Publications by authors named "Kwun Wah Wen"

32 Publications

Cancers associated with human gammaherpesviruses.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology & Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; human herpesvirus 4; HHV-4) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8; HHV-8) are human gammaherpesviruses that have oncogenic properties. EBV is a lymphocryptovirus, whereas HHV-8/KSHV is a rhadinovirus. As lymphotropic viruses, EBV and KSHV are associated with several lymphoproliferative diseases or plasmacytic/plasmablastic neoplasms. Interestingly, these viruses can also infect epithelial cells causing carcinomas and, in the case of KSHV, endothelial cells, causing sarcoma. EBV is associated with Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, plasmablastic lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, leiomyosarcoma, and subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and gastric carcinoma. KSHV is implicated in Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease, and KSHV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Pathogenesis by these two herpesviruses is intrinsically linked to viral proteins expressed during the lytic and latent lifecycles. This comprehensive review intends to provide an overview of the EBV and KSHV viral cycles, viral proteins that contribute to oncogenesis, and the current understanding of the pathogenesis and clinicopathology of their related neoplastic entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.16206DOI Listing
September 2021

Global Cytopathology-Hematopathology Practice Trends.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objectives: Small-volume biopsy-fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with or without core biopsy-is in increasing use in diagnosis and management of lymphoma patients. Our objective was to survey the current practice in small-volume biopsy diagnosis of lymphoma, focusing on the interaction among hematopathologists and cytopathologists and the integration of FNAB, core biopsy, and flow cytometry studies at sign-out.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional survey design employing the RedCap database distributed via nine pathology professional society email listservs. The survey consisted of 25 multiple-choice questions and several free text fields. In total, 128 pathologists participated.

Results: Most respondents indicated that FNAB specimens in which lymphoma is a diagnostic consideration (FNAB-L) are seen daily or weekly (68/116; 58.6%). However, most institutions have separate hematopathology and cytopathology services (72/116; 62.1%) with inconsistent communication. When communication occurred, respondents were frequently inclined to reconsider their original diagnoses. Barriers identified included lack of communication, inadequate access to diagnostic studies, no formal subspecialty training, and various opinions regarding FNAB in diagnosing lymphoma.

Conclusions: This survey showed that FNAB-L specimens are common, with a lack of uniformity in how complementary fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy specimens or flow immunophenotyping results are shared across hematopathology and cytopathology services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqab111DOI Listing
September 2021

Adenomatoid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract - a case-series and review of the literature.

Histopathology 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Aims: Adenomatoid tumours are mesothelial-derived benign neoplasms with a predilection for the genital tract. Extragenital sites are rare and can cause significant diagnostic challenges. Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of a cohort of adenomatoid tumours involving the gastrointestinal tract and liver in order to more clearly characterise their histological findings and aid in diagnosis.

Methods And Results: The pathology databases at four institutions were searched for adenomatoid tumours involving the gastrointestinal tract or liver, yielding eight cases. Available clinicoradiological and follow-up data were collected from the medical records. Six tumours were incidentally discovered during imaging studies or at the time of surgical exploration for unrelated conditions; presenting symptoms were unknown in two patients. Histologically, the tumours were well-circumscribed, although focal ill-defined borders were present in four cases. No infiltration of adjacent structures was identified. Architectural heterogeneity was noted in five (63%) tumours; an adenoid pattern often predominated. The neoplastic cells were flattened to cuboidal with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic vacuoles mimicking signet ring-like cells were present in five (63%) cases. Three (38%) cases showed involvement of the mesothelium with reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Cytological atypia or increased mitotic activity was not identified. The surrounding stroma ranged from oedematous/myxoid to densely hyalinised. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mesothelial origin in all cases evaluated. No patients developed recurrence of disease.

Conclusions: The current study evaluates the clinicopathological findings in a collective series of gastrointestinal and hepatic adenomatoid tumours, correlating with those described in individually reported cases. We highlight common histological features and emphasise variable findings that could mimic a malignant neoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14553DOI Listing
September 2021

Inhibin-positive hepatic carcinoma: proposal for a solid-tubulocystic variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2021 Oct 20;116:82-93. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 91343, United States. Electronic address:

