Publications by authors named "Kyung Shin Kang"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A bioprinted human-glioblastoma-on-a-chip for the identification of patient-specific responses to chemoradiotherapy.

Nat Biomed Eng 2019 07 18;3(7):509-519. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea.

Patient-specific ex vivo models of human tumours that recapitulate the pathological characteristics and complex ecology of native tumours could help determine the most appropriate cancer treatment for individual patients. Here, we show that bioprinted reconstituted glioblastoma tumours consisting of patient-derived tumour cells, vascular endothelial cells and decellularized extracellular matrix from brain tissue in a compartmentalized cancer-stroma concentric-ring structure that sustains a radial oxygen gradient, recapitulate the structural, biochemical and biophysical properties of the native tumours. We also show that the glioblastoma-on-a-chip reproduces clinically observed patient-specific resistances to treatment with concurrent chemoradiation and temozolomide, and that the model can be used to determine drug combinations associated with superior tumour killing. The patient-specific tumour-on-a-chip model might be useful for the identification of effective treatments for glioblastoma patients resistant to the standard first-line treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-019-0363-xDOI Listing
July 2019

ULK1 negatively regulates Wnt signaling by phosphorylating Dishevelled.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 01 27;508(1):308-313. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea; National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Energy Homeostasis Regulation, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Wnt signaling pathway plays critical roles in body axes patterning, cell fate specification, cell proliferation, cell migration, stem cell maintenance, cancer development and etc. Deregulation of this pathway can be causative of cancer, metabolic disease and neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson`s disease. Among the core components of Wnt signaling pathway, we discovered that Dishevelled (Dsh) interacts with ULK1 and is phosphorylated by ULK1. Unexpectedly, the knockdown of ULK1 elicited a marked increase in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Multiple ULK1 phosphorylation sites existed on Dsh and many of them were located on the PDZ-DEP region. By using evolutionarily well conserved Drosophila Dsh, we found that S239, S247 and S254 in the PDZ-DEP region are involved in phosphorylation of Dsh by ULK1. Among these, S247 and S254 were conserved in human Dsh. When phospho-mimetic mutants (2D and 2E Dsh mutants) of these conserved residues were generated and expressed in the eyes of the fruit flies, the activity of Dsh was significantly decreased compared to wild type Dsh. Through additional alanine scanning, we further identified that S239, S247, S254, S266, S376, S554 and S555 on full length Dsh were phosphorylated by ULK1. In regards to the S266A mutation located in the PDZ domain among these phosphorylated residues, our results suggested that Dsh forms an SDS-resistant high molecular weight complex with β-catenin and TCF in the nucleus in an S266 phosphorylation-dependent manner. Based on these results, we propose that ULK1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by phosphorylating Dsh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.11.139DOI Listing
January 2019

Induction of Lrp5 HBM-causing mutations in Cathepsin-K expressing cells alters bone metabolism.

Bone 2019 03 25;120:166-175. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

High-bone-mass (HBM)-causing missense mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (Lrp5) are associated with increased osteoanabolic action and protection from disuse- and ovariectomy-induced osteopenia. These mutations (e.g., A214V and G171V) confer resistance to endogenous secreted Lrp5/6 inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf homolog-1 (DKK1). Cells in the osteoblast lineage are responsive to canonical Wnt stimulation, but recent work has indicated that osteoclasts exhibit both indirect and direct responsiveness to canonical Wnt. Whether Lrp5-HBM receptors, expressed in osteoclasts, might alter osteoclast differentiation, activity, and consequent net bone balance in the skeleton, is not known. To address this, we bred mice harboring heterozygous Lrp5 HBM-causing conditional knock-in alleles to Ctsk-Cre transgenic mice and studied the phenotype using DXA, μCT, histomorphometry, serum assays, and primary cell culture. Mice with HBM alleles induced in Ctsk-expressing cells (TG) exhibited higher bone mass and architectural properties compared to non-transgenic (NTG) counterparts. In vivo and in vitro measurements of osteoclast activity, population density, and differentiation yielded significant reductions in osteoclast-related parameters in female but not male TG mice. Droplet digital PCR performed on osteocyte enriched cortical bone tubes from TG and NTG mice revealed that ~8-17% of the osteocyte population (depending on sex) underwent recombination of the conditional Lrp5 allele in the presence of Ctsk-Cre. Further, bone formation parameters in the midshaft femur cortex show a small but significant increase in anabolic action on the endocortical but not periosteal surface. These findings suggest that Wnt/Lrp5 signaling in osteoclasts affects osteoclastogenesis and activity in female mice, but also that some of the changes in bone mass in TG mice might be due to Cre expression in the osteocyte population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360125PMC
March 2019

Sclerostin neutralization unleashes the osteoanabolic effects of Dkk1 inhibition.

