Publications by authors named "Kyung Kuk Hwang"

76 Publications

Multivessel versus IRA-only PCI in patients with NSTEMI and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0258525. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: A substantial number of patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) have severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%). But data are lacking regarding optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of IRA (infarct-related artery)-only and multivessel PCI in patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated by severe LVSD.

Methods: Among 13,104 patients enrolled in the PCI registry from November 2011 to December 2015, patients with NSTEMI and MVD with severe LVSD who underwent successful PCI were screened. The primary outcome was 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, stroke, and any revascularization.

Results: Overall, 228 patients were treated with IRA-only PCI (n = 104) or MV-PCI (n = 124). The MACE risk was significantly lower in the MV-PCI group than in the IRA-only PCI group (35.5% vs. 54.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.561; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.378-0.832; p = 0.04). This result was mainly driven by a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (23.4% vs. 41.4%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.503; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.314-0.806; p = 0.004). The results were consistent after multivariate regression, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline differences.

Conclusions: Among patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated with severe LVSD, multivessel PCI was associated with a significantly lower MACE risk. The findings may provide valuable information to physicians who are involved in decision-making for these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513855PMC
October 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of Patients With Late Presentation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 04;77(15):1859-1870

Department of Cardiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Real-world data on baseline characteristics, clinical practice, and outcomes of late presentation (12 to 48 h of symptom onset) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are limited.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate real-world features of STEMI late presenters in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era.

Methods: Of 13,707 patients from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health database, 5,826 consecutive patients diagnosed with STEMI within 48 h of symptom onset during 2011 to 2015 were categorized as late (12 to 48 h; n = 624) or early (<12 h; n = 5,202) presenters. Coprimary outcomes were 180-day and 3-year all-cause mortality.

Results: Late presenters had remarkably worse clinical outcomes than early presenters (180-day mortality: 10.7% vs. 6.8%; 3-year mortality: 16.2% vs. 10.6%; both log-rank p < 0.001), whereas presentation at ≥12 h of symptom onset was not independently associated with increased mortality after STEMI. The use of invasive interventional procedures abruptly decreased from the first (<12 h) to the second (12 to 24 h) 12-h interval of symptom-to-door time ("no primary PCI strategy" increased from 4.9% to 12.4%, and "no PCI" from 2.3% to 6.6%; both p < 0.001). Mortality rates abruptly increased from the first to the second 12-h interval of symptom-to-door time (from 6.8% to 11.2% for 180-day mortality; from 10.6% to 17.3% for 3-year mortality; all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Data from a nationwide prospective Korean registry reveal that inverse steep differences in the use of invasive interventional procedures and mortality rates were found between early and late presenters after STEMI. A multidisciplinary approach is required in identifying late presenters of STEMI who can benefit from invasive interventional procedures until further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.041DOI Listing
April 2021

Gender differences in clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2020 Nov;17(11):680-693

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: There are numerous but conflicting data regarding gender differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, gender differences in clinical outcomes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PCI in Asian population remain uncertain because of the under-representation of Asian in previous trials.

Methods: A total of 13, 104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into male ( = 8021, 75.9%) and female ( = 2547, 24.1%). We compared the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, 30-days and 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in women with those in men after AMI by using propensity score (PS) matching.

Results: Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities and more often presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Over the median follow-up of 363 days, gender differences in both 30-days and 1-year MACCE as well as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding risk were not observed in the PS matched population (30-days MACCE: 5.3% . 4.7%, log-rank = 0.494, HR = 1.126, 95% CI: 0.800-1.585; 1-year MACCE: 9.3% . 9.0%, log-rank = 0.803, HR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.802-1.328; TIMI minor bleeding: 4.9% . 3.9%, log-rank = 0.215, HR = 1.255, 95% CI: 0.869-1.814).

Conclusions: Among Korean AMI population undergoing contemporary PCI, women, as compared with men, had different clinical and angiographic characteristics but showed similar 30-days and 1-year clinical outcomes. The risk of bleeding after PCI was comparable between men and women during one-year follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729180PMC
November 2020

Clinical Implication of 'Obesity Paradox' in Elderly Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Heart Lung Circ 2021 Apr 1;30(4):481-488. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Background: The clinical impact of body mass index (BMI), especially in the elderly with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), has not been sufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of BMI in very old patients (≥80 years) with AMI.

Methods: The study analysed 2,489 AMI patients aged ≥80 years from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry and the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction (KAMIR/KorMI) registries between November 2005 and March 2012. The study population was categorised into four groups based on their BMI: underweight (n=301), normal weight (n=1,150), overweight (n=890), and obese (n=148). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation, and target vessel revascularisation.

Results: Baseline characteristics among the four groups were similar, except for hypertension (45.1 vs 58.4 vs 66.2 vs 69.9%, respectively; p<0.001) and diabetes (16.6 vs 23.6 vs 30.7 vs 35.1%, respectively; p<0.001). Coronary care unit length of stay was significantly different among the four groups during hospitalisation (5.3±5.9 vs 4.8±6.8 vs 4.2±4.0 vs 3.5±2.1 days; p=0.007). MACE (16.9 vs 14.9 vs 13.7 vs 8.8%; p=0.115) and cardiac death (10.3 vs 8.4 vs 7.9 vs 4.1%; p=0.043) less frequently occurred in the obese group than in other groups during the 1-year follow-up. A multivariate regression model showed obese status (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m) as an independent predictor of reduced MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.69; p=0.010) along with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%) as a predictor of increased MACE (HR,1.87; 95% CI, 1.31-2.68; p=0.001).