Inhibin-positive hepatic carcinoma is a rare primary liver neoplasm that resembles sex cord-stromal tumor and thyroid follicular tumors. The term "cholangioblastic variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma" has been proposed. This study describes the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of a small series (n = 6) of this rare tumor. Albumin in situ hybridization (ISH) and capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) were also performed. All tumors occurred in young women (mean age 32.5 years, range 19-44 years) as a solitary large mass (mean 15.8 cm, range 6.9-23.5 cm). All tumors showed a highly distinctive morphology with sheets and large nests of tumor cells alternating with tubular and cystic areas imparting a sex cord-like or thyroid follicle-like morphology. Cytologic atypia was mild, and mitotic activity was low. All cases were positive for inhibin, as well as pancytokeratin, CK7, CK19, and albumin ISH. Synaptophysin and chromogranin showed focal or patchy staining, whereas INSM1 was negative. Markers for hepatocellular differentiation, thyroid origin, and sex cord-stromal tumor were negative. There were no recurrent genomic changes based on capture-based NGS of ∼500 cancer genes. Recurrence and/or metastasis was seen in three (50%) cases (follow-up time range for all cases: 5 months to 2 years). In conclusion, this series describes the distinctive morphology, immunophenotypic features, and diffuse albumin staining in six cases of a rare inhibin-positive primary liver carcinoma that runs an aggressive course similar to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Genomic changes typical of cholangiocarcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma were not identified, and there were no recurrent genetic abnormalities. We propose the term "solid-tubulocystic variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma" to reflect the spectrum of morphologic patterns observed in this tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2021.07.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of initial biopsy type on the time to final diagnostic biopsy in patients with follicular lymphoma and suspected histologic transformation.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Diagnosis of histologic transformation (HT) of follicular lymphoma (FL) requires tissue biopsy. While surgical biopsy represents the gold standard, less invasive procedures such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are frequently performed. In this retrospective multi-institutional study including 269 patients with FL and suspected HT, the median time from initial clinical suspicion to final diagnostic biopsy was similar whether the workup began with FNAB, CNB, or surgical biopsy (4, 9, and 6 days, respectively; =.27), despite more subsequent biopsies performed following initial FNAB. Periprocedural complications were uniformly minimal. Biopsy-proven HT was more common in the initial surgery group and in workups including positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Our findings, derived from US academic centers with specialized procedural and pathology expertise, suggest that FNAB, CNB, and surgical biopsy are all viable initial diagnostic procedures that can inform clinical decision-making in select FL patients with suspected HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1941936DOI Listing
June 2021

Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: A Diagnostic Overview of Key Histomorphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Genetic Features.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Dec 11;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma that primarily arises in the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and vitreoretinal compartment of the eye. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS DLBCL) because DLBCL comprises a great majority (90-95%) of PCNSL. Although rare, other types of lymphomas can be seen in the central nervous system (CNS), and familiarity with these entities will help their recognition and further workup in order to establish the diagnosis. The latter is especially important in the case of PCNSL where procurement of diagnostic specimen is often challenging and yields scant tissue. In this review, we will discuss the most common types of primary lymphomas that can be seen in the CNS with emphasis on the diagnostic histomorphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features. The differential diagnostic approach to these cases and potential pitfalls will also be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764608PMC
December 2020

Post-operative assessment in patients after liver transplantation: imaging parameters associated with 1-year graft failure.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 30;31(2):764-774. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: To identify post-liver transplant CT findings which predict graft failure within 1 year.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated the CT scans of 202 adult liver transplants performed in our institution who underwent CT within 3 months after transplantation. We recorded CT findings of liver perfusion defect (LPD), parenchymal homogeneity, and the diameters and attenuations of the hepatic vessels. Findings were correlated to 1-year graft failure, and interobserver variability was assessed.

Results: Forty-one (20.3%) of the 202 liver grafts failed within 1 year. Graft failure was highly associated with LPD (n = 18/25, or 67%, versus 15/98, or 15%, p < 0.001), parenchymal hypoattenuation (n = 20/41, or 48.8% versus 17/161, or 10.6%, p < 0.001), and smaller diameter of portal veins (right portal vein [RPV], 10.7 ± 2.7 mm versus 14.7 ± 2.2 mm, and left portal vein [LPV], 9.8 ± 3.0 mm versus 12.4 ± 2.2 mm, p < 0.001, respectively). Of these findings, LPD (hazard ratio [HR], 5.43, p < 0.001) and small portal vein diameters (HR, RPV, 3.33, p < 0.001, and LPV, 3.13, p < 0.05) independently predicted graft failure. All the measurements showed fair to moderate interobserver agreement (0.233~0.597).

Conclusion: For patients who have CT scan within the first 3 months of liver transplantation, findings of LPD and small portal vein diameters predict 1-year graft failure.

Key Points: •Failed grafts are highly associated with liver perfusion defect, hypoattenuation, and small portal vein. •Right portal vein < 11.5 mm and left portal vein < 10.0 mm were associated with poor graft outcome. •Liver perfusion defect and small portal vein diameter independently predicted graft failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07124-wDOI Listing
February 2021

A rare presentation of hepatolithiasis in an adolescent patient: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 12;72:343-345. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Hepatolithiasis (intrahepatic stones) is rare in adolescent patients and requires complex management strategies to prevent recurrent infections and progression to hepatic fibrosis. Surgical management is often required. In cases of unclear etiology, further work-up is indicated to provide insight into future management. In this report we describe an extensive stone analysis.

Presentation Of Case: A 20-year-old Caucasian female presented with known hepatolithiasis and multiple prior recurrent bouts of abdominal pain requiring hospitalization. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) demonstrated an abnormal left-sided hepatic biliary ductal system dilatation. She was treated surgically with a formal left hepatectomy and preservation of the caudate lobe. The right ductal system had no stones or evidence of inflammation, and her bile and stones cultures were negative for organism growth. An extensive analysis demonstrated stone composition primarily of cholesterol.

