Publications by authors named "Kurunthachalam Kannan"

581 Publications

Profiles of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in bottled water, tap water, lake water, and wastewater samples collected from Hanoi, Vietnam.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 19;788:147831. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi 10000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Contamination levels and distribution patterns of ten typical phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were investigated in various types of water samples collected from Hanoi metropolitan area in Vietnam. Concentrations of 10 PAEs in bottled water, tap water, lake water, and wastewater samples were measured in the ranges of 1640-15,700 ng/L (mean/median: 6400/5820 ng/L), 2100-18,000 ng/L (mean/median: 11,200/9270 ng/L), 19,600-127,000 ng/L (mean/median: 51,800/49,300 ng/L), and 20,700-405,000 ng/L (mean/median: 121,000/115,000 ng/L), respectively. Among PAEs, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for a major proportion of total concentrations (45%) in wastewater, followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP, 10.3%), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP, 9.53%). Concentrations of PAEs in wastewater decreased significantly with distance from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Concentrations of PAEs in surface water samples did not vary greatly between locations. PAEs were found in bottled water in the following order: DBP (22.4%), DiBP (22.3%), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP, 20.1%), and DEHP (15.5%). The estimated mean exposure doses of 10 PAEs through consumption of drinking water for adults and children in Vietnam were 254 and 256 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. Capsule: Highest concentrations of PAEs were measured in wastewater, followed by lake water, tap water, and bottled water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147831DOI Listing
September 2021

Maternal bisphenol urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes: A population-based prospective cohort.

Environ Health 2021 May 15;20(1):60. Epub 2021 May 15.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, the Netherlands.

Background: Exposure to bisphenols may affect fetal growth and development. The trimester-specific effects of bisphenols on repeated measures of fetal growth remain unknown. Our objective was to assess the associations of maternal bisphenol urine concentrations with fetal growth measures and birth outcomes and identify potential critical exposure periods.

Methods: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1379 pregnant women, we measured maternal bisphenol A, S and F urine concentrations in the first, second and third trimester. Fetal head circumference, length and weight were measured in the second and third trimester by ultrasound and at birth.

Results: An interquartile range increase in maternal pregnancy-averaged bisphenol S concentrations was associated with larger fetal head circumference (difference 0.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.34) standard deviation scores (SDS), p-value< 0.05) across pregnancy. When focusing on specific critical exposure periods, any detection of first trimester bisphenol S was associated with larger second and third trimester fetal head circumference (difference 0.15 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.26) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.23) SDS, respectively) and fetal weight (difference 0.12 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.22) and 0.16 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.26) SDS, respectively). The other bisphenols were not consistently associated with fetal growth outcomes. Any detection of bisphenol S and bisphenol F in first trimester was also associated with a lower risk of being born small size for gestational age (Odds Ratio 0.56 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.74) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.85), respectively). Bisphenols were not associated with risk of preterm birth.

Conclusions: Higher maternal bisphenol S urine concentrations, especially in the first trimester, seem to be related with larger fetal head circumference, higher weight and a lower risk of being small size for gestational age at birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-021-00747-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126069PMC
May 2021

Prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure alters children's cognitive control circuitry: A preliminary study.

Environ Int 2021 May 6;155:106516. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Background And Objectives: Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with increased attention problems in children, however, the effects of such exposure on children's brain structure and function have not been studied. Herein, we probed effects of prenatal ETS on children's cognitive control circuitry and behavior.

Methods: Forty-one children (7-9 years) recruited from a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of non-smoking mothers completed structural and task-functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate effects of maternal ETS exposure, measured by maternal prenatal urinary cotinine. Attention problems and externalizing behaviors were measured by parent report on the Child Behavior Checklist.

Results: Compared to non-exposed children, exposed children had smaller left and right thalamic and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) volumes, with large effect sizes (p-FDR < .05, Cohen's D range from 0.79 to 1.07), and increased activation in IFG during the resolution of cognitive conflict measured with the Simon Spatial Incompatibility Task (38 voxels; peak t(25) = 5.25, p-FWE = .005). Reduced thalamic volume was associated with increased IFG activation and attention problems, reflecting poor cognitive control. Mediation analyses showed a trend toward left thalamic volume mediating the association between exposure and attention problems (p = .05).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy has deleterious effects on the structure and function of cognitive control circuitry which in turn affects attentional capacity in school-age children. These findings are consistent with prior findings documenting the effects of active maternal smoking on chidlren's neurodevleoment, pointing to the neurotixicity of nicotine regardless of exposure pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106516DOI Listing
May 2021

Distribution of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in drinking water, tap water, surface water, and wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117260. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi, 10000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

In this study, four cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) were determined in drinking water, tap water, surface water, and wastewater samples collected from Hanoi metropolitan area, Vietnam, during August to December 2020 (dry season) by using solid phase extraction combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of cVMSs in the range of 63-7400 ng/L (mean/median: 1840/1310 ng/L) were found in wastewater samples. A significant difference existed in the concentrations of cVMSs between influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The sum concentrations of four cVMSs in lake water, tap water, and bottled water samples were in the ranges of 67.0-1100 ng/L (mean/median: 350/282 ng/L), 19.8-350 ng/L (12.6/12.3 ng/L), and 2.31-28.1 ng/L (10.3/8.23 ng/L), respectively. Among the four cVMSs, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) was found at the highest concentrations in all water samples analyzed. The mean exposure doses of cVMSs calculated for adults and children through the consumption of drinking were 0.409 and 0.412 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. Human exposure to cVMSs calculated through drinking water consumption was significantly lower than that reported for inhalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117260DOI Listing
April 2021

Organophosphate pesticides and progression of chronic kidney disease among children: A prospective cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 May 2;155:106597. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Environmental Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY; NYU Wagner School of Public Service, New York, NY, USA; NYU College of Global Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to environmental chemicals, such as pesticides, impacts renal function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is not clear if pesticides may affect CKD progression and no studies exist in children.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine associations between serially measured urinary OP pesticide metabolites and clinical and laboratory measures of kidney function over time among children with CKD.

