Publications by authors named "Kyoung Sik Park"

63 Publications

Epigenetic Factors as Etiological Agents, Diagnostic Markers, and Therapeutic Targets for Luminal Breast Cancer.

Biomedicines 2022 Mar 23;10(4). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Institute of Advanced Regenerative Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Luminal breast cancer, an etiologically heterogeneous disease, is characterized by high steroid hormone receptor activity and aberrant gene expression profiles. Endocrine therapy and chemotherapy are promising therapeutic approaches to mitigate breast cancer proliferation and recurrence. However, the treatment of therapy-resistant breast cancer is a major challenge. Recent studies on breast cancer etiology have revealed the critical roles of epigenetic factors in luminal breast cancer tumorigenesis and drug resistance. Tumorigenic epigenetic factor-induced aberrant chromatin dynamics dysregulate the onset of gene expression and consequently promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Epigenetic dysregulation, a type of somatic mutation, is a high-risk factor for breast cancer progression and therapy resistance. Therefore, epigenetic modulators alone or in combination with other therapies are potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer. Several clinical trials have analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of potential epi-drugs for breast cancer and reported beneficial clinical outcomes, including inhibition of tumor cell adhesion and invasiveness and mitigation of endocrine therapy resistance. This review focuses on recent findings on the mechanisms of epigenetic factors in the progression of luminal breast cancer. Additionally, recent findings on the potential of epigenetic factors as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for breast cancer are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9031900PMC
March 2022

Serves as a Biomarker for Poor Prognosis in Breast Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 29;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030, Korea.

are breast cancer susceptibility genes that are involved in DNA repair and transcriptional control. They are dysregulated in breast cancer, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Here, we performed a systematic multiomics analysis to expound / functions as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. First, using different web-based bioinformatics platforms (Oncomine, TIMER 2.0, UALCAN, and cBioportal), the expression of was assessed. Then, the R package was used to analyze the diagnostic value of in patients. Next, we determined the relationship between mRNA expression and prognosis in patients (PrognoScan Database, R2: Kaplan Meier Scanner and Kaplan-Meier Plotter). Subsequently, the association of with mutation frequency alteration and copy number alterations in breast cancer was investigated using the cBioportal platform. After that, we identified known and predicted structural genes and proteins essential for functions using GeneMania and STRING db. Finally, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed to elucidate the potential biological functions of the co-expression genes of . The mRNA level in breast cancer tissues was considerably higher than in normal tissues, with AUCs of 0.766 and 0.829, respectively. Overexpression of was significantly related to the worse overall survival ( < 0.001) and was correlated to clinicopathological characteristics including lymph nodes, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors ( < 0.01). The alteration frequencies of both the gens have been checked, and the results show that and show different alteration frequencies. Their mutation sites differ from each other. GO and KEGG showed that was mainly enriched in catalytic activity, acting on DNA, chromosomal region, organelle fission, cell cycle, etc. The 20 most frequently changed genes were closely related to , including and relatively. Our study provides suggestive evidence of the prognostic role of in breast cancer and the therapeutic target for breast cancer. Furthermore, may influence BRCA prognosis through catalytic activity, acting on DNA, chromosomal regions, organelle fission, and the cell cycle. Nevertheless, further validation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998777PMC
March 2022

FDG PET/CT to Predict Recurrence of Early Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Mar 12;12(3). Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Research Institute of Biomedical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05029, Korea.

This study investigated the prognostic value of FDG PET/CT radiomic features for predicting recurrence in patients with early breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The medical records of consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with primary breast IDC after curative surgery were reviewed. Patients who received any neoadjuvant treatment before surgery were not included. FDG PET/CT radiomic features, such as a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and uniformity, were measured for the primary breast tumor using LIFEx software to evaluate recurrence-free survival (RFS). A total of 124 patients with early breast IDC were evaluated. Eleven patients had a recurrence (8.9%). Univariate survival analysis identified large tumor size (>2 cm, = 0.045), high Ki-67 expression (≥30%, = 0.017), high AJCC prognostic stage (≥II, = 0.044), high SUVmax (≥5.0, = 0.002), high MTV (≥3.25 mL, = 0.044), high TLG (≥10.5, = 0.004), and high entropy (≥3.15, = 0.003) as significant predictors of poor RFS. After multivariate survival analysis, only high MTV ( = 0.045) was an independent prognostic predictor. Evaluation of the MTV of the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with early breast IDC provides useful prognostic information regarding recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947709PMC
March 2022

Fatty acid synthetase expression in triple-negative breast cancer.