Discussion: Adolescent presentations of hepatolithiasis are rare and considerations in the differential diagnosis include primary sclerosing cholangitis, bile acid transporter defects, and other known genetic diseases. This case is unique because only the left half of the intrahepatic ductal system had evidence of stone disease and the bile was sterile. A detailed stone analysis demonstrating cholesterol supersaturation provides additional context though the etiology remains unclear in this case and will require lifelong follow-up.

Conclusion: Early-onset hepatolithiasis is rare and requires expert management, and in some cases definitive surgical management with life-long follow-up. Extensive stone analysis and genetic testing can be performed to help identify disease etiology in unique cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306511PMC
June 2020

Complexities in the diagnosis of large B-cell lymphomas, classic Hodgkin lymphomas and overlapping peripheral T-cell lymphomas simplified: An evidence-based guide.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2020 Jun 15;46:151534. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States of America. Electronic address:

The diagnosis of a large B-cell lymphoma and classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is often straightforward. However, in select circumstances, these simple diagnoses can be quite complex. In part, diagnostic difficulty may be due to uncertainty in the evaluation of morphologic and immunophenotypic features along a biologic continuum, or alternatively arise from uncertainty in predicting the behavior and outcomes of patients. Here, we systematically discuss and review areas of diagnostic difficulty in the diagnosis of large B-cell lymphomas (LBCL), classic Hodgkin lymphomas (CHL) and peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). We provide careful data-driven analyses and evidence-based approaches to help guide pathologists and clinicians. We discuss: 1) marginal zone lymphomas with increased large cells versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2) chronic lymphocytic leukemia with expanded proliferation centers versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 3) chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells versus CHL arising from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 4) complex cases of follicular lymphoma versus DLBCL, 5) PTCL with large B-cell proliferations versus PTCL with LBCL, 6) PTCL with Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells versus CHL, and finally 7) blastoid/pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma versus DLBCL. Our evidence and data driven approach may serve as a useful diagnostic guide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151534DOI Listing
June 2020

Autophagy promotes immune evasion of pancreatic cancer by degrading MHC-I.

Nature 2020 05 22;581(7806):100-105. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Immune evasion is a major obstacle for cancer treatment. Common mechanisms of evasion include impaired antigen presentation caused by mutations or loss of heterozygosity of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), which has been implicated in resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which is resistant to most therapies including ICB, mutations that cause loss of MHC-I are rarely found despite the frequent downregulation of MHC-I expression. Here we show that, in PDAC, MHC-I molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation by an autophagy-dependent mechanism that involves the autophagy cargo receptor NBR1. PDAC cells display reduced expression of MHC-I at the cell surface and instead demonstrate predominant localization within autophagosomes and lysosomes. Notably, inhibition of autophagy restores surface levels of MHC-I and leads to improved antigen presentation, enhanced anti-tumour T cell responses and reduced tumour growth in syngeneic host mice. Accordingly, the anti-tumour effects of autophagy inhibition are reversed by depleting CD8 T cells or reducing surface expression of MHC-I. Inhibition of autophagy, either genetically or pharmacologically with chloroquine, synergizes with dual ICB therapy (anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies), and leads to an enhanced anti-tumour immune response. Our findings demonstrate a role for enhanced autophagy or lysosome function in immune evasion by selective targeting of MHC-I molecules for degradation, and provide a rationale for the combination of autophagy inhibition and dual ICB therapy as a therapeutic strategy against PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2229-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296553PMC
May 2020

Utility of DNA flow cytometry in distinguishing between malignant and benign intrahepatic biliary lesions.

Virchows Arch 2020 Oct 15;477(4):527-534. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

The distinction between well-differentiated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) from its morphological mimics such as bile duct adenoma (BDA) and hamartoma (BDH) can be challenging, particularly in small biopsies. Although a few cases of BDA and BDH have been reported to undergo malignant transformation into iCCA, their neoplastic versus benign nature remains debated. DNA flow cytometry was performed on 47 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of iCCA, 14 BDA, and 18 BDH. Aneuploidy was detected in 22 iCCA (47%) but in none of the 32 BDA and BDH samples. Among the 34 iCCA patients who underwent complete resection and were followed up to tumor recurrence, tumor-related death, or at least for 1 year, the overall recurrence or death rates (regardless of flow cytometric results) were 18, 56, and 71% within 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence or death rates in 18 iCCA patients with aneuploidy were 28, 66, and 66%, respectively, whereas 16 iCCA patients in the setting of normal DNA content had 1-, 3-, and 5-year rates of 6, 44, and 72%, respectively. Although aneuploid tumors were associated with worse outcomes during the first 3 years, this difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 1.4, p = 0.473) in the present sample size. In conclusion, the frequency of aneuploidy was significantly higher in iCCA (47%) than in its benign morphological mimics (0%), suggesting that it may potentially serve as a diagnostic marker of malignancy in challenging situations. Our findings also suggest that most BDAs and BDHs, if not all, are benign entities and may not represent precursor lesions to iCCAs that often harbor aneuploidy. Although a larger cohort will be necessary to further determine the prognostic significance of aneuploidy in iCCA patients after resection, the patients with aneuploid tumors may have a higher risk for tumor progression, especially during the first 3 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02812-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954226PMC
October 2020

Synchronous Breast Implant-associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Invasive Carcinoma: Genomic Profiling and Management Implications.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019 Apr 4;7(4):e2188. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif.

