Publications by authors named "Kyu K Kim"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PT19c, Another Nonhypercalcemic Vitamin D2 Derivative, Demonstrates Antitumor Efficacy in Epithelial Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Models.

Genes Cancer 2013 Nov;4(11-12):524-34

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D-based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ -4.05 to -6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D-derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1947601913507575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877664PMC
November 2013

Efficacy of a non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D2 derived anti-cancer agent (MT19c) and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

PLoS One 2012 3;7(4):e34443. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methodology/principal Finding: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR) antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein.

Significance: Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034443PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317945PMC
August 2012

Purified cranberry proanthocyanidines (PAC-1A) cause pro-apoptotic signaling, ROS generation, cyclophosphamide retention and cytotoxicity in high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

Int J Oncol 2012 Jan 6;40(1):99-108. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Optimized purification of oligomeric proanthocyanidines (PAC) from cranberry generated PAC-1A which selectively affected the viability of various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines representing a spectrum of high-risk NB features. PAC-1A caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (∆Ψm) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which was directly correlated to the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins in SMS-KCNR cells. PAC-1A reduced the expression of pro-survival (Bcl-2, MCL-1, Bcl-xL) and increased levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad, Bid) Bcl family proteins, upregulated the activity of SAPK/JNK MAPK and downregulated expression or activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. PAC-1A increased the cellular uptake/retention of cyclophosphamide (CP). PAC-1A and CP synergistically increased cytotoxicity and expression of pro-apoptotic markers, reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Additional features of PAC-1A as an anticancer drug as shown in SMS-KCNR NB cells include delay of cell cycle progression and induction of cell death via TNF-family death receptor activity, thus, targeting both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PAC-1A partially blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase which correlated with a decrease of the G0/G1 subpopulation, upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of CDK6 and p27 expression. In summary, PAC-1A has demonstrated chemotherapeutic potential to treat a broad spectrum of NBs including highly malignant tumors that show resistance to standard chemotherapeutics and apoptotic stimuli.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1225DOI Listing
January 2012

Cytotoxic properties of Adamantyl isothiocyanate and potential in vivo metabolite adamantyl-N-acetylcystein in gynecological cancer cells.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2012 Jan 4;79(1):92-103. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

This study determined the in vitro potential of novel compounds adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate to treat gynecological cancers. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein is postulated to be an in vivo metabolite of adamantyl isothiocyanate as dietary isothiocyanates are converted to N-acetylcysteine-conjugates. A viability assay suggested that adamantyl isothiocyanate and adamantyl-N-acetylcystein are cytotoxic to cancer cells including gynecological cell lines. A NCI60 cancer cell assay revealed that growth-inhibition and cytotoxicity of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein were cell line, but not tissue type-specific. Cell cycle studies revealed that adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate arrest SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells in G2/M phase. By TUNEL, immunoblotting, and viability studies employing caspase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that reduction in SKOV-3 viability is a consequence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Cytotoxic action of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein in SKOV-3 and endometrial cancer (ECC-1, RL95-2, AN3CA, and KLE) cells required excess generation of reactive oxygen species which could be blocked by antioxidant co-treatment. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein treatment led to modified expression or activation of apoptotic and oncogenic proteins such as JNK/SAPK, AKT, XIAP, and EGF-R for SKOV-3 and JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 for ECC-1 cells. We suggest the further development of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein by sensitizing cells to the drug using signaling inhibitors or redox-modulating agents and by evaluating the drug efficacy in ovarian and endometrial in-vivo tumor models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01251.xDOI Listing
January 2012

Integrated genomics of ovarian xenograft tumor progression and chemotherapy response.

BMC Cancer 2011 Jul 22;11:308. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women’s Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants7 Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Background: Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer with a very poor prognosis. Xenograft mouse models have proven to be one very useful tool in testing candidate therapeutic agents and gene function in vivo. In this study we identify genes and gene networks important for the efficacy of a pre-clinical anti-tumor therapeutic, MT19c.

Methods: In order to understand how ovarian xenograft tumors may be growing and responding to anti-tumor therapeutics, we used genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA copy number measurements to identify key genes and pathways that may be critical for SKOV-3 xenograft tumor progression. We compared SKOV-3 xenografts treated with the ergocalciferol derived, MT19c, to untreated tumors collected at multiple time points. Cell viability assays were used to test the function of the PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone, on SKOV-3 cell growth.

Results: These data indicate that a number of known survival and growth pathways including Notch signaling and general apoptosis factors are differentially expressed in treated vs. untreated xenografts. As tumors grow, cell cycle and DNA replication genes show increased expression, consistent with faster growth. The steroid nuclear receptor, PPARγ, was significantly up-regulated in MT19c treated xenografts. Surprisingly, stimulation of PPARγ with Rosiglitazone reduced the efficacy of MT19c and cisplatin suggesting that PPARγ is regulating a survival pathway in SKOV-3 cells. To identify which genes may be important for tumor growth and treatment response, we observed that MT19c down-regulates some high copy number genes and stimulates expression of some low copy number genes suggesting that these genes are particularly important for SKOV-3 xenograft growth and survival.

Conclusions: We have characterized the time dependent responses of ovarian xenograft tumors to the vitamin D analog, MT19c. Our results suggest that PPARγ promotes survival for some ovarian tumor cells. We propose that a combination of regulated expression and copy number can identify genes that are likely important for chemotherapy response. Our findings suggest a new approach to identify candidate genes that are critical for anti-tumor therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155912PMC
July 2011

Chemotherapeutic effect of calcidiol derivative B3CD in a neuroblastoma xenograft model.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2010 Aug 11;76(2):164-73. Epub 2010 May 11.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of RI, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Bromoacetoxy-calcidiol (B3CD), a pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic agent in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines, displayed therapeutic potential in vivo as an anticancer drug in a NB xenograft mouse model. Tumors of all animals treated intraperitoneally with B3CD went into regression within 10-30 days of treatment, while tumors in control animals grew aggressively. The response mechanisms of NB cells to B3CD in vitro were studied and included differential targeting of cell cycle key regulators p21 and cyclin D1 on the transcriptional and expression level leading to arrest in G0/G1 phase. In contrast to the effect in ovarian cancer cells, B3CD-induced cell death in SMS-KCNR NB cells was only marginally mediated by the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Signaling induced by exogenous recombinant EGF leads to a partial restoration of the negative effects of B3CD on SMS-KCNR cell proliferation and survival. Upon combinational treatment of SMS-KCNR cells with B3CD and recombinant EGF, the EGF receptor (EGF-R) was highly activated. We suggest future studies to include analysis of the effects of B3CD in combination therapy with pharmacological inhibitors of cell cycle regulators or with EGF-R-targeting inhibitors, -toxins or -antibodies in vitro and their translation into in vivo models of tumor development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.00988.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024052PMC
August 2010