Publications by authors named "Kyung O Johanson"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of a high-throughput screen to detect inhibitors of TRPS1 sumoylation.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2013 Jun;11(5):308-25

Molecular Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) belongs to the family of ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) that can be reversibly conjugated to target-specific lysines on substrate proteins. Although covalently sumoylated products are readily detectible in gel-based assays, there has been little progress toward the development of robust quantitative sumoylation assay formats for the evaluation of large compound libraries. In an effort to identify inhibitors of ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9)-dependent sumoylation, a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay was developed, which allows detection of Lys-1201 sumoylation, corresponding to the major site of functional sumoylation within the transcriptional repressor trichorhino-phalangeal syndrome type I protein (TRPS1). A minimal hexapeptide substrate peptide, TMR-VVK₁₂₀₁TEK, was used in this assay format to afford high-throughput screening of the GlaxoSmithKline diversity compound collection. A total of 728 hits were confirmed but no specific noncovalent inhibitors of Ubc9 dependent trans-sumoylation were found. However, several diaminopyrimidine compounds were identified as inhibitors in the assay with IC₅₀ values of 12.5 μM. These were further characterized to be competent substrates which were subject to sumoylation by SUMO-Ubc9 and which were competitive with the sumoylation of the TRPS1 peptide substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/adt.2012.501DOI Listing
June 2013

Structures of human DPP7 reveal the molecular basis of specific inhibition and the architectural diversity of proline-specific peptidases.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(8):e43019. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) are emerging targets for drug development. DPP4 inhibitors are approved in many countries, and other dipeptidyl peptidases are often referred to as DPP4 activity- and/or structure-homologues (DASH). Members of the DASH family have overlapping substrate specificities, and, even though they share low sequence identity, therapeutic or clinical cross-reactivity is a concern. Here, we report the structure of human DPP7 and its complex with a selective inhibitor Dab-Pip (L-2,4-diaminobutyryl-piperidinamide) and compare it with that of DPP4. Both enzymes share a common catalytic domain (α/β-hydrolase). The catalytic pocket is located in the interior of DPP7, deep inside the cleft between the two domains. Substrates might access the active site via a narrow tunnel. The DPP7 catalytic triad is completely conserved and comprises Ser162, Asp418 and His443 (corresponding to Ser630, Asp708 and His740 in DPP4), while other residues lining the catalytic pockets differ considerably. The "specificity domains" are structurally also completely different exhibiting a β-propeller fold in DPP4 compared to a rare, completely helical fold in DPP7. Comparing the structures of DPP7 and DPP4 allows the design of specific inhibitors and thus the development of less cross-reactive drugs. Furthermore, the reported DPP7 structures shed some light onto the evolutionary relationship of prolyl-specific peptidases through the analysis of the architectural organization of their domains.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0043019PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430648PMC
February 2013

Optimized procedures for producing biologically active chemokines.

Protein Expr Purif 2009 Jun;65(2):251-60

GlaxoSmithKline, Biological Reagents & Assay Development, Mail Code: UE0548, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.

We describe here two strategies to produce biologically active chemokines with authentic N-terminal amino acid residues. The first involves producing the target chemokine with an N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO tag in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. The fusion protein is solubilized and purified with Ni-NTA-agarose in denaturing reagents. This is further followed by tag removal and refolding in a redox refolding buffer. The second approach involves expressing the target chemokine with an N-terminal 6xHis-Trx-SUMO tag in an engineered E. coli strain that facilitates formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. Following purification of the fusion protein via Ni-NTA and tag removal, the target chemokine is refolded without redox buffer and purified by reverse phase chromatography. Using the procedures, we have produced more than 15 biologically active chemokines, with a yield of up to 15 mg/L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2009.01.017DOI Listing
June 2009

Frameshift events associated with the lysyl-tRNA and the rare arginine codon, AGA, in Escherichia coli: a case study involving the human Relaxin 2 protein.

Protein Expr Purif 2008 Aug 5;60(2):110-6. Epub 2008 Mar 5.

Department of Biological Reagents and Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.