A 59-year-old woman with a history of cosmetic implants developed ipsilateral synchronous breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) and invasive ductal carcinoma in the left breast. Each tumor was subjected to next-generation sequencing, and separate analyses revealed mutually exclusive aberrations: an activating mutation in the lymphoma and a in-frame deletion in the carcinoma. The patient was treated with removal of implants, capsulectomy, partial mastectomy, sentinel node biopsy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy with no evidence of recurrence for 1 year. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining thorough evaluation for concomitant malignancies in the breast at the time of diagnosis of BIA-ALCL. Herein, we review the current recommendations for evaluation and management of BIA-ALCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6554181PMC
April 2019

DNA flow cytometric and interobserver study of crypt cell atypia in inflammatory bowel disease.

Histopathology 2019 Oct 13;75(4):578-588. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aims: The pathological features and diagnostic reliability of crypt cell atypia (CCA) arising in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its clinical significance are unknown.

Methods And Results: DNA flow cytometry (FCM) was performed on 14 colon biopsies of CCA from seven IBD patients (male-to-female ratio, 5:2; mean age, 53 years; mean IBD duration, 15 years) using paraffin-embedded tissue. Seven gastrointestinal pathologists were asked to diagnose each biopsy as negative for dysplasia (NEG), indefinite for dysplasia (IND), low-grade dysplasia (LGD) or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) by morphology alone, then again with knowledge of FCM results. Aneuploidy was detected in all 14 biopsies, and five of eight biopsies (63%) also showed strong and diffuse nuclear staining for p53 in the areas of CCA. Six (86%) patients developed HGD (n = 5) or adenocarcinoma (n = 1) in the same colonic segment where CCA had been diagnosed within a mean follow-up time of 27 months. No follow-up information was available in the remaining one patient. When diagnoses were grouped as NEG or 'atypical' (including IND, LGD or HGD), the overall agreement rate of 76% (kappa = 0.51) based on morphology alone improved to 90% (kappa = 0.81) with knowledge of FCM results. Even when categorised as NEG or dysplasia (LGD or HGD) with each of the IND diagnoses reclassified into three categories (NEG, LGD or HGD) based on the degree of suspicion for dysplasia, the overall agreement rate of 63% (kappa = 0.25) based on morphology alone improved to 73% (kappa = 0.46) with knowledge of FCM results. However, when grouped as NEG, LGD or HGD, the overall agreement rate was less than 40% (kappa < 0.09) regardless of knowledge of FCM results.

Conclusions: The presence of aneuploidy, p53 positivity and development of HGD or adenocarcinoma on follow-up indicate that CCA likely represents a dysplastic lesion (at least LGD) and is a histological marker of neoplastic progression. Although the grading of CCA, largely based on cytological abnormalities, is subject to significant interobserver variability, CCA can be histologically identified and should lead to a recommendation of increased endoscopic surveillance, especially if aneuploidy is detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13923DOI Listing
October 2019

Diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of ampullary dysplasia by DNA flow cytometric analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue.

Mod Pathol 2019 09 11;32(9):1291-1302. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

The limited accuracy of endoscopic biopsy in detecting high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma within ampullary adenoma or dysplasia has been reported. The natural history of ampullary dysplasia is also unclear, and there are no established guidelines to determine which patients with ampullary dysplasia require resection versus surveillance endoscopy. DNA flow cytometry was performed on 47 ampullary biopsies with low-grade dysplasia, 18 high-grade dysplasia, and 23 negative for dysplasia, as well as 11 cases of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Abnormal DNA content (aneuploidy or elevated 4N fraction > 6%) was identified in 9 (82%) of adenocarcinoma, 13 (72%) of high-grade dysplasia, 7 (15%) of low-grade dysplasia, and none (0%) of non-dysplastic mucosa. One-, 2-, and 7-year detection rates of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in low-grade dysplasia patients with abnormal DNA content were 57%, 86%, and 88%, respectively, whereas low-grade dysplasia patients in the setting of normal DNA content had 1-, 2-, and 7-year detection rates of 10%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. The univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent detection of high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in low-grade dysplasia patients with DNA content abnormality were 16.8 (p = <0.01) and 9.8 (p = <0.01), respectively. Among the 13 high-grade dysplasia patients with DNA content abnormality, 5 patients (38%) were subsequently found to have adenocarcinoma within a mean follow-up time of 3 months, whereas only 1 (20%) of the remaining 5 patients in the setting of normal DNA content developed adenocarcinoma in a month (HR = 2.6, p = 0.39). The overall 1- and 2-year detection rates of adenocarcinoma in all high-grade dysplasia patients (regardless of flow cytometric results) were 34% (95% confidence interval = 16-63%) and 47% (95% confidence interval = 23-79%), respectively. In conclusion, the majority of low-grade dysplasia patients (86%) in the setting of abnormal DNA content developed high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma within 2 years and thus may benefit from resection, whereas those with normal DNA content may be followed with surveillance endoscopy. The presence of DNA content abnormality can also confirm a morphologic suspicion of high-grade dysplasia, which should be managed with resection, as nearly 50% of the high-grade dysplasia patients were found to have adenocarcinoma within 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0272-2DOI Listing
September 2019