Methods: This study used data on 618 participants enrolled in the CKD in Children study (CKiD), a cohort study of pediatric CKD patients from the US and Canada. Children were followed over an average of 3.0 years (standard deviation (SD) = 1.6) between 2005 and 2015. In serially collected urine samples over time, six nonspecific dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides were measured. Biomarkers of tubular injury (kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)) and oxidant stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and F-isoprostane) were determined in the same specimens. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, and blood pressure were assessed annually.

Results: DAPs were associated with increased KIM-1 and 8-OHdG throughout follow-up. A standard deviation increase in ∑diethyl metabolites was associated with increases of 11.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.8%, 19.4%) and 13.2% (95% CI: 9.3%, 17.2%) in KIM-1 and 8-OHdG over time, respectively. DAPs were associated with lower eGFR at baseline and higher eGFR over subsequent years.

Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that urinary DAP metabolites are associated with subclinical kidney injury among children with CKD, which may signal the potential for clinical events to manifest in the future. The results from this study are significant from both a clinical and public health perspective, given that OP pesticide exposure is a modifiable risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106597DOI Listing
May 2021

A method for the analysis of 121 multi-class environmental chemicals in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jun 9;1646:462146. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics and Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, MSB 6-698, 550 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States. Electronic address:

Biomonitoring of human exposure to environmental chemicals has gained momentum in recent years. Biomonitoring methods often include analysis of a single class of chemicals with similar chemical properties. In this study, we describe a method that involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and capable of measuring 121 environmental chemicals comprising plasticizers (PMs; n = 45), environmental phenols (EPs; n = 45), and pesticides (n = 31) through a single extraction of urine. Urine samples were incubated with 20 µL of β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase (4000 units/mL urine) (from Helix pomatia) buffered at pH 5.5 for 2 h at 37 °C for optimal deconjugation conditions. We compared two extraction methods, namely liquid-liquid extraction and SPE, and the latter with ABS Elut NEXUS® cartridges was optimized to yield best extraction efficiencies. For increased resolution and chromatographic separation, two methods involving Ultra AQ C18® and Betasil™ C18® columns were used. The MS/MS analyses were performed under both negative and positive ionization modes. The optimized method yielded excellent intra- and inter-day variabilities (relative standard deviation: 0.40-11%) and satisfactory recoveries (80-120%) for >95% of the analytes. The limits of detection were ≤ 0.1 ng/mL for 101 analytes and between 0.1 and 1.0 ng/mL for 18 analytes. The optimized SPE LC-MS/MS method was validated through the analysis of standard reference materials and proficiency test urine samples and further applied in the analysis of 21 real urine samples to demonstrate simultaneous determination of 121 environmental chemicals in urine samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106663PMC
June 2021

Quantitative analysis of polyethylene terephthalate and polycarbonate microplastics in sediment collected from South Korea, Japan and the USA.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 11;279:130551. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) have emerged as contaminants of public health and environmental concern. Although studies have reported the occurrence of MPs in sediment, quantitative determination of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) concentrations is limited. In this study, marine coastal and freshwater sediment collected from various locations in South Korea, Japan and the United States were analyzed for PET and PC MPs using a depolymerization method of sample preparation followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection. PET MPs were found in surface sediments from South Korea (n = 20), Japan (n = 4) and the United States (n = 43) at concentrations (dry weight) in the ranges of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130551DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessing Indoor Dust Interference with Human Nuclear Hormone Receptors in Cell-Based Luciferase Reporter Assays.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Apr 14;129(4):47010. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are hormone-disrupting chemicals that migrate from building materials into air and dust.

Objectives: We aimed to quantify the hormonal activities of 46 dust samples and identify chemicals driving the observed activities.

Methods: We evaluated associations between hormonal activities of extracted dust in five cell-based luciferase reporter assays and dust concentrations of 42 measured PFAS, OPEs, and PBDEs, transformed as either raw or potency-weighted concentrations based on Tox21 high-throughput screening data.

Results: All dust samples were hormonally active, showing antagonistic activity toward peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor () (100%; 46 of 46 samples), thyroid hormone receptor () (89%; 41 samples), and androgen receptor (AR) (87%; 40 samples); agonist activity on estrogen receptor () (96%; 44 samples); and binding competition with thyroxine () on serum transporter transthyretin (TTR) (98%; 45 samples). Effects were observed with as little as of extracted dust. In regression models for each chemical class, interquartile range increases in potency-weighted or unknown-potency chemical concentrations were associated with higher hormonal activities of dust extracts (potency-weighted: , , ; , , ; , , ; , , ; unknown-potency: , , ; , , ), adjusted for chemicals with active, inactive, and unknown Tox21 designations.