Conclusion: Body mass index in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction was significantly associated with coronary care unit stay and clinical cardiovascular outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2020.08.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of successful restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute heart failure: results from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry.

Cardiol J 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: Restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm (SR) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) failed to show superior outcomes over rate control strategies in prior randomized trials. However, there is sparse data on their outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

Methods: From December 2010 to February 2014, 5,625 patients with AHF from 10 tertiary hospitals were enrolled in the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry, including 1,961 patients whose initial electrocardiogram showed AF. Clinical outcomes of patients who restored sinus rhythm by pharmacological or electrical cardioversion (SR conversion group, n = 212) were compared to those of patients who showed a persistent AF rhythm (AF persistent group, n = 1,662).

Results: All-cause mortality both in-hospital and during the follow-up (median 2.5 years) were significantly lower in the SR conversion group than in the AF persistent group after adjustment for risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26 [0.08-0.88], p = 0.031 and 0.59 [0.43-0.82], p = 0.002, for mortality in-hospital and during follow-up, respectively). After 1:3 propensity score matching (SR conversion group = 167, AF persistent group = 501), successful restoration of sinus rhythm was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR [95% CI)] = 0.68 [0.49-0.93], p = 0.015), heart failure rehospitalization (HR [95% CI)] = 0.66 [0.45-0.97], p = 0.032), and composite of death and heart failure rehospitalization (HR [95% CI)] = 0.66 [0.51-0.86], p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Patients with AHF and AF had significantly lower mortality in-hospital and during follow-up if rhythm treatment for AF was successful, underscoring the importance of restoring sinus rhythm in patients with AHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0103DOI Listing
August 2020

Optical Coherent Tomographic (OCT) Finding of Radial Arterial Recanalization.

Korean Circ J 2020 Nov 22;50(11):1045-1047. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Regional Cardiovascular Disease Center, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596215PMC
November 2020

Assessment of the conventional radial artery with optical coherent tomography after the snuffbox approach.

Cardiol J 2020 Jul 25. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Division of Cardiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate acute injuries of the radial artery (RA) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients who underwent coronary intervention via the snuffbox approach.

Methods: Forty-six patients, who underwent coronary intervention and assessment of the conventional RA using OCT via the snuffbox approach, were enrolled from two university hospitals between August 2018 and August 2019.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 65.1 years. In this study population, 6-French (Fr) sheaths were used. The mean diameter of the conventional RA was 2.89 ± 0.33 mm, and the mean lumen area of the conventional RA was 6.68 ± 1.56 mm². Acute injuries of the conventional RA, after the snuffbox approach, were observed in 5 (10.9%) patients. Intimal tear was observed in the RA in 1 (2.2%) case. Intraluminal thrombi, without vessel injuries, were detected in the RA in 4 (8.7%) cases. However, medial dissection was not observed in the OCT analysis.

Conclusions: This retrospective OCT-based study showed that the diameter of the conventional RA was 2.89 mm and acute vessel injury of the conventional RA was rare in patients who underwent coronary intervention via the snuffbox approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0097DOI Listing
July 2020

J-curve relationship between corrected QT interval and mortality in acute heart failure patients.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 11 8;35(6):1371-1384. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: This study investigated the prognostic power of corrected QT (QTc) interval in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) according to sex.

Methods: We analyzed multicenter Korean Acute Heart Failure registry with patients with AHF admitted from 2011 to 2014. Among them, we analyzed 4,990 patients who were followed up to 5 years. Regarding QTc interval based on 12 lead electrocardiogram, patients were classified into quartiles according to sex.

Results: During follow-up with median 43.7 months, 2,243 (44.9%) patients died. The relationship between corrected QT interval and all-cause mortality followed a J-curve relationship. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, both sex had lowest mortality in the second QTc quartile. There were significant prognostic differences between the second and the fourth quartiles in male (log-rank p = 0.002), but not in female (log-rank p = 0.338). After adjusting covariates, the third (hazard ratio [HR], 1.185; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001 to 1.404; p = 0.049) and the fourth (HR, 1.404; 95% CI, 1.091 to 1.535; p = 0.003) quartiles demonstrated increased risk of mortality compared to the second quartile in male. In female, however, there was no significant difference across quartiles. QTc interval was associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in J-shape with nadir of 440 to 450 ms in male and 470 to 480 ms in female.

Conclusion: QTc interval was an independent predictor of overall death in male, but its significance decreased in female. The relationship between QTc interval and all-cause mortality was J-shaped in both sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2019.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652667PMC
November 2020

Lack of prognostic significance for major adverse cardiac events of soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 levels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Cardiol J 2021 27;28(2):244-254. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Chungbuk Regional Cardiovascular Center, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea, Republic Of.