Incidentally Detected Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2019 May;44(5):e367-e369

From the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging.

We present a case of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base incidentally detected on F-fluciclovine PET/CT. A 79-year-old man with history of locally advanced prostate cancer (Gleason score 4 + 5 = 9; cT2cN1M0) previously treated with androgen deprivation therapy (luprolide + bicalutamide) presented with a slowly rising serum prostate-specific antigen over 3 years, concerning for recurrent disease. F-fluciclovine PET/CT, obtained to identify potential sites of recurrence, demonstrated prostate bed uptake with possible left seminal vesicle involvement. Additionally, an exophytic, tracer-avid right tongue base mass was incidentally noted and later confirmed to be p16+ SCC on biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002507DOI Listing
May 2019

Targeting CD74 in multiple myeloma with the novel, site-specific antibody-drug conjugate STRO-001.

Oncotarget 2018 Dec 28;9(102):37700-37714. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Sutro Biopharma, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

STRO-001 is a site-specific, predominantly single-species, fully human, aglycosylated anti-CD74 antibody-drug conjugate incorporating a non-cleavable linker-maytansinoid warhead with a drug-antibody ratio of 2 which was produced by a novel cell-free antibody synthesis platform. We examined the potential pharmacodynamics and anti-tumor effects of STRO-001 in multiple myeloma (MM). CD74 expression was assessed in MM cell lines and primary bone marrow (BM) MM biopsies. CD74 mRNA was detectable in CD138+ enriched plasma cells from 100% (892/892) of patients with newly diagnosed MM. Immunohistochemistry confirmed CD74 expression in 35/36 BM biopsies from patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated nanomolar STRO-001 potency in 4/6 MM cell lines. In ARP-1 and MM.1S tumor-bearing mice, repeat STRO-001 dosing provided significant antitumor activity with eradication of malignant hCD138+ BM plasma cells and prolonged survival. In a luciferase-expressing MM.1S xenograft model, dose-dependent STRO-001 efficacy was confirmed using bioluminescent imaging and BM tumor burden quantification. Consistent with the intended pharmacodynamic effect, STRO-001 induced dose-responsive, reversible B-cell and monocyte depletion in cynomolgus monkeys, up to a maximum tolerated 10 mg/kg, with no evidence of off-target toxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that STRO-001 is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340874PMC
December 2018

How Dye May Prevent Dying from Cancer: Perceiving Imperceptible Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Dig Dis Sci 2019 01;64(1):52-55

Division of Gastroenterology, UCSF Department of Medicine, University of California, 1701 Divisadero Street, Ste 120, San Francisco, CA, 94115, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5409-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Utility of DNA Flow Cytometric Analysis of Paraffin-embedded Tissue in the Risk Stratification and Management of 'Indefinite for dysplasia' in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Mar;13(4):472-481

University of California at San Francisco, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background And Aims: The clinical significance of 'indefinite for dysplasia' [IND] in patients with inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. Currently, no biomarker can reliably differentiate reactive changes from true dysplasia and/or risk stratify IND.

Methods: A total of 52 IND colon biopsies were analysed by DNA flow cytometry. The follow-up result of each biopsy was determined by reviewing all subsequent biopsies and endoscopic reports for the occurrence of high-grade dysplasia [HGD] or colorectal cancer [CRC] at the site of previous biopsy or in the same segment of colon.

Results: The overall 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year detection rates of HGD or CRC in all 52 IND cases were 4.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-10.6%), 18.2% [95% CI, 3.5%-30.7%], 26.3% [95% CI, 8.4%-40.7%], and 31.6% [95% CI, 11.2%-47.4%], respectively. More interestingly, 10.6% of IND cases with aneuploidy were subsequently found to have HGD or CRC within 1 year [95% CI, 0.0%-23.7%], with 36.4% [95% CI, 7.1%-56.5%], 51.7% [95% CI, 16.1%-72.2%], and 59.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-79.5%] detected within 3, 5, and 7 years, respectively. By comparison, in the setting of normal DNA content, 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year detection rates of HGD or CRC were 0.8% [95% CI, 0.0%-2.7%], 3.3% [95% CI, 0.0%-9.6%], 5.2% [95% CI, 0.0%-14.7%], and 6.5% [95% CI, 0.0%-18.1%], respectively. Only the presence of aneuploidy was found to be a significant predictor of HGD or CRC with the estimated univariate and multivariate hazard ratios of 13.8 [p = 0.016] and 50.3 [p = 0.010], respectively.