Discussion: All indoor dust samples exhibited hormonal activities, which were associated with PFAS, PBDE, and OPE levels. Reporter gene cell-based assays are relatively inexpensive, health-relevant evaluations of toxic loads of chemical mixtures that building occupants are exposed to. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8054.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP8054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045486PMC
April 2021

Legacy and Emerging Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Finless Porpoises from East China Sea: Temporal Trends and Tissue-Specific Accumulation.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), and emerging alternatives and precursors of these compounds were determined in tissues of finless porpoise () collected from East China Sea in 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. The median hepatic concentrations of emerging poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), 8:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (8:2 Cl-PFESA), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-propanoate (HFPO-DA), and 4,8-dioxa-3-perfluorononanoate (ADONA) were 16.2, 2.16, < LOQ (limit of quantification) and < LOQ ng/g ww (wet weight), respectively. The concentrations of legacy substances, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were 86.9 and 1.95 ng/g ww, respectively. The liver concentrations of 6:2 Cl-PFESA, HFPO-DA, and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) increased with time between 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. Further, concentrations of PFOA showed a declining trend in finless porpoise, whereas PFOS and its precursor (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonamide [FOSA]) showed an increasing trend with time between 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. Analysis of PFASs in nine different tissues/organs of finless porpoise (i.e., liver, heart, intestine, spleen, kidney, stomach, lung, muscle, and skin) revealed a similar distribution pattern between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and PFOS; however, the tissue distribution patterns differed between HFPO-DA and PFOA. The concentrations of PFAS alternatives in kidney were similar or lower than the prototype compounds PFOS and PFOA (i.e., 8:2 Cl-PFESA < 6:2 Cl-PFESA ≈ PFOS; HFPO-DA < PFOA), implying slow renal excretion of PFAS alternatives as that of legacy PFASs. The estimates of body burdens of PFASs in porpoises suggested comparable accumulation of PFAS alternatives and legacy PFSAs and PFCAs. This study provides novel information on temporal trends and tissue distribution of emerging PFASs in marine mammals in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00062DOI Listing
April 2021

Organophosphate pesticide exposure: Demographic and dietary predictors in an urban pregnancy cohort.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 11;283:116920. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Pregnant women are widely exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which are potentially neurotoxicant for the developing fetus. We aimed to identify principal demographic and dietary predictors of OP pesticide exposure among 450 pregnant women participating in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (enrolled 2016-19). Urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites (3 dimethyl (DM) metabolites and 3 diethyl (DE) metabolites) of OP pesticides were determined at three time points across pregnancy. At mid-gestation, the Diet History Questionnaire II was used to assess women's dietary intake over the past year. Demographic characteristics were obtained using questionnaires and/or electronic health records. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the associations of demographic and food groups with DAP metabolite levels, and partial-linear single-index (PLSI) models to analyze the contribution proportions of food groups to DAP metabolite concentrations and the dose-response relationships between them. We observed that pregnant women in NYC had lower levels of OP pesticide metabolites than pregnant populations in Europe, Asia, and other regions in the U.S. Having lower pre-pregnancy body mass index and being Asian, employed, and single were associated with higher DAP metabolite concentrations. Fruit and grain intakes were associated with higher ∑DM, ∑DE, and ∑DAP levels. ∑DE concentrations increased 9.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2%, 17.4%) per two-fold increase in dairy consumption, whereas ∑DE concentrations decreased 1.8% (95%CI = -3.1%, -0.4%) per two-fold increase in seafood consumption. The PLSI model indicated that among the food mixture, fruit and grains were the main food groups contributed to higher levels of ∑DAP, while meat contributed to lower levels of ∑DAP. The contribution proportions of fruit, grains, and meat were 18.7%, 17.9%, and 39.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that fruit, grains, and meat are major dietary components associated with OP pesticide exposure in urban pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116920DOI Listing
August 2021

Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenols and Phthalates and Postpartum Depression: The Role of Neurosteroid Hormone Disruption.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun;106(7):1887-1899

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Environmental Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Context: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder. While causes remain poorly understood, perinatal sex hormone fluctuations are an important factor, and allopregnanolone in particular has emerged as a key determinant. Although synthetic environmental chemicals such as bisphenols and phthalates are known to affect sex hormones, no studies have measured allopregnanolone and the consequences of these hormonal changes on PPD have not been interrogated.

Objective: To investigate associations of repeated measures of urinary bisphenols and phthalates in early and midpregnancy with serum pregnenolone, progesterone, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone concentrations in midpregnancy and PPD symptoms at 4 months postpartum.

Methods: Prospective cohort study of 139 pregnant women recruited between 2016 and 2018. Bisphenols and phthalates were measured in early and midpregnancy urine samples. Serum sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in midpregnancy. PPD was assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Multiple informant models were fit using generalized estimating equations. Serum levels of allopregnanolone, progesterone, pregnanolone, and pregnenolone were examined as log-transformed continuous variables. PPD symptoms were examined as continuous EPDS scores and dichotomously with scores ≥10 defined as PPD.

Results: Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations. Log-unit increases in ∑DnOP and ∑DiNP predicted 8.1% (95% CI -15.2%, -0.4%) and 7.7% (95% CI -13.3%, -1.7%) lower progesterone, respectively. ∑DnOP was associated with increased odds of PPD (odds ratio 1.48; 95% CI 1.04, 2.11).