Background: Elevation of soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) is associated with cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Under investigation herein, was whether sST2 level is associated with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: In total, this study included 184 patients who underwent successful primary PCI. A subsequent guideline-based medical follow-up was included (61.4 ± 11.8 years old, 85% male, 21% with Killip class ≥ I). sST2 concentration correlations with echocardiographic, angiographic, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes in STEMI patients were evaluated.

Results: The median sST2 level was 60.3 ng/mL; 6 (3.2%) deaths occurred within 1 year. The sST2 level correlated with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) changes from baseline to 6 months (r= -0.273; p = 0.006) after adjustment for echocardiographic parameters including wall motions score index (WMSI). Recovery of LVEF at 6 months was highest in the tertile 1 group (Δ6 months - baseline LVEF; tertile 1, p = 0.001; tertile 2, p = 0.319; tertile 3, p = 0.205). The decrease in WMSI at 6 months was greater in the tertiles 1 and 2 groups than in the tertile 3 group (Δ6 months - baseline WMSI; tertile 1, p = 0.001; tertile 2, p = 0.013; tertile 3, p = 0.055). There was no association between sST2 levels and short-term (log rank p = 0.598) and long-term (p = 0.596) MACE.

Conclusions: sST2 concentration have predictive value for LV remodeling on echocardiography in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. However, sST2 concentration was not associated with short-term and long-term MACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2020.0028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078943PMC
September 2021

Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Acute Heart Failure Predicts In-Hospital and Long-Term Mortality.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 18;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Professor Emeritus, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The application of a simple blood test to predict prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF) patients is not well established. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is inexpensive and easy to obtain in hospitalized patients using a routine blood test. We evaluate the prognostic implications of NLR as an independent predictor of in-hospital and long-term mortality in AHF patients. Among 5625 patients enrolled in the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry, 5580 patients were classified into quartiles by their NLR level, and analyzed for in-hospital and post-discharge three-year mortality. Patients in the highest NLR quartile had the highest in-hospital and post-discharge three-year mortality. The same results were seen by dividing the aggravating factor into the infection or ischemia group and the non-infection or non-ischemia group. For patients aggravated from infection or ischemia, a cut-off NLR value was 7.0 that increase the risk of in-hospital and post-discharge three-year mortality. In subgroups of patients not aggravated from infection or ischemia, a cut-off NLR value was 5.0 that increase the risk of in-hospital and post discharge three-year mortality. Elevated NLR in AHF patients at the index hospitalization is an independent predictor for in-hospital and post-discharge three-year mortality. Taken together, NLR is a marker for risk assessment of AHF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073552PMC
February 2020

Management and Prognosis of Heart Failure in Octogenarians: Final Report from the KorAHF Registry.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 12;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Treatment of heart failure (HF) in the elderly face many difficulties due to lack of robust evidence. We analyzed the outcome of HF in octogenarians using a nationwide HF registry. Among 5625 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry, prognosis of octogenarian HF and the association of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) with mortality and readmissions were analyzed. Octogenarian patients (1185, 22.4%) showed a higher mortality, and males were especially at increased risk (HR (hazard ratio) 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40). A J-curve association between blood pressure (BP) and mortality was observed regardless of age, but the nadir value was lower in octogenarians (123.8 vs. 127.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP); 67.1 vs. 73.9 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), < 0.001). Use of GDMT in octogenarian patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF) were inadequate (74.3%, 47.1%, and 46.1% in octogenarians vs. 78.4%, 59.8%, and 55.2% in non-elderly for renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, respectively; all < 0.05). However, those on medications had a significant reduction in 6 month mortality. For octogenarians with HF and preserved EF, angiotensin receptor blocker use reduced hospitalizations for HF in men (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.87), but not in women (-interaction = 0.037). HF in octogenarians were found to have different characteristics compared with the non-elderly. However, adequate use of GDMT was still associated with improved survival, and more attention should be given to prescribing medications with clinical benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074088PMC
February 2020

Admission Hyperglycemia as a Predictor of Mortality in Acute Heart Failure: Comparison between the Diabetics and Non-Diabetics.

J Clin Med 2020 Jan 6;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Division of Cardiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Background: To investigate the impact of admission hyperglycemia (HGL) on in-hospital death (IHD) and 1-year mortality in acute heart failure (AHF) patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: Among 5625 AHF patients enrolled in a nationwide registry, 5541 patients were divided into four groups based on the presence of admission HGL and diabetes mellitus (DM). Admission HGL was defined as admission glucose level > 200 mg/dL. IHD and 1-year mortality were compared.

Results: IHD developed in 269 patients (4.9%), and 1-year death developed in 1220 patients (22.2%). DM was a significant predictor of 1-year death (24.8% in DM vs. 20.5% in non-DM, < 0.001), but not for IHD. Interestingly, admission HGL was a significant predictor of both IHD (7.6% vs. 4.2%, < 0.001) and 1-year death (26.2% vs. 21.3%, = 0.001). Admission HGL was a significant predictor of IHD in both DM and non-DM group, whereas admission HGL was a significant predictor of 1-year death only in non-DM (27.8% vs. 19.9%, = 0.003), but not in DM group. In multivariate analysis, admission HGL was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality in non-DM patients (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.69, = 0.030).