Conclusions: IND may not be a low-risk condition for HGD or CRC. In this regard, the presence of aneuploidy can identify a subset of IND cases that are at increased risk for subsequent detection of HGD or CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy193DOI Listing
March 2019

Use of DNA flow cytometry in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of gastric epithelial dysplasia.

Mod Pathol 2018 10 22;31(10):1578-1587. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

The natural history of gastric epithelial dysplasia and the consequential surveillance strategies are not well defined in the West. To date, the diagnosis relies on morphology, and no reliable adjunct methods, either immunohistochemical or molecular, have reproducibly been able to confirm the diagnosis and/or risk stratify gastric epithelial dysplasia. Yet, such a tool would be useful in confirming the diagnosis, and developing objective and rational surveillance guidelines. DNA flow cytometry was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric tissue from 23 cases of high-grade dysplasia and 38 cases of low-grade dysplasia. Twenty-four benign background mucosal samples from the same cohort (20 biopsies and 4 surgical resections from 16 low- and 8 high-grade dysplasia cases) were utilized as controls. The presence of DNA content abnormality (aneuploidy or elevated 4N fraction) correlated with increasing levels of dysplasia, as DNA content abnormality was detected in 18 (78%) of 23 high-grade dysplasia, 5 (13%) of 38 low-grade dysplasia, and none of 24 non-dysplastic samples. 1 and 4-year detection rates of high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma in low-grade dysplasia patients with DNA content abnormality were 80% (p = 0.003) and 100% (p = 0.005), respectively, whereas patients with low-grade dysplasia but with normal DNA content had 1, 4, and 12-year detection rates of 23, 32, and 54%, respectively. The univariate hazard ratio (HR) for subsequent detection of high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma in low-grade dysplasia patients with DNA content abnormality was 6.9 (p = 0.001). Older patients (HR = 1.1, p = 0.005) and those with familial adenomatous polyposis (HR = 9.7, p = 0.029) also had an increased risk for developing high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma in the univariate analysis, but only DNA content abnormality demonstrated a significantly elevated HR of 5.9 in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.005). While older age showed a minimally elevated risk (HR = 1.1, p = 0.013), no other potential risk factors, including male gender, ethnicity, polypoid endoscopic appearance, Helicobacter pylori infection, and intestinal metaplasia, were significantly associated with subsequent detection of high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma in the multivariate analysis. Among the 18 high-grade dysplasia cases with DNA content abnormality, 13 cases (72%) developed gastric adenocarcinoma within a mean follow-up time of 9 months, conferring a HR of 2.5; however, this did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the presence of DNA content abnormality can identify a subset of low-grade dysplasia patients who are at increased risk for subsequent detection of high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma. It can also provide confirmatory evidence to a morphologic impression or suspicion of high-grade dysplasia. The majority of gastric epithelial dysplasia patients with DNA content abnormality developed high-grade dysplasia or gastric adenocarcinoma within a year and thus may benefit from more thorough and rigorous endoscopic surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0062-2DOI Listing
October 2018

DNA content analysis of colorectal serrated lesions detects an aneuploid subset of inflammatory bowel disease-associated serrated epithelial change and traditional serrated adenomas.

Histopathology 2018 Sep 28;73(3):464-472. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aims: Serrated lesions (SLs), including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA), are important premalignant lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although a small subset of SLs are known to harbour TP53 mutations and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, suggesting that they may develop dysplasia or CRC via a 'chromosomal instability (CIN)-like' pathway, it is unclear if aneuploidy (characteristic of conventional adenoma) ever develops in SLs and is associated with development of dysplasia or CRC, in this context.

Methods And Results: DNA flow cytometry was performed on 31 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated SLs without dysplasia [including 10 non-targeted 'serrated epithelial change' (SEC), 14 SSAs and seven hyperplastic polyps (HPs)] as well as 48 dysplastic SSAs and TSAs. One (10%) of 10 SEC cases demonstrated aneuploidy and subsequently developed high-grade dysplasia (HGD) within 4 months, whereas the remaining SEC cases showed normal DNA content without evidence of dysplasia or CRC on follow-up. One (3.3%) of 30 TSAs without HGD and two (66.7%) of three TSAs with HGD also showed aneuploidy, but no patient developed CRC. By contrast, all SSAs (with or without dysplasia) and HPs showed normal DNA content, but four SSA cases still developed dysplasia or CRC on follow-up.