Conclusion: Endocrine disrupting chemicals may influence hormonal shifts during pregnancy as well as contribute to PPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab199DOI Listing
June 2021

Quality assurance and harmonization for targeted biomonitoring measurements of environmental organic chemicals across the Children's Health Exposure Analysis Resource laboratory network.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 May 24;234:113741. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, 12237, USA; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY, 12144, USA.

A consortium of laboratories established under the Children's Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) used a multifaceted quality assurance program to promote measurement harmonization for trace organics analyses of human biospecimens that included: (1) participation in external quality assurance (EQA)/proficiency testing (PT) programs; (2) analyses of a urine-based CHEAR common quality control (QC) pool with each analytical batch across all participating laboratories; (3) method validation against NIST Standard Reference Materials® (SRMs); and (4) analyses of blinded duplicates and other project-specific QC samples. The capability of five CHEAR laboratories in organic chemical analysis increased across the 4-year period, and performance in the external PT program improved over time - recent challenges reporting >90% analytes with satisfactory performance. The CHEAR QC pools were analyzed for several classes of organic chemicals including phthalate metabolites and environmental phenols by the participating laboratories with every batch of project samples, which provided a rich source of measurement data for the assessment of intra- and inter-laboratory variance. Within-laboratory and overall variabilities in measurements across laboratories were calculated for target chemicals in urine QC pools; the coefficient of variation (CV) was generally below 25% across batches, studies and laboratories and indicated acceptable analytical imprecision. The suite of organic chemicals analyzed in the CHEAR QC pool was broader than those reported for commercially available reference materials. The accuracy of each of the laboratories' methods was verified through the analysis of several NIST SRMs and was, for example, 97 ± 5.2% for environmental phenols and 95 ± 11% for phthalates. Analysis of blinded duplicate samples showed excellent agreement and reliability of measurements. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for phthalate metabolites analyzed in various batches across three CHEAR laboratories showed excellent reliability (typically >0.90). Overall, the multifaceted quality assurance protocols followed among the CHEAR laboratories ensured reliable and reproducible data quality for several classes of organic chemicals. Increased participation in external PT programs through inclusion of additional target analytes will further enhance the confidence in data quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096700PMC
May 2021

Association Between Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Metabolism and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Secondary Analysis of the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e213238. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Higher caffeine consumption during pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight. However, associations of caffeine consumption, based on both plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites, and self-reported caffeinated beverage intake, with multiple measures of neonatal anthropometry, have yet to be examined.

Objective: To evaluate the association between maternal caffeine intake and neonatal anthropometry, testing effect modification by fast or slow caffeine metabolism genotype.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A longitudinal cohort study, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons, enrolled 2055 nonsmoking women at low risk for fetal growth abnormalities with complete information on caffeine consumption from 12 US clinical sites between 2009 and 2013. Secondary analysis was completed in 2020.

Exposures: Caffeine was evaluated by both plasma concentrations of caffeine and paraxanthine and self-reported caffeinated beverage consumption measured/reported at 10-13 weeks gestation. Caffeine metabolism defined as fast or slow using genotype information from the single nucleotide variant rs762551 (CYP1A2*1F).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Neonatal anthropometric measures, including birth weight, length, and head, abdominal, arm, and thigh circumferences, skin fold and fat mass measures. The β coefficients represent the change in neonatal anthropometric measure per SD change in exposure.

Results: A total of 2055 participants had a mean (SD) age of 28.3 (5.5) years, mean (SD) body mass index of 23.6 (3.0), and 580 (28.2%) were Hispanic, 562 (27.4%) were White, 518 (25.2%) were Black, and 395 (19.2%) were Asian/Pacific Islander. Delivery occurred at a mean (SD) of 39.2 (1.7) gestational weeks. Compared with the first quartile of plasma caffeine level (≤28 ng/mL), neonates of women in the fourth quartile (>659 ng/mL) had lower birth weight (β = -84.3 g; 95% CI, -145.9 to -22.6 g; P = .04 for trend), length (β = -0.44 cm; 95% CI, -0.78 to -0.12 cm; P = .04 for trend), and head (β = -0.28 cm; 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.09 cm; P < .001 for trend), arm (β = -0.25 cm; 95% CI, -0.41 to -0.09 cm: P = .02 for trend), and thigh (β = -0.29 cm; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.04 cm; P = .07 for trend) circumference. Similar reductions were observed for paraxanthine quartiles, and for continuous measures of caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations. Compared with women who reported drinking no caffeinated beverages, women who consumed approximately 50 mg per day (~ 1/2 cup of coffee) had neonates with lower birth weight (β = -66 g; 95% CI, -121 to -10 g), smaller arm (β = -0.17 cm; 95% CI, -0.31 to -0.02 cm) and thigh (β = -0.32 cm; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.09 cm) circumference, and smaller anterior flank skin fold (β = -0.24 mm; 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.01 mm). Results did not differ by fast or slow caffeine metabolism genotype.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, small reductions in neonatal anthropometric measurements with increasing caffeine consumption were observed. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption during pregnancy, even at levels much lower than the recommended 200 mg per day of caffeine, are associated with decreased fetal growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994948PMC
March 2021

Maternal phthalate urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes. A population-based prospective cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 06 17;151:106443. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY 10016, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY 10016, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA; New York Wagner School of Public Service, New York City, NY 10016, USA; New York University Global Institute of Public Health, New York City, NY 10016, USA.