J Pathol Transl Med 2022 Mar 21;56(2):73-80. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Pathology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a relatively poor prognosis. Research has identified potential metabolic targets, including fatty acid metabolism, in TNBC. The absence of effective target therapies for TNBC led to exploration of the role of fatty acid synthetase (FASN) as a potential target for TNBC therapy. Here, we analyzed the expression of FASN, a representative lipid metabolism-related protein, and investigated the association between FASN expression and Ki-67 and the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) biomarkers in TNBC.

Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of FASN was analyzed in 166 patients with TNBC. For analytical purposes, patients with 0-1+ FASN staining were grouped as low-grade FASN and patients with 2-3+ FASN staining as high-grade FASN.

Results: FASN expression was observed in 47.1% of TNBC patients. Low and high expression of FASN was identified in 75.9% and 24.1%, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found in T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, or recurrence rate between the low and high-FASN expression groups. Ki-67 proliferation level was significantly different between the low and high-FASN expression groups. FASN expression was significantly related to Ki-67 as the level increased. There was no significant difference in PD-L1 positivity between the low- and high-FASN expression groups.

Conclusions: We identified FASN expression in 166 TNBC patients. The Ki-67 proliferation index was positively correlated with FASN level, indicating higher proliferation activity as FASN increases. However, there was no statistical association with PD-L1 SP142, the currently FDA-approved assay, or FASN expression level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.10.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8935000PMC
March 2022

Pharmacological Effects of on Skin Diseases: Evidence and Possible Mechanisms.

Authors:
Kyoung Sik Park

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 20;2021:5462633. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Division of BT Convergence, College of Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.

The medicinal herb (L.) Urban known as gotu kola has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In particular, a significant body of scientific research exists on the therapeutic properties of preparations of or its triterpenes in the treatment of skin diseases. The present study is aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the beneficial effects of on skin diseases. Peer-reviewed articles on the potent dermatological effects of were acquired from PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and SciFinder. This review provides an understanding of pharmacological studies which confirm the potent dermatological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of . This medicinal plant and its triterpenes include asiaticoside, madecassoside, and their aglycones, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. These compounds exert therapeutic effects on dermatological diseases such as acne, burns, atopic dermatitis, and wounds via NF-B, TGF-/Smad, MAPK, Wnt/-catenin, and STAT signaling in and studies. However, additional rigorously controlled long-term clinical trials will be necessary to confirm the full potential of as a therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5462633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8627341PMC
November 2021

Early Interferon-Gamma Response in Nonhuman Primate Recipients of Solid-Organ Xenotransplantation.

Transplant Proc 2021 Dec 8;53(10):3093-3100. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: To understand changes in biological responses in nonhuman primate (NHP) recipients of xenotransplantation (XTP), we retrospectively investigated chronological changes in cytokine profiles of NHP recipients after solid-organ XTP.

Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 7 NHP recipients of pig heart or kidney XTP with α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) under anti-CD154-based immune suppression at the following time points: immediately before; 2 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after XTP; and weekly thereafter until the graft failed. The plasma levels of the following cytokines were measured: interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), D-dimer, C3a, and histone-complexed DNA fragments. For in vitro experiments, human natural killer (NK) cells were cocultured with wild-type porcine endothelial cells (PECs), GTKO-PECs, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with or without anti-CD154 antibody. IFN-γ levels in the culture supernatants were compared.

Results: IFN-γ levels peaked on day 7 or 10 of XTP and then decreased to basal levels, whereas proinflammatory cytokine levels increased along with the elevation of histone-complexed DNA fragments and were sustained until xenograft failure. In vitro, human NK cells produced more IFN-γ when in contact with wild-type PECs than with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was not reduced by the use of GTKO-PECs or addition of anti-CD154 antibody to the mixture.

Conclusions: In NHP recipients of XTP, the early peak of IFN-γ priming subsequent inflammatory responses may be attributed to NK cell activation in response to xenografts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.09.028DOI Listing
December 2021

LEP as a potential biomarker in prognosis of breast cancer: Systemic review and meta analyses (PRISMA).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(33):e26896

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: Obesity strongly affects the prognosis of various malignancies, including breast cancer. Leptin (LEP) may be associated with obesity and breast cancer prognosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the prognostic value of LEP in breast cancer.

Method: We conducted a multi-omic analysis to determine the prognostic role of LEP. Different public bioinformatics platforms (Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, University of California Santa Cruz Xena, bc-GenExMiner, PrognoScan database, R2-Kaplan-Meier Scanner, UALCAN, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database , and The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) were used to evaluate the roles of LEP. Clinicopathological variables were evaluated.