Conclusions: Unlike SSAs and HPs, a small subset of SEC and TSA cases demonstrated aneuploidy, suggesting that they can develop neoplasia via the CIN pathway. DNA content analysis of a larger number of SEC cases, with adequate follow-up, may allow for a more precise determination of aneuploidy incidence and neoplasia risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13652DOI Listing
September 2018

Genomic profile of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid is distinct compared to appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor and conventional adenocarcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2018 07 7;77:166-174. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 91343, United States. Electronic address:

Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare appendiceal tumor with unique morphologic features that shows glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation on immunohistochemistry. An additional component of adenocarcinoma (AC) can be present (GCC-AC). Both GCC and GCC-AC are staged and treated like AC. The histogenesis and genetic alterations underlying GCC and GCC-AC are unclear. Capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing targeting 479 cancer genes was performed on 19 appendiceal tumors: 4 GCC, 9 GCC-AC, 3 neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and 3 AC (2 conventional, 1 mucinous). Somatic coding mutations were not seen in any NET. Pathogenic (P)/likely pathogenic (LP) mutations were present in 1 GCC, 8 GCC-AC and all 3 AC cases. P/LP mutations in chromatin remodeling genes were seen in 4 (44.4%) GCC-AC cases, but not in NET, GCC or AC. In GCC-AC, P/LP mutations in ARID1A and RHOA were each present in 3 cases, and KDM6A and SOX9 mutations were each seen in 2 cases. APC and KRAS mutations were present in 1 conventional AC case, but were not observed in any GCC or GCC-AC. This limited series reveals mutations in SOX9, RHOA, and chromatin-modifier genes in goblet cell tumors, and shows that the mutational profile of GCC/GCC-AC is distinct from NET and conventional appendiceal AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2018.03.026DOI Listing
July 2018

Signaling mechanisms that regulate ex vivo survival of human acute myeloid leukemia initiating cells.

Blood Cancer J 2017 11 30;7(12):636. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Department of Medicine (Hematology-Oncology), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-017-0003-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802493PMC
November 2017

Adipocyte size variability in benign and malignant lipomatous tumors and morphologic mimics: a quantitative definition using digital pathology.

Hum Pathol 2018 02 9;72:52-58. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Pathology, University of San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94143.

Among well-differentiated lipomatous lesions, variability in adipocyte size has been proposed as a morphologic feature of malignancy. Specifically, normal adipose tissue and benign lipomas tend to contain adipocytes of uniform size, whereas atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) is described as containing adipocytes with a conspicuous variation in cell size. However, this proposed variance has never been objectively, quantitatively correlated with diagnosis. Using whole-slide scanning combined with semiautomated digital image analysis, we aimed to quantitatively test the hypothesis that variance in adipocyte size is a feature of malignancy in well-differentiated lipomatous tumors. Whole-slide scanning was performed on representative hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides selected from 130 cases representing benign (lipoma, spindle cell lipoma) and malignant lipomatous neoplasms (ALT/WDL) and morphologic mimics (normal adipose tissue, fat necrosis, fat atrophy). A previously validated, open source software package (Fiji-based Adiposoft) was used in semiautomated analysis of adipocyte size from a representative 1-cm portion of each slide. Median, range, and variance of cell sizes were compared across all diagnoses. Fat atrophy demonstrated smaller adipocyte cell size compared with other diagnoses. Among the remaining diagnostic groups, no significant differences were identified in adipocyte size or variance by objective quantitative morphologic analysis. However, the maximum range of adipocyte size was significantly higher in ALT/WDL than conventional lipoma and spindle cell lipoma. These data quantitate the morphology of ALT/WDL and its mimics and more specifically define the somewhat subjective "variability" of cell size as maximum range, rather than variance, of adipocyte size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2017.10.030DOI Listing
February 2018

Immature Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Positive B Cells are Detected in a Subset of Adult and Pediatric Liver Biopsies.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2019 04;27(4):319-324

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco.

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a nuclear enzyme restricted to precursor lymphoid cells and their malignant counterparts; immunohistochemical TdT labeling is helpful in recognition of lymphoblasts, which can resemble mature lymphocytes. The diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) is occasionally first encountered on liver core biopsy, but TdT immunostain specificity for B-ALL is not clearly established in this setting, which can be problematic when only a few TdT-positive cells are identified. In this study, we evaluated the incidence and distribution of immature B lymphocytes coexpressing TdT and PAX-5, in pediatric and adult liver biopsies, to determine whether a normal complement of hepatic immature B cells can be detected, which must be recognized in a workup to exclude B-ALL. We selected 41 pediatric and adult liver biopsies with a significant portal and/or sinusoidal hematolymphoid infiltrate and performed immunohistochemical stains for TdT and PAX-5 to identify and categorize distribution of immature B cells. TdT-positive cells were detected in 40% of pediatric liver biopsies with a significant hematolymphoid infiltrate (4/10), which included all biopsies from neonates (and infants under 9 wk of age). In adults, immature B-cell infiltrates were less common (6%, 2/31). Dual immunostaining was performed on 2 cases of neonatal hepatitis, which documented B-cell lineage in at least a subset of TdT-positive cells and there was no colabeling with CD3. Immature B cells can be detected in liver biopsies in a variety of clinical settings, most commonly in children, and presence of a few TdT-positive cells cannot be considered entirely specific for involvement by B-ALL. Further workup for B-ALL can be warranted if there is more extensive multifocal portal and/or sinusoidal involvement by blasts with TdT labeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000000596DOI Listing
April 2019

Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid: common errors in staging and clinical interpretation with a proposal for an improved terminology.