Human Relaxin 2 is an insulin-related peptide hormone with a mass of 19,084 Da. The mRNA contains a number of arginine codons that are rarely used by Escherichia coli to produce highly expressed proteins. As a result, expressing this recombinant protein in E. coli is problematic. When human Relaxin 2 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), several forms of the protein were made. One species had the expected molecular weight (19,084 Da). A second species observed had a molecular weight of 21,244 Da. A third minor species had a molecular weight of 17,118 Da. These aberrant molecular weights can be explained as follows. First, a sequence CGA-AAA-AAG-AGA, containing the rare arginine codons CGA and AGA was the site of the +1 frameshift that generated the 21,244 Da species. Since there was a limited supply of this arginyl-tRNA, the peptidyl-tRNA moved +1 nucleotide to occupy the codon and resumed protein synthesis. Second, a -1 frameshift associated with 'slippery A' sequence XXA-AAA-AAG accounted for 10% of the product with a mass of 17,118 Da. Presumably, the shift to -1 also occurred because there was a paucity of the arginyl-tRNAArgucu. Introduction of a plasmid coding for the cognate tRNA for AGA and site directed mutagenesis prevented the formation of both frameshift species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2008.02.016DOI Listing
August 2008

A high-throughput screen measuring ubiquitination of p53 by human mdm2.

J Biomol Screen 2007 Dec 7;12(8):1050-8. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

GlaxoSmithKline Screening and Compound Profiling, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Tumor suppressor p53 is typically maintained at low levels in normal cells. In response to cellular stresses, such as DNA damage, p53 is stabilized and can stimulate responses leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Corresponding to its central role in preventing propagation of damaged cells, mutation or deletion of p53 is found in nearly 50% of all human tumors. Mdm2 (mouse-d-minute 2) and its human ortholog (hmdm2 or hdm2) catalyze the ubiquitination of p53, targeting it for degradation via the proteosome. Thus, the activity of mdm2 is inversely correlated with p53 levels. Based on this, inhibition of human mdm2 activity by a small-molecule therapeutic will lead to net stabilization of p53 and be the basis for development of a novel cancer therapeutic. Previous high-throughput screening assays of mdm2 measured the autoubiquitination activity of mdm2, which occurs in the absence of an acceptor substrate such as p53. The major drawback to this approach is that inhibitors of mdm2 autoubiquitination may lead to a net stabilization of mdm2 and thus have the opposite effect of inhibitors that interfere with p53 ubiquitination. The authors describe the development, validation, and execution of a high-throughput screening measuring the ubiquitination of p53 by mdm2, with p53 labeled with europium and the other substrate (Ub-UbcH5b) labeled with a Cy5 on the ubiquitin. After confirming that known inhibitors are detected with this assay, it was successfully automated and used to query >600,000 compounds from the GlaxoSmithKline collection for mdm2 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057107308556DOI Listing
December 2007

A second p53 binding site in the central domain of Mdm2 is essential for p53 ubiquitination.

Biochemistry 2006 Aug;45(30):9238-45

Enzymology & Mechanistic Pharmacology, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Mdm2 negatively regulates p53 by inhibiting its transcriptional activity and promoting its degradation by functioning as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The primary p53 binding site on mdm2 is located in its N-terminal domain. Through binding to p53 at its N-terminal transactivation domain, mdm2 directly blocks the transcriptional activation function of p53. We discovered that truncated mdm2 protein constructs without the N-terminal p53 binding domain are at least as active as full-length mdm2 in catalyzing p53 ubiquitination. Furthermore, the deletion of the central acidic domain significantly reduces the E3 ligase activity of mdm2 toward p53. We have also performed GST pull-down experiments to probe the direct binding of various mdm2 domain constructs toward full length p53 and found that mdm2 constructs without the N-terminal p53 binding domain retain the ability to bind to p53. Our kinetic and binding data localize the second p53 binding site between amino acids 211 and 361, including the acidic domain and the zinc finger region. Our work, consistent with other reports, suggests that the p53 tetramer interacts with at least two sites on mdm2. Although the interaction between the N-termini of mdm2 and p53 blocks the transactivation activity of p53, the interaction between the central domain of mdm2 and the core domain of p53 is critical for the ubiquitination and degradation of p53. This second mdm2-p53 interaction site represents an alternative target for small molecule modulators of the mdm2-p53 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi060661uDOI Listing
August 2006

4-Aryl-1,2,3-triazole: a novel template for a reversible methionine aminopeptidase 2 inhibitor, optimized to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo.