JCI Insight 2018 06 7;3(11). Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

The WNT pathway has become an attractive target for skeletal therapies. High-bone-mass phenotypes in patients with loss-of-function mutations in the LRP5/6 inhibitor Sost (sclerosteosis), or in its downstream enhancer region (van Buchem disease), highlight the utility of targeting Sost/sclerostin to improve bone properties. Sclerostin-neutralizing antibody is highly osteoanabolic in animal models and in human clinical trials, but antibody-based inhibition of another potent LRP5/6 antagonist, Dkk1, is largely inefficacious for building bone in the unperturbed adult skeleton. Here, we show that conditional deletion of Dkk1 from bone also has negligible effects on bone mass. Dkk1 inhibition increases Sost expression, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism that might explain why Dkk1 suppression lacks anabolic action. To test this concept, we deleted Sost from osteocytes in, or administered sclerostin neutralizing antibody to, mice with a Dkk1-deficient skeleton. A robust anabolic response to Dkk1 deletion was manifest only when Sost/sclerostin was impaired. Whole-body DXA scans, μCT measurements of the femur and spine, histomorphometric measures of femoral bone formation rates, and biomechanical properties of whole bones confirmed the anabolic potential of Dkk1 inhibition in the absence of sclerostin. Further, combined administration of sclerostin and Dkk1 antibody in WT mice produced a synergistic effect on bone gain that greatly exceeded individual or additive effects of the therapies, confirming the therapeutic potential of inhibiting multiple WNT antagonists for skeletal health. In conclusion, the osteoanabolic effects of Dkk1 inhibition can be realized if sclerostin upregulation is prevented. Anabolic therapies for patients with low bone mass might benefit from a strategy that accounts for the compensatory milieu of WNT inhibitors in bone tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.98673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124404PMC
June 2018

Inhibition of CaMKK2 Enhances Fracture Healing by Stimulating Indian Hedgehog Signaling and Accelerating Endochondral Ossification.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 05 5;33(5):930-944. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Approximately 10% of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture. Within 7 days postfracture, treatment with STO-609 resulted in enhanced Indian hedgehog signaling, paired-related homeobox (PRX1)-positive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment, and chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy, along with elevated expression of osterix, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type 1 collagen at the fracture callus. Early deposition of primary bone by osteoblasts resulted in STO-609-treated mice possessing significantly higher callus bone volume by 14 days following fracture. Subsequent rapid maturation of the bone matrix bestowed fractured bones in STO-609-treated animals with significantly higher torsional strength and stiffness by 28 days postinjury, indicating accelerated healing of the fracture. Previous studies indicate that fixed and closed femoral fractures in the mice take 35 days to fully heal without treatment. Therefore, our data suggest that STO-609 potentiates a 20% acceleration of the bone healing process. Moreover, inhibiting CaMKK2 also imparted higher mechanical strength and stiffness at the contralateral cortical bone within 4 weeks of treatment. Taken together, the data presented here underscore the therapeutic potential of targeting CaMKK2 to promote efficacious and rapid healing of bone fractures and as a mechanism to strengthen normal bones. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549722PMC
May 2018

Loss of mechanosensitive sclerostin may accelerate cranial bone growth and regeneration.

J Neurosurg 2018 10 10;129(4):1085-1091. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

2Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis; and.

Objective: Cranial defects can result from trauma, infection, congenital malformations, and iatrogenic causes and represent a surgical challenge. The current standard of care is cranioplasty, with either autologous or allogeneic material. In either case, the intrinsic vascularity of the surrounding tissues allows for bone healing. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanotransductive gene manipulation would yield non-weight-bearing bone regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect in mice.

Methods: A mouse model of Sost deletion in Sost knockout (KO) mice was created in which the osteocytes do not express sclerostin. A critical size calvarial defect (4 mm in diameter) was surgically created in the parietal bone in 8-week-old wild-type (n = 8) and Sost KO (n = 8) male mice. The defects were left undisturbed (no implant or scaffold) to simulate a traumatic calvariectomy model. Eight weeks later, the animals were examined at necropsy by planimetry, histological analysis of new bone growth, and micro-CT scanning of bone thickness.

Results: Defects created in wild-type mice did not fill with bone over the study period of 2 months. Genetic downregulation of sclerostin yielded animals that were able to regenerate 40% of the initial critical size defect area 8 weeks after surgery. A thin layer of bone covered a significant portion of the original defect in all Sost KO animals. A statistically significant increase in bone volume (p < 0.05) was measured in Sost KO mice using radiodensitometric analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed that this bone regeneration occurred through the Wnt pathway and originated from the edge of the defect; BMP signaling did not appear to be affected by sclerostin.

Conclusions: Mechanical loading is an important mechanism of bone formation in the cranial skeleton and is poorly understood. This is partially due to the fact that it is difficult to load bone in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. This study suggests that modulation of the Wnt pathway, as is able to be done with monoclonal antibodies, is a potentially efficacious method for bone regeneration that requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.5.JNS17219DOI Listing
October 2018

Isocitrate protects DJ-1 null dopaminergic cells from oxidative stress through NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH).