Importance: Exposure to phthalates may affect fetal growth, but previous studies are inconsistent and have not explored the trimester-specific effects of phthalates on repeated measures of fetal growth.

Objective: To assess the associations of maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations with fetal growth measures and birth outcomes and identify potential windows of vulnerability to exposure.

Design: Population-based prospective cohort study, the Generation R Study (2002-2006). Data analysis was performed from November 2019 to June 2020.

Setting: Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Participants: 1379 pregnant women.

Exposures: Maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations in first, second and third trimester.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Fetal head circumference, length and weight measured in the second and third trimester by ultrasound and at birth and preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth.

Results: Higher pregnancy-averaged phthalic acid, low molecular weight phthalate (LMWP), high molecular weight phthalate (HMWP) and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) concentrations tended to be associated with lower fetal weight SDS across gestation. The associations of phthalic acid and LMWP with fetal weight became stronger as pregnancy progressed (differences -0.08 (95% CI -0.14 to -0.02) SDS and -0.09 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.02) SDS at 40 weeks per interquartile range increase in phthalic acid and LMWP, respectively). Higher concentrations of specific LMWP, HMWP and DEHP metabolites were also associated with smaller head circumference and lower length SDS at birth and an increased risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth (p-values < 0.05). We observed differences by timing of exposure in these associations.

Conclusions And Relevance: Higher maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations seem to be related with fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Phthalates may have trimester specific effects on fetal growth and birth outcomes. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and long-term consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106443DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluating inter-study variability in phthalate and trace element analyses within the Children's Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) using multivariate control charts.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 03 18;31(2):318-327. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The Children's Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) program allows researchers to expand their research goals by offering the assessment of environmental exposures in their previously collected biospecimens. Samples are analyzed in one of CHEAR's network of six laboratory hubs with the ability to assess a wide array of environmental chemicals. The ability to assess inter-study variability is important for researchers who want to combine datasets across studies and laboratories.

Objective: Herein we establish a process of evaluating inter-study variability for a given analytic method.

Methods: Common quality control (QC) pools at two concentration levels (A and B) in urine were created within CHEAR for insertion into each batch of samples tested at a rate of three samples of each pool per 100 study samples. We assessed these QC pool results for seven phthalates analyzed for five CHEAR studies by three different lab hubs utilizing multivariate control charts to identify out-of-control runs or sets of samples associated with a given QC sample. We then tested the conditions that would lead to an out-of-control run by simulating outliers in an otherwise "in-control" set of 12 trace elements in blood QC samples (NIST SRM 955c).

Results: When phthalates were assessed within study, we identified a single out-of-control run for two of the five studies. Combining QC results across lab hubs, all of the runs from these two studies were now in-control, while multiple runs from two other studies were pushed out-of-control. In our simulation study we found that 3-6 analytes with outlier values (5xSD) within a run would push that run out of control in 65-83% of simulations, respectively.

Significance: We show how acceptable bounds of variability can be established for a given analytic method by evaluating QC materials across studies using multivariate control charts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00293-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952263PMC
March 2021

Exposure to prenatal phthalate mixtures and neurodevelopment in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early childhood (CANDLE) study.

Environ Int 2021 05 6;150:106409. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, United States.

Background: Findings from epidemiological studies of prenatal phthalate exposure and child cognitive development are inconsistent. Methods for evaluating mixtures of phthalates, such as weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, have rarely been applied. We developed a new extension of the WQS method to improve specificity of full-sample analyses and applied it to estimate associations between prenatal phthalate mixtures and cognitive and language outcomes in a diverse pregnancy cohort.

Methods: We measured 22 phthalate metabolites in third trimester urine from mother-child dyads who completed early childhood visits in the Conditions Affecting Neurodevelopment and Learning in Early childhood (CANDLE) study. Language and cognitive ability were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (age 3) and the Stanford Binet-5 (age 4-6), respectively. We used multivariable WQS regression to identify phthalate mixtures that were negatively and positively associated with language score and full-scale IQ, in separate models, adjusted for maternal IQ, race, marital status, smoking, BMI, socioeconomic status (SES), child age, sex, and breastfeeding. We evaluated effect modification by sex and SES. If full sample 95% WQS confidence intervals (which are known to be anti-conservative) excluded the null, we calculated a p-value using a permutation test (p). The performance of this new approach to WQS regression was evaluated in simulated data. We compared the power and type I error rate of WQS regression conducted within datasets split into training and validation samples (WQS) and in the full sample (WQS) to WQS regression with a permutation test (WQS). Individual metabolite associations were explored in secondary analyses.

Results: The analytic sample (N = 1015) was 62.1% Black/31.5% White, and the majority of mothers had a high school education or less (56.7%) at enrollment. Associations between phthalate mixtures and primary outcomes (language score and full-scale IQ) in the full sample were null. Individual metabolites were not associated with IQ, and only one metabolite (mono-benzyl phthalate, MBzP) was associated with Bayley language score (β = -0.68, 95% CI: -1.37, 0.00). In analyses stratified by sex or SES, mixtures were positively and negatively associated with outcomes, but the precision of full-sample WQS regression results were not supported by permutation tests, with one exception. In the lowest SES category, a phthalate mixture dominated by mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-carboxy-isooctyl phthalate (MCOP) was associated with higher language scores (β = 2.41, full-sample 95%CI: 0.58, 4.24; p = 0.04). Performance testing in simulated data showed that WQS had improved power over WQS (90% versus 56%) and a lower type I error rate than WQS (7% versus 47%).