Conclusion: Admission HGL was a significant predictor of IHD and 1-year death in patients with AHF, whereas DM was only a predictor of 1-year death. Admission HGL was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality in non-DM patients with AHF, but not in DM patients. Careful monitoring and intensive medical therapy should be considered in AHF patients with admission HGL, regardless of DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019900PMC
January 2020

Pre-hospital delay and emergency medical services in acute myocardial infarction.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 01 28;35(1):119-132. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea.

Background/aims: Minimising total ischemic time (TIT) is important for improving clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). TIT has not shown a significant improvement due to persistent pre-hospital delay. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with pre-hospital delay.

Methods: Individuals enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health between 2011 and 2015 were included in this study. The study population was analyzed according to the symptom-to-door time (STDT; within 60 or > 60 minutes), and according to the type of hospital visit (emergency medical services [EMS], non-PCI center, or PCI center).

Results: A total of 4,874 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 28.4% arrived at the hospital within 60 minutes of symptom-onset. Old age (> 65 years), female gender, and renewed ischemia were independent predictors of delayed STDT. Utilising EMS was the only factor shown to reduce STDT within 60 minutes, even when cardiogenic shock was evident. The overall frequency of EMS utilisation was low (21.7%). Female gender was associated with not utilising EMS, whereas cardiogenic shock, previous myocardial infarction, familial history of ischemic heart disease, and off-hour visits were associated with utilising EMS.

Conclusion: Factors associated with delayed STDT and not utilising EMS could be targets for preventive intervention to improve STDT and TIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2019.123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960059PMC
January 2020

Artificial intelligence algorithm for predicting mortality of patients with acute heart failure.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(7):e0219302. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Mediplex Sejong Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Aims: This study aimed to develop and validate deep-learning-based artificial intelligence algorithm for predicting mortality of AHF (DAHF).

Methods And Results: 12,654 dataset from 2165 patients with AHF in two hospitals were used as train data for DAHF development, and 4759 dataset from 4759 patients with AHF in 10 hospitals enrolled to the Korean AHF registry were used as performance test data. The endpoints were in-hospital, 12-month, and 36-month mortality. We compared the DAHF performance with the Get with the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) score, Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) score, and other machine-learning models by using the test data. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the DAHF were 0.880 (95% confidence interval, 0.876-0.884) for predicting in-hospital mortality; these results significantly outperformed those of the GWTG-HF (0.728 [0.720-0.737]) and other machine-learning models. For predicting 12- and 36-month endpoints, DAHF (0.782 and 0.813) significantly outperformed MAGGIC score (0.718 and 0.729). During the 36-month follow-up, the high-risk group, defined by the DAHF, had a significantly higher mortality rate than the low-risk group(p<0.001).

Conclusion: DAHF predicted the in-hospital and long-term mortality of patients with AHF more accurately than the existing risk scores and other machine-learning models.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219302PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6613702PMC
February 2020

Association between body mass index and 1-year outcome after acute myocardial infarction.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(6):e0217525. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Beneficial effects of overweight and obesity on mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been described as "Body Mass Index (BMI) paradox". However, the effects of BMI is still on debate. We analyzed the association between BMI and 1-year clinical outcomes after AMI.

Methods: Among 13,104 AMI patients registered in Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015, 10,568 patients who eligible for this study were classified into 3 groups according to BMI (Group 1; < 22 kg/m2, 22 ≤ Group 2 < 26 kg/m2, Group 3; ≥ 26 kg/m2). The primary end point was all cause death at 1 year.

Results: Over the median follow-up of 12 months, the event of primary end point occurred more frequently in the Group 1 patients than in the Group 3 patients (primary endpoint: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.537; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.177 to 2.007, p = 0.002). Especially, cardiac death played a major role in this effect (aHR, 1.548; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.128 to 2.124, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Higher BMI appeared to be good prognostic factor on 1-year all cause death after AMI. This result suggests that higher BMI or obesity might confer a protective advantage over the life-quality after AMI.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570024PMC
February 2020

Long-Term Comparison of Platinum Chromium Everolimus-Eluting Stent vs. Cobalt Chromium Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent - 3-Year Outcomes From the HOST-ASSURE Randomized Clinical Trial.

Circ J 2019 06 31;83(7):1489-1497. Epub 2019 May 31.

Seoul National University Hospital.

Background: There are limited data on the long-term outcome of platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stents (PtCr-EES) vs. cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-ZES).Methods and Results:A total of 3,755 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized 2:1 to PtCr-EES or CoCr-ZES, and 96.0% of patients completed the 3-year clinical follow-up. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF), defined as a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (MI), and clinically-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). At 3 years, TLF occurred in 5.3% and in 5.4% of the PtCr-EES and CoCr-ZES groups, respectively (hazard ratio 0.978; 95% confidence interval 0.730-1.310, P=0.919). There were no significant differences in the individual components of TLF. Routine angiographic follow-up was performed in 38.9% of the total patients. In a landmark analysis of the subgroup that had follow-up angiography, the clinically-driven TLR rate of CoCr-ZES was significantly higher than PtCr-EES group during the angiography follow-up period (P=0.009). Overall definite and probable stent thrombosis rates were very low in both groups (0.5% vs. 0.6%, P=0.677).