Hum Pathol 2017 07 24;65:187-193. Epub 2017 May 24.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 91343, United States. Electronic address:

Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is staged and treated as adenocarcinoma (AC) and not as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or neuroendocrine carcinoma. The term carcinoid may lead to incorrect interpretation as NET. The aim of the study was to explore pitfalls in staging and clinical interpretation of GCC and mixed GCC-AC, and propose strategies to avoid common errors. Diagnostic terminology, staging, and clinical interpretation were evaluated in 58 cases (27 GCCs, 31 mixed GCC-ACs). Opinions were collected from 23 pathologists using a survey. Clinical notes were reviewed to assess the interpretation of pathology diagnoses by oncologists. NET staging was incorrectly used for 25% of GCCs and 5% of mixed GCC-ACs. In the survey, 43% of pathologists incorrectly indicated that NET staging is applicable to GCCs, and 43% incorrectly responded that Ki-67 proliferation index is necessary for GCC grading. Two cases each of GCC and mixed GCC-AC were incorrectly interpreted as neuroendocrine neoplasms by oncologists, and platinum-based therapy was considered for 2 GCC-AC cases because of the mistaken impression of neuroendocrine carcinoma created by use of the World Health Organization 2010 term mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. The term carcinoid in GCC and use of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma for mixed GCC-AC lead to errors in staging and treatment. We propose that goblet cell carcinoid should be changed to goblet cell carcinoma, whereas GCC with AC should be referred to as mixed GCC-AC with a comment about the proportion of each component and the histologic subtype of AC. This terminology will facilitate appropriate staging and clinical management, and avoid errors in interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2017.05.012DOI Listing
July 2017

Hsp90 inhibitors are efficacious against Kaposi Sarcoma by enhancing the degradation of the essential viral gene LANA, of the viral co-receptor EphA2 as well as other client proteins.

PLoS Pathog 2012 29;8(11):e1003048. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Program in Global Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors exhibit activity against human cancers. We evaluated a series of new, oral bioavailable, chemically diverse Hsp90 inhibitors (PU-H71, AUY922, BIIB021, NVP-BEP800) against Kaposi sarcoma (KS). All Hsp90 inhibitors exhibited nanomolar EC(50) in culture and AUY922 reduced tumor burden in a xenograft model of KS. KS is associated with KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We identified the viral latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) as a novel client protein of Hsp90 and demonstrate that the Hsp90 inhibitors diminish the level of LANA through proteasomal degradation. These Hsp90 inhibitors also downregulated EphA2 and ephrin-B2 protein levels. LANA is essential for viral maintenance and EphA2 has recently been shown to facilitate KSHV infection; which in turn feeds latent persistence. Further, both molecules are required for KS tumor formation and both were downregulated in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. This provides a rationale for clinical testing of Hsp90 inhibitors in KSHV-associated cancers and in the eradication of latent KSHV reservoirs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510261PMC
April 2013

The mitochondrial proteins NLRX1 and TUFM form a complex that regulates type I interferon and autophagy.

Immunity 2012 Jun;36(6):933-46

The Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The mitochondrial protein MAVS (also known as IPS-1, VISA, and CARDIF) interacts with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) to induce type I interferon (IFN-I). NLRX1 is a mitochondrial nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeats (NLR)-containing protein that attenuates MAVS-RLR signaling. Using Nlrx1(-/-) cells, we confirmed that NLRX1 attenuated IFN-I production, but additionally promoted autophagy during viral infection. This dual function of NLRX1 paralleled the previously described functions of the autophagy-related proteins Atg5-Atg12, but NLRX1 did not associate with Atg5-Atg12. High-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry and endogenous protein-protein interaction revealed an NLRX1-interacting partner, mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM). TUFM interacted with Atg5-Atg12 and Atg16L1 and has similar functions as NLRX1 by inhibiting RLR-induced IFN-I but promoting autophagy. In the absence of NLRX1, increased IFN-I and decreased autophagy provide an advantage for host defense against vesicular stomatitis virus. This study establishes a link between an NLR protein and the viral-induced autophagic machinery via an intermediary partner, TUFM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2012.03.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3397828PMC
June 2012

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): molecular biology and oncogenesis.

Cancer Lett 2010 Mar 3;289(2):140-50. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a double-stranded DNA herpesvirus belonging to the gamma-herpesvirinae subfamily. KSHV has been associated with the development of three neoplastic diseases: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). In this review, we discuss the three KSHV-associated malignancies, KSHV genome, latent and lytic aspects of the viral lifecycle, putative viral oncogenes, as well as therapeutic regimens used for the treatment of KS, PEL, and MCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2009.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342847PMC
March 2010
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