maintained from the early infection stage to chronic infection stage. Moreover, vacuoles and eosinophil infiltration were observed in infected muscle in chronic stage. : These results suggest that infection by significantly affects muscle function was continuously being weakness because vacuoles formation and maintained nucleus and eosinophil infiltration during chronic phase of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.23497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6036084PMC
December 2018

Effects of regular-moderate exercise on high-fat diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation in the soleus muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats.

J Exerc Rehabil 2018 Feb 26;14(1):32-38. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Division of Sport Science, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.

Previously, we monitored the expression level of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats in order to assess muscle damage. In this study, we analyzed whether exercise or dietary adjustment was more effective at preventing high-fat diet-induced muscle damage. High-fat diet-induced obese rats were divided into three groups: the high-fat diet (HFD), the combined high-fat diet and exercise (HFD+EXE), and the dietary adjustment (DA) groups. For 6 weeks, the HFD+EXE group was subjected to exercise on an animal treadmill. Capsase-3 protein was quantified, and histopathology of the soleus muscle was performed. Both the HFD+EXE and DA interventions resulted in a reduction of lipid accumulation in the soleus muscle, and nucleus infiltration was significantly lower in the DA group. The inflammatory response, caspase-3 level, and relative muscle weight were significantly higher in the HFD+EXE group compared to the HFD group. An increase in intramyocellular lipids in the soleus muscle by obesity and exercise stimulated apoptosis. When the rats exercised, muscle growth was normal and unrelated to the effects of lipid accumulation. These data indicate that exercise was more effective than dietary adjustment in reducing lipid accumulation and increasing muscle metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.1835166.583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833965PMC
February 2018

Thymosin β4 was upregulated in recurred colorectal cancers.

J Clin Pathol 2014 Feb 4;67(2):188-90. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Departments of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, , Busan, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2013-201940DOI Listing
February 2014

Human ERV3-1 env protein expression in various human tissues and tumours.

J Clin Pathol 2014 Jan 16;67(1):86-90. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Departments of Parasitology and Genetics, Kosin University College of Medicine, , Busan, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2013-201841DOI Listing
January 2014
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