PLoS Genet 2017 Aug 21;13(8):e1006975. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Peripheral Neuropathy Research Center (PNRC), Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

DJ-1 is one of the causative genes for early onset familiar Parkinson's disease (PD) and is also considered to influence the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. DJ-1 has various physiological functions which converge on controlling intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In RNA-sequencing analyses searching for novel anti-oxidant genes downstream of DJ-1, a gene encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), which converts isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate, was detected. Loss of IDH induced hyper-sensitivity to oxidative stress accompanying age-dependent mitochondrial defects and dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration in Drosophila, indicating its critical roles in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and DA neuron survival. Further genetic analysis suggested that DJ-1 controls IDH gene expression through nuclear factor-E2-related factor2 (Nrf2). Using Drosophila and mammalian DA models, we found that IDH suppresses intracellular and mitochondrial ROS level and subsequent DA neuron loss downstream of DJ-1. Consistently, trimethyl isocitrate (TIC), a cell permeable isocitrate, protected mammalian DJ-1 null DA cells from oxidative stress in an IDH-dependent manner. These results suggest that isocitrate and its derivatives are novel treatments for PD associated with DJ-1 dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578699PMC
August 2017

Sost, independent of the non-coding enhancer ECR5, is required for bone mechanoadaptation.

Bone 2016 11 4;92:180-188. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Sclerostin (Sost) is a negative regulator of bone formation that acts upon the Wnt signaling pathway. Sost is mechanically regulated at both mRNA and protein level such that loading represses and unloading enhances Sost expression, in osteocytes and in circulation. The non-coding evolutionarily conserved enhancer ECR5 has been previously reported as a transcriptional regulatory element required for modulating Sost expression in osteocytes. Here we explored the mechanisms by which ECR5, or several other putative transcriptional enhancers regulate Sost expression, in response to mechanical stimulation. We found that in vivo ulna loading is equally osteoanabolic in wildtype and Sost mice, although Sost is required for proper distribution of load-induced bone formation to regions of high strain. Using Luciferase reporters carrying the ECR5 non-coding enhancer and heterologous or homologous hSOST promoters, we found that ECR5 is mechanosensitive in vitro and that ECR5-driven Luciferase activity decreases in osteoblasts exposed to oscillatory fluid flow. Yet, ECR5 mice showed similar magnitude of load-induced bone formation and similar periosteal distribution of bone formation to high-strain regions compared to wildtype mice. Further, we found that in contrast to Sost mice, which are resistant to disuse-induced bone loss, ECR5 mice lose bone upon unloading to a degree similar to wildtype control mice. ECR5 deletion did not abrogate positive effects of unloading on Sost, suggesting that additional transcriptional regulators and regulatory elements contribute to load-induced regulation of Sost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2016.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6673653PMC
November 2016

A 3D-printed local drug delivery patch for pancreatic cancer growth suppression.

J Control Release 2016 09 8;238:231-241. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Since recurrence and metastasis of pancreatic cancer has a worse prognosis, chemotherapy has been typically performed to attack the remained malignant cells after resection. However, it is difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentration at the tumor site with systemic chemotherapy. Numerous local drug delivery systems have been studied to overcome the shortcomings of systemic delivery. However, because most systems involve dissolution of the drug within the carrier, the concentration of the drug is limited to the saturation solubility, and consequently cannot reach the sufficient drug dose. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3D printing of a biodegradable patch incorporated with a high drug concentration would provide a versatile shape to be administered at the exact tumor site as well as an appropriate therapeutic drug concentration with a controlled release. Here, we introduce the 3D-printed patches composed of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), polycaprolactone, and 5-fluorouracil for delivering the anti-cancer drug in a prolonged controlled manner and therapeutic dose. 3D printing technology can manipulate the geometry of the patch and the drug release kinetics. The patches were flexible, and released the drug over four weeks, and thereby suppressed growth of the subcutaneous pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice with minimized side effects. Our approach reveals that 3D printing of bioabsorbable implants containing anti-cancer drugs could be a powerful method for an effective local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to treatment of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.06.015DOI Listing
September 2016

Adult-Onset Deletion of β-Catenin in (10kb)Dmp1-Expressing Cells Prevents Intermittent PTH-Induced Bone Gain.

Endocrinology 2016 08 2;157(8):3047-57. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology (R.K., K.S.K., J.M.H., V.B., K.-E.L., D.H., A.G.R.), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology (P.D.-P.), Boston University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Department of Biomedical Engineering (A.G.R.), Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; and Richard L. Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center (A.G.R.), Indianapolis, Indiana 46202.