Results: LEP was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared to levels in normal tissues. By co-expressed gene analysis, a positive correlation between LEP and SLC19A3 was observed. Based on the clinicopathological analysis, low LEP expression was associated with older age, higher stage, lymph node status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, estrogen receptor (ER+) positivity, and progesterone receptor (PR+) positivity. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that low LEP expression indicated a poorer prognosis. LEP is hypermethylated in breast cancer tissues in PrognoScan and R2-Kaplan Meier Scanner, and low LEP expression was correlated with poor prognosis. LEP protein-protein interactions were analyzed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. Gene ontology analysis results showed that cellular component is mainly associated with the endosome lumen, cytosol, and secretory granules and is upregulated. For the biological process energy reserve, metabolic processes exhibited the greatest regulation compared to the others. In molecular function, it was mainly enriched in a variety of combinations, but hormone activity showed the highest regulation.

Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for the prognostic role of LEP in breast cancer and as a novel potential therapeutic target in such malignancies. Nevertheless, further validation is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376305PMC
August 2021

Selective inhibition of V600E-mutant BRAF gene induces apoptosis in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Mar 26;100(3):127-136. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Thyroid Clinic, St. Peter's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a high incidence of BRAF mutation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between thyroiditis and BRAF mutation status in patients with PTC. We investigated how a selective inhibitor of BRAF PLX4032 affects the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine levels of thyroid cancer.

Methods: Two thyroid cancer cell lines TPC1 and 8505C were treated with PLX4032, an analysis was done on cell growth, cell cycle, the degree of apoptosis, and levels of inflammatory cytokines. To identify the functional links of BRAF, we used the STRING database.

Results: Docking results illustrated PLX4032 blocked the kinase activity by exclusively binding on the serine/threonine kinase domain. STRING results indicated BRAF is functionally linked to mitogen-activated protein kinase. Both cell lines showed a dose-dependent reduction in growth rate but had a different half maximal inhibitory concentration value for PLX4032. The reaction to PLX4032 was more sensitive in the 8505C cells than in the TPC1 cells. PLX4032 induced a G2/M phase arrest in the TPC1 cells and G0/G1 in the 8505C cells. PLX4032 induced apoptosis only in the 8505C cells. With PLX4032, the TPC1 cells showed decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, whereas the 8505C cells showed significantly decreased levels of IL-8, serpin E1/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3.

Conclusion: PLX4032 was cytotoxic in both TPC1 and 8505C cells and induced apoptosis. In the 8505C cells, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and MMP-3 were down-regulated. These findings suggest the possibility that the BRAF mutation needs to target inflammatory signaling pathways in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2021.100.3.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943282PMC
March 2021

Antiobesity Effect of a Novel Herbal Formulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 8;2021:6612996. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biomedical Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 28503, Republic of Korea.

A variety of natural products have been explored for their antiobesity potential and widely used to develop dietary supplements for the prevention of weight gain from excess body fat. In an attempt to find a natural antiobesity agent, this study was designed to evaluate the antiobesity activity of a novel herbal formulation composed of extracts from three medicinal plants in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. After the thirteen-week oral administration of the test materials to mice, the body weight gain, whole-body fat mass, adipose tissue weight, and the expression levels of obesity-related proteins were measured. Our results indicated that can suppress body weight gain and lower whole-body fat mass in HFD-induced obese mice. Significant decreases in epididymal and retroperitoneal fat mass were observed in -treated groups compared with the HFD-fed control group ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the oral administration of caused significant decreases in the expression level of adipogenic (C/EBP and PPAR) and lipogenic (ACC) markers and notable increases in the production level of thermogenetic (AMPK, PGC1 and UCP1) and lipolytic (HSL) proteins. These findings suggest that holds great promise for a novel herbal formulation with antiobesity activities, preventing body fat accumulation and altering lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6612996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886504PMC
February 2021

Highly accurate diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas based on personalized pathways coupled with machine learning.

Brief Bioinform 2021 07;22(4)

Konkuk University School of Medicine, South Korea.

Thyroid nodules are neoplasms commonly found among adults, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) being the most prevalent malignancy. However, current diagnostic methods often subject patients to unnecessary surgical burden. In this study, we developed and validated an automated, highly accurate multi-study-derived diagnostic model for PTCs using personalized biological pathways coupled with a sophisticated machine learning algorithm. Surprisingly, the algorithm achieved near-perfect performance in discriminating PTCs from non-tumoral thyroid samples with an overall cross-study-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.999 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.995-1) and a Brier score of 0.013 on three independent development cohorts. In addition, the algorithm showed excellent generalizability and transferability on two large-scale external blind PTC cohorts consisting of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which is the largest genomic PTC cohort studied to date, and the post-Chernobyl cohort, which includes PTCs reported after exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. When applied to the TCGA cohort, the model yielded an AUROC of 0.969 (95% CI: 0.950-0.987) and a Brier score of 0.109. On the post-Chernobyl cohort, it yielded an AUROC of 0.962 (95% CI: 0.918-1) and a Brier score of 0.073. This algorithm also is robust against other various types of clinical scenarios, discriminating malignant from benign lesions as well as clinically aggressive thyroid cancer with poor prognosis from indolent ones. Furthermore, we discovered novel pathway alterations and prognostic signatures for PTC, which can provide directions for follow-up studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8599295PMC
July 2021