Conclusions: PtCr-EES and CoCr-ZES had similar and excellent long-term outcomes in both efficacy and safety after PCI in an all-comer population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-18-1303DOI Listing
June 2019

KSHF Guidelines for the Management of Acute Heart Failure: Part III. Specific Management of Acute Heart Failure According to the Etiology and Co-morbidity.

Korean Circ J 2019 Jan;49(1):46-68

Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is on the rise due to the aging of society. Furthermore, the continuous progress and widespread adoption of screening and diagnostic strategies have led to an increase in the detection rate of HF, effectively increasing the number of patients requiring monitoring and treatment. Because HF is associated with substantial rates of mortality and morbidity, as well as high socioeconomic burden, there is an increasing need for developing specific guidelines for HF management. The Korean guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure (CHF) were introduced in March 2016. However, CHF and acute heart failure (AHF) represent distinct disease entities. Here, we introduce the Korean guidelines for the management of AHF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. Part III of this guideline covers management strategies optimized according to the etiology of AHF and the presence of co-morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2018.0351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331326PMC
January 2019

Nutritional risk index as a predictor of mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209088. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: We investigated the role of nutritional risk index (NRI) in predicting 1-year mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).

Methods: Among 5,625 cohort patients enrolled in Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) Registry, a total of 5,265 patients who were possible to calculate NRI [NRI = (1.519 x serum albumin [g/dl]) + (41.7 x weight [kg]/ideal body weight [kg])] were enrolled. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the NRI quartile; Q1 <89 (n = 1121, 69.9 ± 14.5 years, 632 males), Q2 89-95 (n = 1234, 69.7 ± 14.4 years, 677 males), Q3 95-100 (n = 1199, 68.8 ± 14.0 years, 849 males), Q4 >100 (n = 1711, 65.6 ± 14.5 years, 779 males). Primary end-point was all-cause mortality at 1-year clinical follow-up.

Results: The 1-year mortality was significantly increased as the NRI quartile decreased, and the lowest NRI quartile was associated with the highest 1-year mortality (Q1: 27.5% vs. Q2: 20.9% vs. Q3: 12.9% vs. Q4: 8.7%, linear p <0.001). On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the significant inter-quartile difference was observed (p <0.001 for all). In multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression, the lowest NRI quartile was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality in patients with ADHF.

Conclusions: Poor nutritional status as assessed by NRI and quartile grading of NRI was associated with 1-year mortality in Korean patients with ADHF. The assessment of nutritional status by NRI may provide additional prognostic information and thus would be useful in the risk stratification of the patients with ADHF.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209088PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294386PMC
May 2019

Comparison of Characteristics and 3-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Heart Failure With Preserved, Mid-Range, and Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Circ J 2019 01 6;83(2):347-356. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital.

Background: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have not been fully elucidated, especially for patients with mid-range LVEF. We performed a comprehensive comparison of the epidemiology, patterns of in-hospital management, and clinical outcomes in AHF patients with different LVEF categories. Methods and Results: The Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry is a prospective multicenter cohort of hospitalized AHF patients in Korea. A total of 5,374 patients enrolled in the KorAHF registry were classified according to LVEF based on the 2016 ESC guidelines. More than half of the HF patients (58%) had reduced EF (HFrEF), 16% had mid-range EF (HFmrEF), and 25% had preserved EF (HFpEF). The HFmrEF patients showed intermediate epidemiological profiles between HFrEF and HFpEF and had a propensity to present as de-novo HF with ischemic etiology. Patients with lower LVEF had worse short-term outcomes, and the all-cause in-hospital mortality, including urgent heart transplantation, of HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF was 7.1%, 3.6%, and 3.0%, respectively. Overall, discharged AHF patients showed poor 3-year all-cause death up to 38%, which was comparable between LVEF subgroups (P=0.623).

Conclusions: Each LVEF subgroup of AHF patients was a heterogeneous population with diverse characteristics, which have a significant effect on the clinical outcomes. This finding suggested that focused phenotyping of AHF patients could help identify the optimal management strategy and develop novel effective therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-18-0543DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk prediction for 30-day heart failure-specific readmission or death after discharge: Data from the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry.

J Cardiol 2019 02 22;73(2):108-113. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Identifying patients with acute heart failure (HF) at high risk for readmission or death after hospital discharge will enable the optimization of treatment and management. The objective of this study was to develop a risk score for 30-day HF-specific readmission or death in Korea.

Methods: We analyzed the data from the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry to develop a risk score. The model was derived from a multiple logistic regression analysis using a stepwise variable selection method. We also proposed a point-based risk score to predict the risk of 30-day HF-specific readmission or death by simply summing the scores assigned to each risk variable. Model performance was assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, the net reclassification improvement (NRI), and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index to evaluate discrimination, calibration, and reclassification, respectively.