Conclusions: In the largest study of these relationships to date, we observed predominantly null associations between mixtures of prenatal phthalates and both language and IQ. Our novel extension of WQS regression improved sensitivity to detect true associations by obviating the need to split the data into training and test sets and should be considered for future analyses of exposure mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162924PMC
May 2021

The use of dried blood spots for characterizing children's exposure to organic environmental chemicals.

Environ Res 2021 04 25;195:110796. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

University of Washington, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Seattle, WA, USA.

Biomonitoring is a commonly used tool for exposure assessment of organic environmental chemicals with urine and blood samples being the most commonly used matrices. However, for children's studies, blood samples are often difficult to obtain. Dried blood spots (DBS) represent a potential matrix for blood collection in children that may be used for biomonitoring. DBS are typically collected at birth to screen for several congenital disorders and diseases; many of the states that are required to collect DBS archive these spots for years. If the archived DBS can be accessed by environmental health researchers, they potentially could be analyzed to retrospectively assess exposure in these children. Furthermore, DBS can be collected prospectively in the field from children ranging in age from newborn to school-aged with little concern from parents and minimal risk to the child. Here, we review studies that have evaluated the measurement of organic environmental toxicants in both archived and prospectively collected DBS, and where available, the validation procedures that have been performed to ensure these measurements are comparable to traditional biomonitoring measurements. Among studies thus far, the amount of validation has varied considerably with no studies systematically evaluating all parameters from field collection, shipping and storage contamination and stability to laboratory analysis feasibility. These validation studies are requisite to ensure reliability of the measurement and comparability to more traditional matrices. Thus, we offer some recommendations for validation studies and other considerations before DBS should be adopted as a routine matrix for biomonitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988293PMC
April 2021

Phthalate and Bisphenol Urinary Concentrations, Body Fat Measures, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Dutch School-Age Children.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 02;29(2):409-417

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of urinary phthalates and bisphenols at age 6 years old with body fat and cardiovascular risk factors at 6 and 10 years and with the change from 6 to 10 years.

Methods: Among 471 Dutch children, the phthalates and bisphenols urinary concentrations at 6 years and BMI, fat mass index, android fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipids blood concentrations at 6 and 10 years were measured.

Results: An interquartile range increase in di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) metabolites concentrations at 6 years was associated with an increased risk of overweight at 6 and 10 years (odds ratio: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.11-1.87, and 1.43; 95% CI: 1.09-1.86, respectively). Also, higher DNOP metabolites concentrations were associated with higher fat mass index at 6 years, higher systolic blood pressure at 10 years, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in triglycerides concentrations from 6 to 10 years (P < 0.05). Higher total bisphenols and bisphenol A concentrations were associated with a decrease in BMI from 6 to 10 years (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: DNOP metabolites are associated with overweight and an adverse cardiovascular profile in childhood. Total bisphenols and bisphenol A are associated with a decrease in BMI from 6 to 10 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898506PMC
February 2021

Adipose to serum ratio and mixtures of persistent organic pollutants in relation to endometriosis: Findings from the ENDO Study.

Environ Res 2021 04 21;195:110732. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

College of Health and Human Services George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 22030, USA.

Background: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their mixtures may play an etiologic role.

Objectives: We evaluated an adipose-to-serum ratio (ASR) of lipophilic EDCs and their mixtures associated with incident endometriosis.

Methods: We quantified 13 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum and omental fat among women from the ENDO Study (2007-2009) aged 18-44 years diagnosed with (n=190) or without (n=283) surgically-visualized incident endometriosis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between ASR and endometriosis were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age (years), body mass index (kg/m), serum cotinine (ng/ml), and breastfeeding conditional on parity. Bayesian hierarchical models (BHM) compared estimated associations for adipose and ASR to serum. Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) estimated change in latent health and 95% posterior intervals (PI) between chemical mixtures and endometriosis.

Results: Select ASR for estrogenic PCBs and OCPs were associated with an increased odds of an endometriosis diagnosis, but not for anti-estrogenic PCBs or PBDEs. Across all chemicals, BHMs generated ORs that were on average 14% (95% PI: 6%, 22%) higher for adipose and 20% (95% PI: 12%, 29%) higher for ASR in comparison to serum. ORs from BHMs were greater for estrogenic PCBs and OCPs, with no differences for PBDEs. BKMR models comparing the 75th to 25th percentile were moderately associated with endometriosis for estrogenic PCBs [adipose 0.27 (95% PI: 0.18, 0.72) and ASR 0.37 (95% PI: 0.06, 0.80)] and OCPs [adipose 0.17 (95% PI: 0.21, 0.56) and ASR 0.26 (95% PI: 0.05, 0.57)], but not for antiestrogenic PCBs and PBDEs.