Expression of ATP/GTP Binding Protein 1 Has Prognostic Value for the Clinical Outcomes in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

J Pers Med 2020 Dec 2;10(4). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Incurable Disease Animal Model & Stem Cell Institute (IDASI), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea.

ATP/GTP binding protein 1 () encodes a crucial protein, cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1), which plays a role in modulating the polyglutamylation of tubulin and has been studied in degenerative diseases. However, the role of in malignancy has not been completely studied yet. In this study, we examined the role of in cancer progression, its association with patient survival, and related mechanisms in lung cancer, using the A549 cell line and lung cancer gene expression datasets. knockdown increased the proliferation, migration, sphere formation, and drug resistance of A549 cells. Lung cancer datasets revealed significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels of in lung cancer tissues, as compared to those in normal tissues. Importantly, expression positively correlated with patient survival. Analysis of co-expressed genes revealed that expression positively correlated with immune infiltration in lung cancer. Our results conclusively suggested that expression was correlated with cancer progression and immune infiltration in lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761608PMC
December 2020

Prognostic Significance of Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase-2 Expressions in Human Breast Carcinoma: A Multiomic Approach.

Cancer Inform 2020 6;19:1176935120969696. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Konkuk University, School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 () plays a pivotal role in inflammation and carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. Our aim of the study is to find the prognostic value of in breast cancer. We conducted a multiomic analysis to determine whether functions as a prognostic biomarker in human breast cancer. We explored mRNA expressions using different public bioinformatics portals. Oncomine, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), GEPIA, ULCAN, PrognoScan database, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, bc-GenExMiner, USC XENA, and Cytoscape/STRING DB were used to identify the prognostic roles of in breast cancer. Based on the clinicopathological analysis, decreased expressions correlated positively with older age, lymph node status, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status ( < .0001), estrogen receptor (ER+) expression ( < .0001) Luminal A ( < .0001), and Luminal B ( < .0001). Interestingly, progesterone receptor (PR) ( < .0001) negative showed a high expression of . Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 was downregulated in breast cancer tissues than in normal tissues. In the PrognoScan database and, Kaplan-Meier Scanner, downregulated expressions of associated with poor overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and distant metastasis-free survival. The methylation levels were significantly higher in the Luminal B subtype. Through oncomine coexpressed gene analysis, we found a positive correlation between and interleukin-6 (6) expression in breast cancer tissues. These results indicate that downregulated expressions of can be used as a promising prognostic biomarker and Luminal B hyper methylation may play an important role in the development of breast cancers. However, to clarify our results, extensive study is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1176935120969696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656875PMC
November 2020

Ultrasonographic evaluation of chronic shoulder pain after breast cancer surgery: single center, cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2020 10 8;10(1):16792. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, 120-1 Neungdong-ro (Hwayang-dong), Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, Republic of Korea.

Chronic shoulder pain is a common complication in breast cancer patients after surgery. Chronic shoulder pain after breast cancer surgery was formerly considered as neuropathic pain, however the pathophysiology including structural damages has not been assessed comprehensively. We hypothesized that the structural change could be one of the cause of shoulder pain after breast cancer surgery and evaluated various ultrasonography findings of the shoulder in breast cancer patients with chronic shoulder pain. Patients who were suffering from chronic shoulder pain on unilateral side for at least 3 months after breast cancer surgery were enrolled from a single tertiary hospital. Demographic and clinical data were collected at the baseline. Articular and adjacent structures of both shoulders (painful and contralateral side) were evaluated by ultrasonography. The ultrasonography findings were compared between painful and contralateral sides. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with abnormal ultrasonography findings. Fifty-two female patients (average age of 55) were enrolled. Significantly more abnormal ultrasonography findings were observed in the painful side than in the contralateral side [39 (75.0%) vs 11 (21.2%), P < 0.001]. The coracohumeral ligament was significantly thicker in the painful side than in the contralateral side (2.48 ± 0.69 vs 1.54 ± 1.25 mm, P < 0.001); adhesive capsulitis was also more frequent in the painful side [14 (26.9%) vs 0, P < 0.001]. Furthermore, patients with a history of breast cancer surgery on the ipsilateral side were associated with abnormal ultrasonography findings and adhesive capsulitis. This study is the first to evaluate ultrasonography in patients with chronic shoulder pain after breast cancer surgery. The results showed that ultrasonography could reveal several structural problems in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73769-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546622PMC
October 2020

Inhibition of tamoxifen's therapeutic effects by emodin in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2019 Nov 1;97(5):230-238. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the combination effect of endoxifen and emodin on estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cell lines and to explain the mechanism of the combination effect.