Results: Data from 4566 patients aged ≥40 years were included in the analysis. Among them, 446 (9.8%) had 30-day HF-specific readmission or death. The final model included 12 independent variables (age, New York Heart Association functional class, clinical history of hypertension, HF admission, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etiology of cardiomyopathy, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum sodium, brain natriuretic peptide, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide at discharge, and prescription of β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists at discharge). The point risk score showed moderate discrimination (AUC of 0.710; 95% confidence interval, 0.685-0.735) and good calibration (χ=8.540, p=0.3826).

Conclusions: The risk score for the prediction of the risk of 30-day HF-specific readmission or death after hospital discharge was developed using 12 predictors. It can be utilized to guide appropriate interventions or care strategies for patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2018.07.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Incremental age-related one-year MACCE after acute myocardial infarction in the drug-eluting stent era (from KAMIR-NIH registry).

J Geriatr Cardiol 2018 Sep;15(9):574-584

Statistical Manager, Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, South Korea.

Objectives: To evaluate the age-related one-year major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We analyzed the association between age and one-year MACCE after AMI.

Methods: A total of 13,104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institue of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into four groups according to age (Group I, < 60 years, = 4199; Group II, 60-70 years, = 2577; Group III; 70-80 years, = 2774; Group IV, ≥ 80 years, = 1018). Patients were analyzed for one-year composite of MACCE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, cerebrovascular events) after AMI.

Results: The one-year MACCE in AMI were 3.5% (Group I), 6.3% (Group II), 9.6% (Group III) and 17.6% (Group IV). After adjustment for confounding parameters, the analysis results showed that patients with AMI had incremental risk of one-year MACCE [Group II, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) = 1.224, 95% CI: 0.965-1.525, = 0.096; Group III, aHR = 1.316, 95% CI: 1.037-1.671, = 0.024; Group IV, aHR = 1.975, 95% CI: 1.500-62.601, < 0.001) compared to Group I. Especially, cardiac death in the composite of primary end point played a major role in this effect (Group II, aHR = 1.335, 95% CI: 0.941-1.895, = 0.106; Group III, aHR = 1.575, 95% CI: 1.122-2.210, = 0.009; Group IV, aHR = 2.803, 95% CI: 1.937-4.054, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Despite advanced techniques and medications for PCI in AMI, age still exerts a powerful influence in clinical outcomes. Careful approaches, even in the modern era of developed cardiology are needed for aged-population in AMI intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2018.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188977PMC
September 2018

Coronary artery bypass graft versus percutaneous coronary intervention in acute heart failure.

Heart 2020 01 12;106(1):50-57. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Myocardial ischaemia is a leading cause of acute heart failure (AHF). However, optimal revascularisation strategies in AHF are unclear. We aimed to compare two revascularisation strategies, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in patients with AHF.

Methods: Among 5625 consecutive patients enrolled prospectively in the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry from March 2011 to February 2014, 717 patients who received CABG or PCI during the index hospitalisation for AHF were included in this analysis. We compared adverse outcomes (death, rehospitalisation for HF aggravation or cardiovascular causes, ischaemic stroke and a composite outcome of death and rehospitalisation for HF aggravation or cardiovascular causes) with the use of propensity score matching.

Results: For the propensity score-matched cohort with 190 patients, CABG had a lower risk of all-cause mortality than PCI (83 vs 147 deaths per 1000 patient-years; HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.96, p=0.033) during the median follow-up of 4 years. There was also a trend towards lower rates of rehospitalisation due to cardiovascular events or HF aggravation. Subgroup analysis revealed that the adverse outcomes were significantly lower in the CABG group than in PCI group, especially in patients with old age, three-vessel diseases, significant proximal left anterior descending artery disease and those without left main vessel disease or chronic total occlusion.

Conclusions: Compared with PCI, CABG is associated with significant lower all-cause mortality in patients with AHF. Further studies should evaluate proper revascularisation strategies in AHF.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01389843; Results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952823PMC
January 2020

Outcomes After Predischarge Initiation of β-Blocker in Patients Hospitalized for Severe Decompensated Heart Failure Requiring Inotropic Therapy.

Can J Cardiol 2018 09 9;34(9):1145-1152. Epub 2018 May 9.

University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal time for initiating β-blocker (BB) treatment in patients with severe acute decompensated heart failure requiring inotropic therapy has not been well defined. We evaluated the effect of predischarge initiation of BB treatment on clinical outcomes.

Methods: Among the 5625 patients enrolled in the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry, 672 BB-naive patients suffering from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (median, 67.0 years; 62.5% male; median left ventricular ejection fraction, 24.1%) who received inotropic support during hospitalization were evaluated. We compared the risk of post-discharge mortality and rehospitalization between groups with (n = 282) and without (n = 390) pre-discharge BB treatment.

Results: During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, all-cause mortality occurred in 252 patients (37.5%). Those who received pre-discharge BB treatment showed lower 2-year mortality rates compared with those who did not (21.3% vs 39.3%; P < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, all-cause mortality was consistently lower in pre-discharge BB groups after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.95; P = 0.025) and adjustment for propensity score methods using the inverse probability of treatment weighting (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.93; P = 0.016). The same trend was observed for secondary outcomes of rehospitalization for any cause and rehospitalization for heart failure. Pre-discharge BB was associated with higher rates of BB prescription after 6 (90.1% vs 23.9%; P < 0.001) and 12 (88.9% vs 25.0%; P < 0.001) months.