β-Catenin (βcat) is a major downstream signaling node in canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway, and its activity is crucial for canonical Wnt signal transduction. Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in the osteo-anabolic response to PTH, a potent calcium-regulating factor. We investigated whether βcat is essential for the anabolic action of intermittent PTH by generating male mice with adult-onset deletion of βcat in a subpopulation of bone cells (osteocytes and late-stage osteoblasts), treating them with an anabolic regimen of PTH, and measuring the skeletal responses. Male (10kb)Dmp1-CreERt2 transgenic mice that also harbored floxed loss-of-function βcat alleles (βcat(f/f)) were induced for Cre activity using tamoxifen, then injected daily with human PTH 1-34 (30 μg/kg) or vehicle for 5 weeks. Mice in which βcat was deleted showed either total lack of bone mineral density (BMD) gain, or BMD loss, and did not respond to PTH treatment. However, bone mass measurements in the trabecular compartment of the femur and spine revealed PTH-induced bone gain whether βcat was deleted or not. PTH-stimulated increases in periosteal and cancellous bone formation rates were not impaired by βcat deletion, but resorption markers and cortical porosity were significantly increased in induced mice, particularly induced mice treated with PTH. These results suggest that βcat is required for net-positive BMD effects of PTH therapy but that the anabolic effects per se of PTH treatment might not require osteocytic/osteoblastic βcat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967118PMC
August 2016

Postnatal β-catenin deletion from Dmp1-expressing osteocytes/osteoblasts reduces structural adaptation to loading, but not periosteal load-induced bone formation.

Bone 2016 07 30;88:138-145. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Mechanical signal transduction in bone tissue begins with load-induced activation of several cellular pathways in the osteocyte population. A key pathway that participates in mechanotransduction is Wnt/Lrp5 signaling. A putative downstream mediator of activated Lrp5 is the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein β-catenin (βcat), which migrates to the nucleus where it functions as a transcriptional co-activator. We investigated whether osteocytic βcat participates in Wnt/Lrp5-mediated mechanotransduction by conducting ulnar loading experiments in mice with or without chemically induced βcat deletion in osteocytes. Mice harboring βcat floxed loss-of-function alleles (βcat(f/f)) were bred to the inducible osteocyte Cre transgenic (10)(kb)Dmp1-CreERt2. Adult male mice were induced to recombine the βcat alleles using tamoxifen, and intermittent ulnar loading sessions were applied over the following week. Although adult-onset deletion of βcat from Dmp1-expressing cells reduced skeletal mass, the bone tissue was responsive to mechanical stimulation as indicated by increased relative periosteal bone formation rates in recombined mice. However, load-induced improvements in cross sectional geometric properties were compromised in recombined mice. The collective results indicate that the osteoanabolic response to loading can occur on the periosteal surface when β-cat levels are significantly reduced in Dmp1-expressing cells, suggesting that either (i) only low levels of β-cat are required for mechanically induced bone formation on the periosteal surface, or (ii) other additional downstream mediators of Lrp5 might participate in transducing load-induced Wnt signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2016.04.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899196PMC
July 2016

Effects of electromagnetic field frequencies on chondrocytes in 3D cell-printed composite constructs.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2016 07 24;104(7):1797-804. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 37673, Korea.

In cartilage tissue engineering, electromagnetic field (EMF) therapy has been reported to have a modest effect on promoting cartilage regeneration. However, these studies were conducted using different frequencies of EMF to stimulate chondrocytes. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the effect of EMF frequency on cartilage formation. In addition to the stimulation, a scaffold is required to satisfy the characteristics of cartilage such as its hydrated and dense extracellular matrix, and a mechanical resilience to applied loads. Therefore, we 3D-printed a composite construct composed of a polymeric framework and a chondrocyte-laden hydrogel. Here, we observed frequency-dependent positive and negative effects on chondrogenesis using a 3D cell-printed cartilage tissue. We found that a frequency of 45 Hz promoted gene expression and secretion of extracellular matrix molecules of chondrocytes. In contrast, a frequency of 7.5 Hz suppressed chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. Additionally, the EMF-treated composite constructs prior to implantation showed consistent results with those of in vitro, suggesting that in vitro pre-treatment with different EMF frequencies provides different capabilities for the enhancement of cartilage formation in vivo. This correlation between EMF frequency and 3D-printed chondrocytes suggests the necessity for optimization of EMF parameters when this physical stimulus is applied to engineered cartilage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1797-1804, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.35714DOI Listing
July 2016

Development of a 3D cell printed construct considering angiogenesis for liver tissue engineering.

Biofabrication 2016 Jan 12;8(1):015007. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Gachon University, 7-45, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon, 406-840, Korea.

Several studies have focused on the regeneration of liver tissue in a two-dimensional (2D) planar environment, whereas actual liver tissue is three-dimensional (3D). Cell printing technology has been successfully utilized for building 3D structures; however, the poor mechanical properties of cell-laden hydrogels are a major concern. Here, we demonstrate the printing of a 3D cell-laden construct and its application to liver tissue engineering using 3D cell printing technology through a multi-head tissue/organ building system. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a framework material because of its excellent mechanical properties. Collagen bioink containing three different types of cells-hepatocytes (HCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells , and human lung fibroblasts--was infused into the canals of a PCL framework to induce the formation of capillary--like networks and liver cell growth. A co-cultured 3D microenvironment of the three types of cells was successfully established and maintained. The vascular formation and functional abilities of HCs (i.e., albumin secretion and urea synthesis) demonstrated that the heterotypic interaction among HCs and nonparenchymal cells increased the survivability and functionality of HCs within the collagen gel. Therefore, our results demonstrate the prospect of using cell printing technology for the creation of heterotypic cellular interaction within a structure for liver tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/8/1/015007DOI Listing
January 2016

New Insights into Wnt-Lrp5/6-β-Catenin Signaling in Mechanotransduction.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2014 20;5:246. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine , Indianapolis, IN , USA ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis , Indianapolis, IN , USA ; Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center , Indianapolis, IN , USA.