Methods: We conducted this study on MCF-7 (ER+/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2]-), T47D (ER+/HER2-), ZR-75-1 (ER+/HER2+), and BT474 (ER+/HER2+) cell lines, which confirmed combination effect of endoxifen and emodin. Optimal concentrations for combination were determined to study the effects on proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. Analysis of the combination effect was carried out in the CompuSyn software. The combination of downstream mechanisms, and combined effects of other similar compounds were tested on the MCF-7 and ZR 75-1 cell lines. Protein expression was confirmed by western blot.

Results: The combination of endoxifen and emodin had antagonistic effects on MCF-7 and ZR-75-1cell lines (combination index > 1). We validated the antagonistic effect in T47D and BT474 cell lines. During the combined treatment, the results showed elevated amounts of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK). Analysis of drug interactions showed antagonistic effect between endoxifen and chemical compounds similar to emodin, such as chrysophanol or rhein, in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells.

Conclusion: Addition of emodin attenuated tamoxifen's treatment effect via cyclin D1 and pERK up-regulation in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2019.97.5.230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848006PMC
November 2019

Postthyroidectomy obesity in a Korean population: does the extent of surgery matter?

Ann Surg Treat Res 2019 Sep 29;97(3):119-123. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Surgery, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of postthyroidectomy obesity, and the relationship between the extent of thyroidectomy and obesity.

Methods: A survey conducted at an outpatient clinic from June to October 2014 and retrospective charts for patients undergoing thyroidectomy at Konkuk University Medical Centers from June 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed. We compared clinical characteristics and pre- and postoperative obesity-related factors in 227 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy.

Results: Patients included 39 males and 188 females with a mean age of 46.0 ± 11.0 years; the mean follow-up period was 23.9 ± 16.7 months, and 90 of the 227 patients showed postthyroidectomy obesity. In effect of operative extent on postoperative obesity, patients who underwent TT (48.2 years) than those who underwent lobectomy (43.4 years). TT group had longer follow-up and the frequency of menopause was higher than in the lobectomy group. No differences in postthyroidectomy obesity, body weight change, or body mass index (BMI), change among 2 groups. The predictors of postthyroidectomy obesity were older age, female, heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.029), higher preoperative BMI (P < 0.001), larger postoperative weight gain (P = 0.024), and larger BMI change. However, the extent of thyroidectomy did not affect postthyroidectomy obesity. Preoperative BMI (P < 0.001) and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.03) were independent factors of postthyroidectomy obesity.

Conclusion: The extent of thyroidectomy does not affect postthyroidectomy obesity. Preoperative BMI and heavy alcohol consumption are risk factors for postthyroidectomy obesity. Studies are needed to suggest preoperative life style modification to prevent postthyroidectomy obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2019.97.3.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722288PMC
September 2019

Multiomics Analysis Reveals that GLS and GLS2 Differentially Modulate the Clinical Outcomes of Cancer.

J Clin Med 2019 Mar 13;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Centre, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Kidney-type glutaminase () and liver-type glutaminase () are dysregulated in many cancers, making them appealing targets for cancer therapy. However, their use as prognostic biomarkers is controversial and remains an active area of cancer research. Here, we performed a systematic multiomic analysis to determine whether glutaminases function as prognostic biomarkers in human cancers. Glutaminase expression and methylation status were assessed and their prominent functional protein partners and correlated genes were identified using various web-based bioinformatics tools. The cross-cancer relationship of glutaminases with mutations and copy number alterations was also investigated. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were performed to assess the integrated effect of glutaminases and their correlated genes on various cancers. Subsequently, the prognostic roles of and in human cancers were mined using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. was frequently over-expressed in breast, esophagus, head-and-neck, and blood cancers, and was associated with a poor prognosis, whereas overexpression implied poor overall survival in colon, blood, ovarian, and thymoma cancers. and play oncogenic and anti-oncogenic roles depending on the type of cancer. The varying prognostic characteristics of glutaminases suggest that and expression differentially modulate the clinical outcomes of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463114PMC
March 2019

Structure determination and quantification of a new flavone glycoside with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity from the herbs of Elsholtzia ciliata.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Mar 11;33(6):814-821. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

e Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering , Sangji University , Wonju , Republic of Korea.