J Med Chem 2005 Sep;48(18):5644-7

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA.

Inhibitors of human methionine aminopeptidase type 2 (hMetAP2) are of interest as potential treatments for cancer. A new class of small molecule reversible inhibitors of hMetAP2 was discovered and optimized, the 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles. Compound 24, a potent inhibitor of cobalt-activated hMetAP2, also inhibits human and mouse endothelial cell growth. Using a mouse matrigel model, this reversible hMetAP2 inhibitor was also shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm050408cDOI Listing
September 2005

Phenylbutyrates as potent, orally bioavailable vitronectin receptor (integrin alphavbeta3) antagonists.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2003 Apr;13(8):1483-6

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 1250 S. Collegeville Rd., PO Box 5089, PA 19426, USA.

In our continuing efforts to identify small molecule vitronectin receptor antagonists, we have discovered a series of phenylbutyrate derivatives, exemplified by 16, which have good potency and excellent oral bioavailability (approximately 100% in rats). This new series is derived conceptually from opening of the seven-membered ring of SB-265123.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-894x(03)00102-1DOI Listing
April 2003

A bicistronic expression system for bacterial production of authentic human interleukin-18.

Protein Expr Purif 2003 Feb;27(2):279-92

Department of Gene Expression, Protein Biochemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 709 Swedeland Rd, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is activated and released from immune effector cells to stimulate acquired and innate immune responses involving T and natural killer (NK) cells. The release of IL-18 from mammalian cells is linked to its proteolytic activation by caspases including interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE). The absence of a signal peptide sequence and the requirement for coupled activation and cellular release have presented challenges for the large-scale recombinant production of IL-18. In this study, we have explored methods for the direct production of authentic human IL-18 toward the development of a large-scale production system. Expression of mature IL-18 directly in Escherichia coli with a methionine initiating codon leads to the production of MetIL-18 that is dramatically less potent in bioassays than IL-18 produced as a pro-peptide and activated in vitro. To produce an authentic IL-18, we have devised a bicistronic expression system for the coupled transcription and translation of ProIL-18 with caspase-1 (ICE) or caspase-4 (ICE-rel II, TX, ICH-2). Mature IL-18 with an authentic N-terminus was produced and has a biological activity and potency comparable to that of in vitro processed mature IL-18. Optimization of this system for the maximal production yields can be accomplished by modulating the temperature, to affect the rate of caspase activation and to favor the accumulation of ProIL-18, prior to its proteolytic processing by activated caspase. The effect of temperature is particularly profound for the caspase-4 co-expression process, enabling optimized production levels of over 150 mg/L in shake flasks at 25 degrees C. An alternative bicistronic expression design utilizing a precise ubiquitin IL-18 fusion, processed by co-expressed ubiquitinase, was also successfully used to generate fully active IL-18, thereby demonstrating that the pro-sequence of IL-18 is not required for recombinant IL-18 production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1046-5928(02)00606-xDOI Listing
February 2003

Structural basis for Chk1 inhibition by UCN-01.

J Biol Chem 2002 Nov 19;277(48):46609-15. Epub 2002 Sep 19.

Department of Structural Biology, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, USA.

Chk1 is a serine-threonine kinase that plays an important role in the DNA damage response, including G(2)/M cell cycle control. UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine), currently in clinical trials, has recently been shown to be a potent Chk1 inhibitor that abrogates the G(2)/M checkpoint induced by DNA-damaging agents. To understand the structural basis of Chk1 inhibition by UCN-01, we determined the crystal structure of the Chk1 kinase domain in complex with UCN-01. Chk1 structures with staurosporine and its analog SB-218078 were also determined. All three compounds bind in the ATP-binding pocket of Chk1, producing only slight changes in the protein conformation. Selectivity of UCN-01 toward Chk1 over cyclin-dependent kinases can be explained by the presence of a hydroxyl group in the lactam moiety interacting with the ATP-binding pocket. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen-bonding interactions were observed in the structures between UCN-01 and the Chk1 kinase domain. The high structural complementarity of these interactions is consistent with the potency and selectivity of UCN-01.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M201233200DOI Listing
November 2002