Mechanical loading is essential to maintain normal bone metabolism and the balance between bone formation and resorption. The cellular mechanisms that control mechanotransduction are not fully defined, but several key pathways have been identified. We discuss the roles of several components of the Wnt signaling cascade, namely Lrp5, Lrp6, and β-catenin in mechanical loading-induced bone formation. Lrp5 is an important Wnt co-receptor for regulating bone mass and mechanotransduction, and appears to function principally by augmenting bone formation. Lrp6 also regulates bone mass but its action might involve resorption as well as formation. The role of Lrp6 in mechanotransduction is unclear. Studies addressing the role of β-catenin in bone metabolism and mechanotransduction highlight the uncertainties in downstream modulators of Lrp5 and Lrp6. Taken together, these data indicate that mechanical loading might affect bone regulation triggering the canonical Wnt signaling (and perhaps other pathways) not only via Lrp5 but also via Lrp6. Further work is needed to clarify the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in Lrp5 and/or Lrp6-mediated mechanotransduction, which could eventually lead to powerful therapeutic agents that might mimic the anabolic effects of mechanical stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4299511PMC
February 2015

Effect of redox modulating NRF2 activators on chronic kidney disease.

Molecules 2014 Aug 20;19(8):12727-59. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420-743, Korea.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is featured by a progressive decline of kidney function and is mainly caused by chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. CKD is a complex disease due to cardiovascular complications and high morbidity; however, there is no single treatment to improve kidney function in CKD patients. Since biological markers representing oxidative stress are significantly elevated in CKD patients, oxidative stress is receiving attention as a contributing factor to CKD pathology. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NRF2) is a predominant transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide array of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, thiol molecules and their generating enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, and stress response proteins, all of which can counteract inflammatory and oxidative damages. There is considerable experimental evidence suggesting that NRF2 signaling plays a protective role in renal injuries that are caused by various pathologic conditions. In addition, impaired NRF2 activity and consequent target gene repression have been observed in CKD animals. Therefore, a pharmacological intervention activating NRF2 signaling can be beneficial in protecting against kidney dysfunction in CKD. This review article provides an overview of the role of NRF2 in experimental CKD models and describes current findings on the renoprotective effects of naturally occurring NRF2 activators, including sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin, and cinnamic aldehyde. These experimental results, coupled with recent clinical experiences with a synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl, have brought a light of hope for ameliorating CKD progression by preventing oxidative stress and maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6271622PMC
August 2014

Involvement of Nrf2-GSH signaling in TGFβ1-stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition changes in rat renal tubular cells.

Arch Pharm Res 2015 Feb 22;38(2):272-81. Epub 2014 May 22.

College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 420-743, Republic of Korea.

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells. This phenotypic transition has been known to be involved in the development of chronic kidney diseases by activating profibrotic gene expression. Since oxidative stress has been recognized as one of the contributors to this TGFβ1-mediated pathology, we investigated the potential involvement of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which is a key transcription factor for the regulation of multiple antioxidant genes, in TGFβ1-stimulated EMT gene changes using the rat proximal tubular epithelial cell line NRK52E. The treatment of NRK52E with TGFβ1 led to changes in EMT gene expression, including increased α-Sma and decreased E-cadherin expression. In these cells, the TGFβ1 treatment decreased the transcript level of the catalytic subunit of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), a glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic enzyme, and reduced the total GSH content with a concomitant decrease in Nrf2 transcription activity. Accordantly, pre-incubation with the GSH precursor N-acetylcysteine attenuated TGFβ1-stimulated EMT gene changes. The involvement of Nrf2 in EMT gene changes has been demonstrated using NRK52E cells with nrf2 knockdown or pharmacological activation. When the expression of Nrf2 was stably silenced in NRK52E cells using interfering RNA administration, Gclc expression was significantly reduced and the increase in the levels of α-Sma and fibronectin-1 by TGFβ1 was greater than those in the nonspecific RNA control group. Conversely, Nrf2 activation and subsequent Gclc increase by Nrf2-activating sulforaphane alleviated the TGFβ1-stimulated α-Sma increase and E-cadherin decrease. Collectively, these results indicate that Nrf2-GSH signaling can modulate TGFβ1-stimulated EMT gene changes and further suggest a beneficial role of Nrf2 inducers in renal pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0380-yDOI Listing
February 2015

Electromagnetically controllable osteoclast activity.