Three acacetin triglycosides (compounds 1, 2 and 3) were isolated from the herbs of Elsholtzia ciliata (Labiatae). The structure were identified as 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 7-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 2) and 7-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)[(4-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3) of acacetin. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 3 has not been isolated from a natural source. In addition, the three compounds were quantitatively analysed by HPLC. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was assayed to find anti-Alzheimer's activity, since this enzyme increases the concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, responsible for brain's memory. Acacetin, the aglycone of the three compounds, exhibited a potent anti-cholinesterase activity (IC, 50.33 ± 0.87), though its glycosides (1, 2 and 3) were less active. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the three compounds were contained in the MeOH extract in the order of compounds 2 (12.63 mg/g extract) > 3 (3.10 mg/g) > 1 (2.92 mg/g).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1413556DOI Listing
March 2019

Adjunctive Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging for Detecting Cancer in Women with Calcifications at Mammography.

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Nov 17;24(12):3541-3548. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Mammography detects calcium deposits sensitively, but the specificity for differentiating malignancy from benign calcifications is low. Thus, we investigated whether adjunctive breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) has incremental value for detecting cancer in women with suspicious calcifications detected by mammography, and compared BSGI with adjunctive ultrasonography (US).

Methods: The medical records of women without a personal history of breast cancer who underwent mammography for breast evaluation from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had calcifications detected by mammography, with a result of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories 3-5, underwent adjunctive US and BSGI and were included in this study. A total of 302 breast lesions in 266 women (mean age ± standard deviation 49 ± 9 years) were selected for this study.

Results: For detecting breast cancer using mammography plus BSGI, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver operating curve with 95% confidence intervals were 94% (91-96), 90% (86-93), 91% (87-94), 94% (90-96), and 0.92 (0.89-0.95), respectively. For mammography plus US, the respective values were 97% (94-98), 51% (46-57), 68% (63-73), 94% (90-96), and 0.74 (0.70-0.78).

Conclusions: Adjunctive BSGI had higher specificity than adjunctive US without loss of sensitivity. This finding suggests that adjunctive BSGI may be a useful complementary initial imaging method to improve the detection of breast cancer in women who have calcifications with suspicious morphology at mammography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6058-1DOI Listing
November 2017

Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2017 Sep;72(3):288-293

Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-750, Republic of Korea.

Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0622-5DOI Listing
September 2017

Diagnostic Limitation of Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) on Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Can Be Partially Overcome by Preoperative Molecular Analysis: Assessment of RET/PTC1 Rearrangement in BRAF and RAS Wild-Type Routine Air-Dried FNA Specimens.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Apr 12;18(4). Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul KS013, Korea.

Molecular markers are helpful diagnostic tools, particularly for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Preoperative rearrangement analysis in and wild-type indeterminate thyroid nodules would permit the formulation of an unambiguous surgical plan. Cycle threshold values according to the cell count for detection of the rearrangement by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fresh and routine air-dried TPC1 cells were evaluated. The correlation of rearrangement between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens was analyzed. rearrangements of 76 resected and wild-type classical PTCs were also analyzed. Results of RT-PCR and the Nanostring were compared. When 100 fresh and air-dried TPC1 cells were used, expression of rearrangement was detectable after 35 and 33 PCR cycles, respectively. The results of rearrangement in 10 FNA and paired FFPE papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens showed complete correlation. Twenty-nine (38.2%) of 76 and wild-type classical PTCs had rearrangement. Comparison of rearrangement analysis between RT-PCR and the Nanostring showed moderate agreement with a κ value of 0.56 ( = 0.002). The rearrangement analysis by RT-PCR using routine air-dried FNA specimen was confirmed to be technically applicable. A significant proportion (38.2%) of the and wild-type PTCs harbored rearrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412390PMC
April 2017

Validity of breast-specific gamma imaging for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2016 Apr 30;90(4):194-200. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 162 patients who underwent BSGI in BI-RADS 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound.