Conclusions: Pre-discharge BB initiation is associated with better clinical outcomes after severe acute decompensated heart failure episodes requiring inotropic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2018.05.005DOI Listing
September 2018

Impact of Heart Rate Reduction with Maximal Tolerable Dose of Bisoprolol on Left Ventricular Reverse Remodeling.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Jun 11;33(25):e171. Epub 2018 May 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Korea.

Background: We aimed to evaluate effect of heart rate (HR) reduction on left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) in Korean patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods: Ambulatory patients with HFrEF, who had paired echocardiograms, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and global assessment score (GAS) at baseline and 6-month (n = 157), were followed up on preset treatment schedule with bisoprolol.

Results: The LVRR occurred in 49 patients (32%) at 6-month. In multivariable analysis, independent predictors associated with LVRR were use of anti-aldosterone agent (odds ratio [OR], 4.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-9.71), young age (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), high baseline HR (OR, 3.76; 95% CI, 1.40-10.10), and favorable baseline GAS (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81). Beneficial effect of bisoprolol, in terms of LVRR, NT-proBNP, and GAS, was remarkable in the high HR group (baseline HR ≥ 75 beats per minute [bpm]), which showed a large HR reduction.

Conclusion: High baseline HR (≥ 75 bpm) showed an association with LVRR and improvement of NT-proBNP and GAS in patients with HFrEF. This seems to be due to a large HR reduction after treatments with bisoprolol. Trial registry at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00749034.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6000600PMC
June 2018

Effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade in patients with severe renal insufficiency and heart failure.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Sep;266:180-186

Division of Cardiovascular and Rare Diseases, National Institute of Health, Osong, Republic of Korea.

Background: Renin-angiotensin system blockade (RAB) is the cornerstone in the management of patients with heart failure. However, the benefit of RAB in patients with accompanying severe renal impairment is not clear. We aimed to examine the effect of RAB and the differential effect of RAB depending on renal replacement (RR) in patients with severe renal insufficiency and acute heart failure.

Methods And Results: Among 5625 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry, 673 in-hospital survivors (70.9 ± 12.8 years, 376 men) who had left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% and estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m during hospitalization were analyzed. The inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW)-adjusted survival analysis was used to compare the composite of all-cause mortality and rehospitalization between patients with and without pre-discharge RAB. A total of 334 (49.6%) adverse events were observed during the 1-year follow-up. The IPTW-adjusted Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the 1-year event rate was 48.7% and 53.8% for patients with RAB and those without, respectively (log rank p = 0.048). RAB was significantly related to better prognosis in patients receiving RR therapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.436 [0.269-0.706], p = 0.001), but not in patients not receiving RR therapy (HR 0.956 [0.731-1.250], p = 0.742) in a weighted cohort (p for interaction = 0.005).

Conclusions: Early RAB treatment in patients with heart failure and severe renal insufficiency was related to better prognosis. The benefit of RAB was particularly prominent in patients receiving RR therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.03.016DOI Listing
September 2018

Bursting Fracture of Balloon-Expandable Stent and Pseudoaneurysm Formation in the Left Common Iliac Artery and Endovascular Treatment With Graft Stent.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2018 Oct 1;52(7):556-560. Epub 2018 May 1.

1 Regional Cardiovascular Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To report successful endovascular treatment of a previously implanted balloon-expandable stent bursting fracture with concomitant large pseudoaneurysm formation in the left common iliac artery (LCIA).

Case Report: A 72-year-old man had been previously treated with balloon-expandable stents for severe stenotic lesion in the LCIA and left external iliac artery. Seven years later, the patient complained pain in both lower legs and back. Angiography demonstrated a 3.5-cm-sized pseudoaneurysm in the LCIA with embedded metal fragments around the lesion. An endovascular treatment was selected using a limb extension graft for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The device was successfully deployed, and no endoleak was observed. At 1-month follow-up, computed tomography scan confirmed patency of the implanted stent graft devices in the LCIA and the absence of any endoleak.

Conclusion: Endovascular approach using a limb extension graft stent for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair can be used for treating stent fracture-related pseudoaneurysm in the common iliac artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1538574418773465DOI Listing
October 2018

Fate of Acute Heart Failure Patients With Mid-Range Ejection Fraction.

Circ J 2018 07 20;82(8):2071-2078. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: The outcomes of heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) have been rarely studied, and follow-up data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are scarse.Methods and Results:Patients were selected from a prospective multicenter registry of patients hospitalized for acute HF and then classified in the improved group if they exhibited %LVEF change ≥5 with follow-up LVEF ≥50%. Follow-up LVEF reported at least 90 days after discharge was used for classification. Of the 3,085 patients with acute HF, 454 were classified in the HFmrEF, and 276 had follow-up data. Of these 276 patients, 34.1% were classified in the improved group. Multivariate analysis revealed that hypertension, higher heart rate, lower serum sodium level, and maintenance therapy with β-blocker were associated with improved LVEF. The survival rate was significantly higher in the improved group than in the other groups. Young age and maintenance therapy with renin-angiotensin system blockers or aldosterone antagonists were significantly associated with better survival in HFmrEF.