Bone 2014 May 17;62:99-107. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The time-varying electromagnetic field (EMF) has been widely studied as one of the exogenous stimulation methods for improving bone healing. Our previous study showed that osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells was accelerated by a 45-Hz EMF, whereas a 7.5-Hz EMF inhibited osteogenic marker expression. Accordingly, we hypothesized that each negative and positive condition for the osteogenic differentiation could inversely influence osteoclast formation and differentiation. Here, we demonstrated that osteoclast formation, differentiation, and activity can be regulated by altering the frequency of the electromagnetic stimulation, such as 7.5 (negative for osteogenic differentiation) and 45 Hz (positive for osteogenic differentiation). A 45 Hz EMF inhibited osteoclast formation whereas a 7.5-Hz EMF induced differentiation and activity. Osteoclastogenic markers, such as NFATc1, TRAP, CTSK, MMP9, and DC-STAMP were highly expressed under the 7.5-Hz EMF, while they were decreased at 45 Hz. We found that the 7.5-Hz EMF directly regulated osteoclast differentiation through ERK and p38 MAPK activation, whereas the EMF at 45 Hz suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of IκB. Additionally, actin ring formation with tubules and bone resorptive activity were enhanced at 7.5 Hz through increased integrin β3 expression. However, these were inhibited at 45 Hz. Although many questions remain unanswered, our study indicates that osteoclast formation and differentiation were controllable using physical tools, such as an EMF. It will now be of great interest to study the ill-defined correlation between electromagnetic conditions and osteoclast activities, which eventually could lead to determining the therapeutic characteristics of an EMF that will treat bone-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2014.02.005DOI Listing
May 2014

Combined effect of three types of biophysical stimuli for bone regeneration.

Tissue Eng Part A 2014 Jun 27;20(11-12):1767-77. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) , Pohang, Republic of Korea.

Pretreatment using various types of biophysical stimuli could provide appropriate potential to cells during construction of the engineered tissue in vitro. We hypothesized that multiple combinations of these biophysical stimuli could enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Cyclic strain, an electromagnetic field, and ultrasound were selected and combined as effective stimuli for osteogenic differentiation using a developed bioreactor. Here we report the experimental evaluation of the osteogenic effects of various combinations of three different biophysical stimuli in vitro and in vivo using human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Osteogenic differentiation of ASCs was accelerated by multiple-combination biophysical stimulation in vitro. However, both single stimulation and double-combination stimulation were sufficient to accelerate bone regeneration in vivo, while the osteogenic marker expression of those groups was not as high as that of triple-combination stimulation in vitro. We inferred from these data that ASCs appropriately differentiated into the osteogenic lineage by biophysical stimulation could be a better option for accelerating bone formation in vivo than relatively undifferentiated or completely differentiated ASCs. Although many questions remain about the mechanisms of combined effects of various biophysical stimuli, this approach could be a more powerful tool for bone tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4029046PMC
June 2014

Hybrid scaffold composed of hydrogel/3D-framework and its application as a dopamine delivery system.

J Control Release 2014 Feb 12;175:10-6. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, South Korea. Electronic address:

Cell-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been increasingly exploited because cells can be utilized as a continuous drug delivering system to produce therapeutic molecules over a more extended period compared to the simple drug carriers. Although hydrogels have many advantages for this application, their mechanical properties are generally not desirable to structurally protect implanted cells. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid scaffold with a combination of a 3D framework and a hydrogel to enhance the mechanical properties without chemically altering the transport properties of the hydrogel. Based on the 3D Ormocomp scaffold (framework) fabricated by projection-based microstereolithography with defined parameters, we developed a 3D hybrid scaffold by injection of the mixture of cells and the alginate gel into the internal space of the framework. This hybrid scaffold showed the improved mechanical strength and the framework in the scaffold played the role of an adhesion site for the encapsulated cells during the culture period. Additionally, we confirmed its protection of exogenous human cells from acute immune rejection in a mouse model. Eventually, we demonstrated the feasibility of applying this hybrid scaffold to the treatment of Parkinson's disease as a cell-based DDS. Dopamine released from the 3D hybrid scaffolds encapsulating dopamine-secreting cells for 8weeks suggested its clinical applicability. Further study on its long-term efficacy is necessary for the clinical applicability of this 3D hybrid scaffold for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.12.002DOI Listing
February 2014

Flexure-based device for cyclic strain-mediated osteogenic differentiation.

J Biomech Eng 2013 Nov;135(11):114501

Application of low-magnitude strains to cells on small-thickness scaffolds, such as those for rodent calvarial defect models, is problematic, because general translation systems have limitations in terms of generating low-magnitude smooth signals. To overcome this limitation, we developed a cyclic strain generator using a customized, flexure-based, translational nanoactuator that enabled generation of low-magnitude smooth strains at the subnano- to micrometer scale to cells on small-thickness scaffolds. The cyclic strain generator we developed showed predictable operational characteristics by generating a sinusoidal signal of a few micrometers (4.5 μm) without any distortion. Three-dimensional scaffolds fitting the critical-size rat calvarial defect model were fabricated using poly(caprolactone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and tricalcium phosphate. Stimulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on these fabricated scaffolds using the cyclic strain generator we developed resulted in upregulated osteogenic marker expression compared to the nonstimulated group. These preliminary in vitro results suggest that the cyclic strain generator successfully provided mechanical stimulation to cells on small-thickness scaffolds, which influenced the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4025103DOI Listing
November 2013

In Vivo Biophysical-stimulation Platform Applied to Rodent Calvarial Bone-defect Models.