Results: Of the 162 breast lesions, 66 were malignant tumors and 96 were benign tumors. Sensitivity and specificity of BSGI were 90.9% and 78.1%, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 74.1% and 92.6%. The sensitivity or specificity of mammography and ultrasound were 74.2% and 56.3% and 87.9% and 19.8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI for breast lesions ≤1 cm were 88.0% and 86.8%, while the values of beast lesions >1 cm were 92.7% and 61.5%. The sensitivity or specificity of BSGI and mammography for patients with dense breasts were 92.0% and 81.3% and 72.0% and 50.0%, respectively. 26 patients showed neither a nodule nor microcalcification on ultrasound, but showed suspicious calcification on mammography. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI with microcalcification only lesion were 75.0% and 94.4%.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that BSGI had shown high sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values in BI-RADS 4 lesions on ultrasound and/or mammography. BSGI showed excellent results in dense breasts, in lesions that are less than 1 cm in size and lesions with suspicious microcalcification only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2016.90.4.194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826981PMC
April 2016

Persimmon vinegar and its fractions protect against alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rats through the suppression of CYP2E1 expression.

Pharm Biol 2016 Nov 4;54(11):2437-2442. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

a Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management , Ewha Womans University , Seoul , Korea.

Context: Medical therapies for alcohol-induced liver disease are often difficult to handle and limited in efficacy.

Objective: In an attempt to find natural therapeutics, here, we investigate the preventive effect of persimmon vinegar (PV) and its fractions against alcohol-induced hepatic injury, in addition to the underlying mechanism, in rats chronically administered with alcohol.

Materials And Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups (n = 8 per group); normal control (NC), ethanol control (EC), ethanol + PV, ethanol + water-insoluble PV fraction (PI) and ethanol + water-soluble PV fraction (PS). PV, PI or PS was orally administrated at the level of 100 mg/kg B.W by oral gavage every day for 4 weeks prior to ethanol administration. The liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin and gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: After a 4-week treatment, histological observation revealed that PV and its fractions mitigated alcohol-induced changes in the liver. CYP2E1 expression was significantly increased in the EC group compared with the NC group, but was significantly suppressed in the PV group compared with the EC group (p = 0.044). We also found significant decreases in hepatic mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12β, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the PV-, PI- and PS-treated groups compared with those of the EC group.

Discussion And Conclusion: Taken together, the present findings suggest that PV and its fractions hold great promise as natural remedies with anti-inflammatory activities that alleviate alcohol-induced liver damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2016.1158842DOI Listing
November 2016

Catalpol reduces the production of inflammatory mediators via PPAR-γ activation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

Authors:
Kyoung Sik Park

J Nat Med 2016 Jul 23;70(3):620-6. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Science and Engineering, Cheongju University, 298 Daesung-ro, Chungwon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 363-764, Korea.

Catalpol, a major iridoid glycoside present in Rehmannia glutinosa, has been reported to show a variety of pharmacological properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of catalpol in intestinal cells remains poorly understood. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of catalpol on the production of inflammatory mediators and its underlying signaling pathways in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Catalpol significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced mRNA synthesis and protein production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of catalpol in Caco-2 cells is similar to that of troglitazone-a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist-on intestinal inflammation mediated by PPAR-γ activation. These findings suggest that the clinical application of medicinal plants that contain catalpol may lead to a partial prevention of intestinal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-016-0988-yDOI Listing
July 2016

Validation of the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2015 Dec 27;89(6):287-94. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Department of Family Surgery, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide has drawn attention to the needs for assessing and managing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of thyroid cancer survivors. We conducted this study to validate the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire.

Methods: Data obtained from 227 thyroid cancer survivors were analyzed using standard validity and reliability analysis techniques. Reliability was assessed by measuring internal consistency via Cronbach α coefficient, and validity was assessed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient between the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and the following relevant assessment tools: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Korean version of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-K), the Korean version of Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI-K), Goldberg Short Screening Scale for Anxiety and Depression, and a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A multitrait scaling analysis was performed to assess each item's convergent and discriminant validity.

Results: The reliability of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach α coefficients for multiple-item scales which ranged from 0.54 (sensory) to 0.82 (psychological). Except for a single item (sexual interest), the questionnaire's validity was established by significant correlation observed between scales in the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and scales used in other assessment tools. A multitrait scaling analysis confirmed that all scales met the recommended psychometric standards.

Conclusion: The Korean version of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire is a reliable and valid assessment tool that can be used in combination with the EORTC QLQ-C30 to assess the HRQoL of thyroid cancer survivors in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2015.89.6.287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672091PMC
December 2015

Radiologic and Pathologic Findings of a Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with Extensive Stromal Fat: A Case Report.

Korean J Radiol 2015 Nov-Dec;16(6):1349-52. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030, Korea.

Thyroid cancer may have small adipose structures detected by microscopy. However, there are no reports of thyroid cancer with gross fat evaluated by radiological methods. We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a fat containing thyroid mass. The mass was hyperechoic and ovoid in shape with a smooth margin on ultrasonography. On computed tomography, the mass had markedly low attenuation suggestive of fat, and fine reticular and thick septa-like structures. The patient underwent a right lobectomy. The mass was finally diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with massive stromal fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2015.16.6.1349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644758PMC
July 2016

The effect of Lactobacillus casei extract on cervical cancer cell lines.

Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2015 13;19(4):306-12. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Aim Of The Study: Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of several types of cancer in vivo, but its effect on cervical cells has not been reported. We incubated cells of the human cervical cell lines Caski and HeLa with extracts of L. casei and investigated its effects on the growth of the cells and possible synergy with anticancer drugs.

Material And Methods: Cell-free extracts of L. casei were prepared and purified. Cultures of Caski and HeLa cells adhering to tissue culture plates were treated with L. casei extract. The effects of L. casei extract on the growth of cancer cells and its possible synergy with anti-cancer drugs in cervical cancer cell lines were investigated. The cells were treated with L. casei extract alone, anti-cancer drugs alone [doxorubicin, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and cisplatin], or L. casei extract plus anti-cancer drugs.

Results: L. casei extract had no significant effect on the growth rate of the two cell lines. Anti-cancer drugs alone induced growth inhibition, but there was no synergistic effect of L. casei extract on growth inhibition.

Conclusions: L. casei extract does not have a potent effect on the viability of cervical cancer cells in vitro. In addition, L. casei extract has no synergistic effect on the inhibition of growth of cancer cells in the presence of anti-cancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wo.2014.45292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631296PMC
November 2015

Screening mammography-detected ductal carcinoma in situ: mammographic features based on breast cancer subtypes.

Clin Imaging 2015 Nov-Dec;39(6):983-6. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine.

We evaluated the mammographic and histopathologic features of screening mammography-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) based on the breast cancer subtypes determined by immunohistochemistry. A total of 94 patients with 94 screening mammography-detected DCIS were included in this study. Mammographically, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive DCIS was more commonly associated with calcifications than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and triple-negative DCIS (P=.003). Histopathologically, HER2-positive DCIS and triple-negative DCIS were associated with high nuclear grade (P ≤ .001) and comedo necrosis (P ≤ .001) than ER-positive DCIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.06.006DOI Listing
June 2016

Inhibitory effects of harpagoside on TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory adipokine expression through PPAR-γ activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Cytokine 2015 Dec 3;76(2):368-374. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Science and Engineering, Cheongju University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Obesity is closely associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, which contribute to chronic and low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, has been reported to show anti-inflammatory activities by suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of harpagoside on both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced inflammatory adipokine expression and its underlying signaling pathways in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Harpagoside significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced mRNA synthesis and protein production of the atherogenic adipokines including IL-6, PAI-1, and MCP-1. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with harpagoside activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. These findings suggest that the clinical application of medicinal plants which contain harpagoside may lead to a partial prevention of obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2015.05.015DOI Listing
December 2015

An idiopathic gigantomastia.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2015 Mar 27;88(3):166-9. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Gigantomastia is a rare condition characterized by excessive breast growth. It has been reported that the majority of gigantomastia cases occur during either pregnancy or puberty. We were presented with a rare case of gigantomastia associated with neither pregnancy nor puberty, and successfully treated it with reduction mammaplasty and free nipple graft. This idiopathic gigantomastia is the very first case in Korea, and adds to the worldwide total of 9 reported cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2015.88.3.166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4347046PMC
March 2015

A comparative analysis of endoscopic thyroidectomy versus conventional thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative thyroid cancer.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2015 Feb 27;88(2):69-76. Epub 2015 Jan 27.

Department of Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and high incidence in young women. Since endoscopic techniques were first recorded in 1996, surgical indications of endoscopic thyroidectomy have broadened. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic thyroidectomy in clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer patients, based on oncologic completeness and safety, considering cosmetic outcomes.

Methods: From July 2009 to June 2011, a total of 166 cases had undergone endoscopic thyroidectomy using the BABA (bilateral axillo-breast approach) method or conventional open thyroidectomy by one surgeon. Finally, excluding 72 patients, 94 patients with cN0 thyroid cancer were divided into two groups according to operative methods and analyzed to compare differences between the two methods retrospectively (endoscopic group, n = 49; conventional open group, n = 45).

Results: We practiced comparative analysis for clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, and recurred cases during follow-up periods of each group. The results showed there was a tendency for patients, young, women rather than men, and having small size of thyroid cancer, to prefer endoscopic surgery to open surgery. Meanwhile, in postoperative complications, there were no statistically significant differences. During short follow-up periods, no recurrence or mortality case was observed.

Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a feasible and safe method for the treatment of clinically lymph node negative (cN0) thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2015.88.2.69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325647PMC
February 2015
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