Discussion: ASR added little insight beyond adipose for lipophilic chemicals. BKMR results supported associations between ASR and adipose estrogenic PCB and OCP mixtures and incident endometriosis. These findings underscore the importance of choice of biospecimen and considering mixtures when assessing exposure-disease relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110732DOI Listing
April 2021

Exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) but not perflurorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at ppb concentration induces chronic toxicity in Daphnia carinata.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 9;769:144577. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Widespread environmental contamination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is well established. Nevertheless, few studies have reported on the aquatic toxicity of PFAS, especially in indicator species such as Daphnia. In this study, the toxicity of two major PFAS, namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), was investigated on water flea (Daphnia carinata) using a battery of comprehensive toxicity tests, including a 48 h acute and a 21-day chronic assays. The survival, growth, and reproduction of D. carinata were monitored over a 21-day life cycle. PFOS exhibited higher toxicity than PFOA. The 48 h LC values (confidence interval) based on acute toxicity for PFOA and PFOS were 78.2 (54.9-105) mg L and 8.8 (6.4-11.6) mg L, respectively. Chronic exposure to PFOS for 21 days displayed mortality and reproductive defects in D. carinata at a concentration as low as 0.001 mg L. Genotoxicity assessment using comet assay revealed that exposure for 96 h to PFOS at 1 and 10.0 mg L significantly damaged the organism's genetic makeup. The results of this study have great implications for risk assessment of PFOS and PFOA in aquatic ecosystems, given the potential of PFOS to pose a risk to Daphnia even at lower concentrations (1 μg L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144577DOI Listing
May 2021

Measurement of urinary pesticide biomarkers among Latina farmworkers in southwestern Idaho.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 May 20;31(3):538-548. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background: Women who work in agriculture may have greater risk of pesticide exposure than men who share this occupation. Despite an increase in the fraction of the agricultural workforce comprised by women, few studies have characterized pesticide exposure in the USA with a focus on among these workers.

Objective: This pilot study aimed to describe pesticide exposure in a cohort of Latina farmworkers in farming communities in southwestern Idaho.

Methods: We collected urine samples from 29 Latina farmworkers, which were analyzed for 11 pesticide biomarkers. We evaluated the effect of pesticide spray season on urinary biomarker levels, and explored the effect of self-reported status as a pesticide handler on measured exposures.

Results: No significant differences were found between biomarker levels in samples collected during the nonspray and spray seasons. We observed 11 extreme outlying values in samples collected during the pesticide spray season. The most extreme outlying values (MDA: 51.7 ng/mL; 3-PBA: 11.8 ng/mL; trans-DCCA: 23.4 ng/mL; and 2,4-D: 31.1 ng/mL) were all provided during the spray season by women who reported loading, mixing or applying pesticides.

Conclusions: These results provide suggestive evidence that Latina farmworkers who handle pesticides during the spray season may be at an increased risk of exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, as well as the herbicide 2,4-D. We recommend that future research into pesticide exposures among farmworkers should include particular focus on this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-020-00285-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134048PMC
May 2021

Response to Comments on "Urinary Metabolites of Neonicotinoid Insecticides: Levels and Recommendations for Future Biomonitoring Studies in China".

Environ Sci Technol 2021 02 12;55(3):2166-2168. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05827DOI Listing
February 2021

Prenatal phthalate exposures and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in low-risk children.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Jan-Feb;83:106947. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Ob/Gyn, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, CS Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; Institutes for Environmental Health Science, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals has been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms in some, but not all, studies, but most research has not accounted for other childhood behavior problems.

Objectives: To evaluate the specific associations of prenatal phthalate exposures with ASD symptoms in children (ages 3-6) accounting for other behavior problems, and to assess sex differences in these associations.

Methods: We measured phthalate metabolites in prenatal urine samples. Mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-2nd edition (SRS-2) to assess child ASD symptoms and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess general behavior problems. We assessed associations of the sum of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites, monobutyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, and monoethyl phthalate (mEP) with ASD symptoms, adjusting for other behavior problems, using linear regression models (n=77).

Results: Most associations were null, and the sample size limited power to detect associations, particularly in the stratified analyses. After adjusting for internalizing and externalizing problems from the CBCL, ASD symptoms increased for each doubling of prenatal mEP concentration among boys only.

Conclusions: Further investigation of maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and ASD symptoms while adjusting for other behavioral problems is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2021.106947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825926PMC
January 2021

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and DNA methylation in newborn dried blood spots in the Upstate KIDS cohort.

Environ Res 2021 03 30;194:110668. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 6710B Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, United States. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent organic pollutants which may alter prenatal development, potentially through epigenetic modifications. Prior studies examining PFOS/PFOA and DNA methylation have relatively few subjects (n < 200) and inconsistent results. We examined relations of PFOA/PFOS with DNA methylation among 597 neonates in the Upstate KIDS cohort study. PFOA/PFOS were quantified in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip with DNA extracted from DBS. Robust linear regression was used to examine the associations of PFOA/PFOS with DNA methylation at individual CpG sites. Covariates included sample plate, estimated cell type, epigenetically derived ancestry, infant sex and plurality, indicators of maternal socioeconomic status, and prior pregnancy loss. In supplemental analysis, we restricted the analysis to 2242 CpG sites previously identified as Correlated Regions of Systemic Interindividual Variation (CoRSIVs) which include metastable epialleles. At FDR<0.05, PFOA concentration >90th percentile was related to DNA methylation at cg15557840, near SCRT2, SRXN1; PFOS>90th percentile was related to 2 CpG sites in a sex-specific manner (cg19039925 in GVIN1 in boys and cg05754408 in ZNF26 in girls). When analysis was restricted to CoRSIVs, log-scaled, continuous PFOS concentration was related to DNA methylation at cg03278866 within PTBP1. In conclusion, there was limited evidence of an association between high concentrations of PFOA/PFOS and DNA methylation in newborn DBS in the Upstate KIDS cohort. These findings merit replication in populations with a higher median concentration of PFOA/PFOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946760PMC
March 2021