J Biomech Eng 2013 07 1. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Biophysical strain has been applied widely for bone regeneration. However, application of low-magnitude strains to cells on small-thickness scaffolds is problematic, especially in rodent calvarial defect models, because general translation systems have limitations in terms of generating low-magnitude smooth signals. To overcome these limitations, we developed an in vitro biophysical-stimulation platform for stimulation of cells on small-thickness scaffolds for rodent calvarial bone defects. The customized flexure-based translational nanoactuator enables generation of low-magnitude smooth signals at the subnano- to micrometer-scale. This nanoactuator, which is equipped with a piezoelectric actuator, is suitable for biological applications because it can generate friction-free motion with a high resolution. Moreover, its operation without wear or deterioration eliminates contamination factors in cell culture environments. The developed in vitro biophysical-stimulation platform using these nanoactuators showed predictable operational characteristics. Also, a few-micrometer sinusoidal signal was generated successfully without any distortion. Three-dimensional scaffolds fitting the critical-size rat calvarial defect model were fabricated using poly(caprolactone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and tricalcium phosphate. Runt-related transcription factor 2 expression was increased upon stimulation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on these scaffolds were stimulated in the in vitro biophysical-stimulation platform. Additionally, the use of this platform resulted in up-regulation of alkaline phosphate, osteopontin, and osterix expression compared to the non-stimulated group. These preliminary in vitro results suggest that the biophysical environment provided by the in vitro biophysical-stimulation platform influences the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs.
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July 2013

Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells can be accelerated by controlling the frequency of continuous ultrasound.

J Ultrasound Med 2013 Aug;32(8):1461-70

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the effects of continuous ultrasound on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are dependent on the frequency in vitro.

Methods: Before stimulation, we characterized the hASCs using cluster of differentiation marker profiles and tridifferentiation. Then we selected effective frequencies in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 MHz (with a peak negative pressure of 52 kPa), which upregulated runt-related transcription factor 2 messenger RNA expression. Next, the effects of ultrasound at the selected frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation were evaluated at the protein level. Alkaline phosphatase activity and the formation of mineralized nodules were measured. We additionally identified the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of ultrasound stimulation using Western blotting.

Results: The hASCs showed general cluster of differentiation marker profiles of stem cells and confirmed their potentials to yield adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Frequencies of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MHz were selected for higher runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 MHz. Among the 3 groups, alkaline phosphatase activity and the formation of mineralized nodules were increased in cells exposed to 1.5-MHz ultrasound compared with cells exposed to 0.5-or 1.0-MHz ultrasound and nontreated control cells. We additionally confirmed that this acceleration of osteogenic differentiation was related to p38 and protein kinase B signaling pathways.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that, in the selected range, 1.5 MHz was the most effective frequency for inducing the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/ultra.32.8.1461DOI Listing
August 2013

Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions.

Exp Mol Med 2013 Jan 18;45:e6. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea.

Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2013.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584658PMC
January 2013

Short-term evaluation of electromagnetic field pretreatment of adipose-derived stem cells to improve bone healing.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2015 Oct 26;9(10):1161-71. Epub 2012 Dec 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea.

An electromagnetic field is an effective stimulation tool because it promotes bone defect healing, albeit in an unknown way. Although electromagnetic fields are used for treatment after surgery, many patients prefer cell-based tissue regeneration procedures that do not require daily treatments. This study addressed the effects of an electromagnetic field on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to investigate the feasibility of pretreatment to accelerate bone regeneration. After identifying a uniform electromagnetic field inside a solenoid coil, we observed that a 45 Hz electromagnetic field induced osteogenic marker expression via bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factor β, and Wnt signalling pathways based on microarray analyses. This electromagnetic field increased osteogenic gene expression, alkaline phosphate activity and nodule formation in vitro within 2 weeks, indicating that this pretreatment may provide osteogenic potential to ASCs on three-dimensional (3D) ceramic scaffolds. This pretreatment effect of an electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better bone regeneration in a mouse calvarial defect model over 4 weeks compared to that in the untreated group. This short-term evaluation showed that the electromagnetic field pretreatment may be a future therapeutic option for bone defect treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.1664DOI Listing
October 2015

Development of a bone reconstruction technique using a solid free-form fabrication (SFF)-based drug releasing scaffold and adipose-derived stem cells.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jul 27;101(7):1865-75. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Department of NanoEngineering, The University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0448, USA.