Conclusions: One-third of HFmrEF patients showed improved LVEF; moreover, the survival rate in the improved group was higher than the other groups. Renin-angiotensin system blockers and aldosterone antagonists could improve the survival of HFmrEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-17-1389DOI Listing
July 2018

Optimal Timing of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health [KAMIR-NIH]).

Am J Cardiol 2018 06 1;121(11):1285-1292. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

The optimal timing of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), complicated by acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), is unclear. A total of 1,027 patients with NSTEMI complicated by ADHF who underwent successful PCI were analyzed using a Korean multicenter registry. All patients were divided into 4 groups by the timing of PCI: group 1 (PCI < 2 hour after admission, n = 149), group 2 (2 to 24 hours, n = 577), group 3 (24 to 72 hours, n = 189), and group 4 (≥72 hours, n = 112). We analyzed the incidences of 12-month mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), target-vessel revascularization, and rehospitalization because of HF. The prevalence of ADHF in patients with NSTEMI was 15.2% at initial presentation, and in-hospital mortality was higher in group 1 than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in mortality, nonfatal MI, target-vessel revascularization, or rehospitalization for HF during the 12-month follow-up between groups, regardless of initial PCI timing, except for a higher 12-month mortality in patients who received PCI within 24 hours (vs ≥24 hours) (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.29, p = 0.046). Early PCI did not reduce adverse clinical outcomes in patients with NSTEMI complicated by ADHF. Delayed PCI after stabilization may be reasonable in such high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.01.051DOI Listing
June 2018

β-arrestin2 Affects Cardiac Progenitor Cell Survival through Cell Mobility and Tube Formation in Severe Hypoxia.

Korean Circ J 2018 Apr;48(4):296-309

Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.

Background And Objectives: β-arrestin2 (β-arr2) basically regulates multiple signaling pathways in mammalian cells by desensitization and internalization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We investigated impacts of β-arr2 on survival, mobility, and tube formation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) obtained from wild-type (WT) mouse (CPC-WT), and β-arr2 knock-out (KO) mouse (CPC-KO) cultured in presence or absence of serum and oxygen as non-canonical roles in GPCR system.

Methods: CPCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 -based media containing fetal bovine serum and growth factors. Survival of 2 types of CPCs in hypoxia and/or serum deprivation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Wound healing ability, and tube formation ability on Matrigel of 2 kinds of CPCs were compared in normoxic and hypoxic cultures. Protein expression related to survival and mobility were measured with the Western blot for each culture conditions.

Result: CPC-KO showed significantly worse mobility in the wound healing assay and in tube formation on Matrigel especially in hypoxic culture than did the CPC-WT. Also, CPC-KO showed significantly higher apoptosis fraction in both normoxic and hypoxic cultures than did the CPC-WT. Expression of proteins associated with cell survival and mobility, e.g., protein kinase B (Akt), β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was significantly worse in CPC-KO.

Conclusions: The CPC-KO had significantly worse cell mobility, tube formation ability, and survival than the CPC-WT, especially in the hypoxic cultures. Apparently, β-arr2 is important on CPC survival by means of mobility and tube formation in myocardial ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2017.0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889979PMC
April 2018

Predictors and Prognostic Value of Worsening Renal Function During Admission in HFpEF Versus HFrEF: Data From the KorAHF (Korean Acute Heart Failure) Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 03 13;7(6). Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea

Background: Worsening renal function (WRF) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. We investigated the predictors and prognostic value of WRF during admission, in patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) versus those with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods And Results: A total of 5625 patients were enrolled in the KorAHF (Korean Acute Heart Failure) registry. WRF was defined as an absolute increase in creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dL. Transient WRF was defined as recovery of creatinine at discharge, whereas persistent WRF was indicated by a nonrecovered creatinine level. HFpEF and HFrEF were defined as a left ventricle ejection fraction ≥50% and ≤40%, respectively. Among the total population, WRF occurred in 3101 patients (55.1%). By heart failure subgroup, WRF occurred more frequently in HFrEF (57.0% versus 51.3%; <0.001 in HFrEF and HFpEF). Prevalence of WRF increased as creatinine clearance decreased in both heart failure subgroups. Among various predictors of WRF, chronic renal failure was the strongest predictor. WRF was an independent predictor of adverse in-hospital outcomes (HFrEF: odds ratio; 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-5.02; =0.001; HFpEF: odds ratio, 9.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-75.89; =0.034) and 1-year mortality (HFrEF: hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.78; =0.004 versus HFpEF: hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.42; =0.002). Transient WRF was a risk factor for 1-year mortality, whereas persistent WRF had no additive risk compared to transient WRF.

Conclusions: In patients with acute heart failure patients, WRF is an independent predictor of adverse in-hospital and follow-up outcomes in both HFrEF and HFpEF, though with a different effect size.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01389843.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907555PMC
March 2018
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