For tissue regeneration, three essential components of scaffolds, signals (biomolecules), and cells are required. Moreover, because bony defects are three-dimensional in many clinical circumstances, an exact 3D scaffold is important. Therefore, we proposed an effective reconstruction tool for cranial defects using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and a 3D functional scaffold fabricated by solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technology that secretes biomolecules. We fabricated poly(propylene fumarate)-based 3D scaffolds with embedded microsphere-deliverable bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) by microstereolithography. BMP-2-loaded SFF scaffolds with/without hADSCs (SFF/BMP/hADSCs scaffolds and SFF/BMP scaffolds, respectively) and BMP-2-unloaded SFF scaffolds (SFF scaffolds) were then implanted in rat crania, and in vivo bone formation was observed. Analyses of bone formation areas using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) showed the superiority of SFF/BMP/hADSCs scaffolds. Hematoxylin and eosin stain, Masson's trichrome stain, and collagen type-I stain supported the results of the micro-CT scan. And human leukocyte antigen-ABC showed that seeded, differentiated hADSCs were well grown and changed to the bone tissue at the inside of the scaffold. Results showed that our combination of a functional 3D scaffold and hADSCs may be a useful tool for improving the reconstruction quality of severe bony defects in which thick bone is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.34485DOI Listing
July 2013

Enhancement of bone regeneration through facile surface functionalization of solid freeform fabrication-based three-dimensional scaffolds using mussel adhesive proteins.

Acta Biomater 2012 Jul 2;8(7):2578-86. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is recognized as a promising tool for creating tissue engineering scaffolds due to advantages such as superior interconnectivity and highly porous structure. Despite structural support for SFF-based three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds that can lead to tissue regeneration, lack of cell recognition motifs and/or biochemical factors has been considered a limitation. Previously, recombinant mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) were successfully demonstrated to be functional cell adhesion materials on various surfaces due to their peculiar adhesive properties. Herein, MAPs were applied as surface functionalization materials to SFF-based 3-D polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds. We successfully coated MAPs onto scaffold surfaces by simply dipping the scaffolds into the MAP solution, which was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Through in vitro study using human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs), significant enhancement of cellular activities such as attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation was observed on MAP-coated 3-D scaffolds, especially on which fused arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides were efficiently exposed. In addition, we found that in vivo hADSC implantation with MAP-coated scaffolds enhanced bone regeneration in a rat calvarial defect model. These results collectively demonstrate that facile surface functionalization of 3-D scaffolds using MAP would be a promising strategy for successful tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2012.03.041DOI Listing
July 2012

Effects of combined mechanical stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblasts.

Exp Mol Med 2011 Jun;43(6):367-73

Department of Mechanical Engineering POSTECH Pohang 790-751, Korea.

We observed how combined mechanical stimuli affect the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. For this research, a bioreactor system was developed that can simultaneously stimulate cells with cyclic strain and ultrasound, each of which is known to effectively stimulate bone tissue regeneration. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were chosen for bone tissue engineering due to their osteoblast-like characteristics. 3-D scaffolds were fabricated with polycaprolactone and poly-L-lactic acid using the salt leaching method. The cells were stimulated by the bioreactor with cyclic strain and ultrasound. The bioreactor was set at a frequency of 1.0 Hz and 10 % strain for cyclic strain and 1.0 MHz and 30 mW/cm(2) for ultrasound. Three experimental groups (ultrasound, cyclic strain, and combined stimulation) and a control group were examined. Each group was stimulated for 20 min/day. Mechanical stimuli did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation significantly up to 10 days when measured with the cell counting kit-8. However, gene expression analysis of collagen type-I, osteocalcin, RUNX2, and osterix revealed that the combined mechanical stimulation accelerated the matrix maturation of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results indicate that the combined mechanical stimulation can enhance the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts more efficiently than simple stimuli, in spite of no effect on cell proliferation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128915PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3858/emm.2011.43.6.040DOI Listing
June 2011

Bone regeneration using a microstereolithography-produced customized poly(propylene fumarate)/diethyl fumarate photopolymer 3D scaffold incorporating BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres.

Biomaterials 2011 Jan 8;32(3):744-52. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0292, USA.

Bony defects have been three-dimensionally (3D) created in many clinical circumstances; however, many defects cannot be reconstructed because most of the current bony substitutes cannot provide the necessary exact 3D structure. Therefore, to overcome this limitation, a 3D scaffold with embedded growth factor-delivering microspheres was developed by solid free-form fabrication (SFF) technology using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM). In this study, BMP-2-loaded poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were incorporated into a 3D scaffold that was fabricated using a microstereolithography (MSTL) system with a suspension of microspheres and a poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF)/diethyl fumarate (DEF) photopolymer. By measuring release profiles in vitro, we verified that the fabricated microsphere-containing 3D scaffold could gradually release growth factor. The effects of BMP-2 were also assessed in vitro by observing cell differentiation using MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Finally, we confirmed that SFF scaffolds created by MSTL were superior to traditional scaffolds produced using a particulate leaching/gas foaming method. In addition, based on in vivo tests, the scaffolds that released BMP-2 promoted bone formation. Based on these results, we concluded that our 3D scaffold might be a useful tool for enhancing reconstruction quality in many complex bony defects that should be reconstructed using a customized 3D scaffold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.09.035DOI Listing
January 2011