Persistent organic pollutants exposure in newborn dried blood spots and infant weight status: A case-control study of low-income Hispanic mother-infant pairs.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 15;267:115427. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; NYU Wagner School of Public Service, New York, NY, USA; NYU College of Global Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are believed to alter metabolic homeostasis during fetal development, leading to childhood obesity. However, limited studies have explored how fetal chemical exposures relate to birth and infant weight outcomes in low-income Hispanic families at the highest risk of obesity. Therefore, we sought to determine associations between neonatal POPs exposure measured in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and prenatal diet quality, birth weight, and overweight status at 18 months old. We conducted a case-control study nested within the Starting Early Program randomized controlled trial comparing POPs concentrations in infants with healthy weight (n = 46) and overweight status (n = 52) at age 18 months. Three categories of POPs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in archived newborn DBS. We assessed correlations between prenatal diet quality and neonatal POPs concentrations. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations between POPs (dichotomized at the mean) and birth weight z-score and weight status at 18 months, controlling for confounders. Seven of eight chemicals had detectable levels in greater than 94% of the sample. Higher protein, sodium and refined grain intake during pregnancy were correlated with lower POPs in newborn DBS. We found that high concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (unstandardized coefficient [B]: -0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.96 to -0.29) and perfluorohexanesulfate (B: -0.65, 95% CI: -0.99 to -0.31) were related to lower birth weight z-scores compared to those with low concentrations. We did not find associations between PBDEs, OCPs, and the other PFASs with birth weight z-scores, or between any POPs and weight status at 18 months. In conclusion, two PFASs were associated with lower birth weight, an important indicator of child health and growth, although direct associations with infant overweight status were not found. Whether neonatal POPs exposures contribute to economic and ethnic disparities in early obesity remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708683PMC
December 2020

Effects on the liver lipidome of rat offspring prenatally exposed to bisphenol A.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 10;759:143466. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor that has obesogenic properties. We have previously reported sex- and age-dependent changes in hepatic transcriptome and proteome of several lipid homeostasis-related genes in rat offspring prenatally exposed to BPA. To further understand the impacts of prenatal BPA exposure, we analyzed lipidomic profiles in the postnatal day (PND) 21 and 60 rats using a high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometer coupled with a HPLC system. We found that the total lipid content was significantly decreased in PND21 females prenatally exposed to 5000 μg/kg bw/day of BPA. Levels of total fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and monoacylglycerols significantly increased in both female and male BPA-exposed rats at PND21. An elevation in total cholesterol esters and reductions in triacylglycerols and monogalactosyl diacylglycerols were found only in PND21 females prenatally exposed to BPA. Interestingly, opposite responses were observed for phospholipids and sphingolipids between PND21 females and males following BPA exposure. The effects on the body weight and total lipid content were mitigated in the latter stage, although the alterations of lipid profiles continued until PND60. A Data Integration Analysis for Biomarker discovery using Latent cOmponents (DIABLO) revealed a high correlation of the lipidome with our previously published transcriptome data. DIABLO also identified potential biomarkers of prenatal exposure to BPA; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1) and glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (Gnpat), which are involved in the glycerophospholipid metabolism, in females and males, respectively. Collectively, we highlighted the sex- and age-dependent effects of prenatal BPA exposure on hepatic lipid homeostasis in rat offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143466DOI Listing
March 2021

Serum per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations and predictors of exposure among pregnant African American women in the Atlanta area, Georgia.

Environ Res 2021 07 10;198:110445. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially when exposure occurs within sensitive time windows such as the pre- and post-natal periods and early childhood. However, few studies have focused on PFAS exposure distribution and predictors in pregnant women, especially among African American women. We quantified serum concentrations of the four most common PFAS collected in all 453 participants and an additional 10 PFAS in 356 participants who were pregnant African American women enrolled from 2014 to 2018 in Atlanta, Georgia, and investigated the sociodemographic predictors of exposure. Additional home environment and behavior predictors were also examined in 130 participants. Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in >95% of the samples with PFOS having the highest concentrations (geometric mean (GM) 2.03 ng/mL). N-Methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (NMeFOSAA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were found in 40-50% of the samples, whereas the detection frequencies for the other six PFAS were below 15%. When compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants matching sex, race, and age with this study, our results showed similar concentrations of most PFAS, but higher concentrations of PFHxS (GM 0.99 ng/mL in this study; 0.63 and 0.4 ng/mL in NHANES, 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 cycles). A decline in concentrations over the study period was found for most PFAS but not PFPeA. In adjusted models, education, sampling year, parity, BMI, tobacco and marijuana use, age of house, drinking water source, and cosmetic use were significantly associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Our study reports the first PFAS exposure data among pregnant African American women in the Atlanta area, Georgia. The identified predictors will facilitate the setting of research priorities and enable development of exposure mitigation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107192PMC
July 2021

Remediation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contaminated soils - To mobilize or to immobilize or to degrade?

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 9;401:123892. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Institute of Soil Engineering, Waste- and Water-Management, Faculty of Architecture und Civil Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, South Korea.

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals, which are introduced to the environment through anthropogenic activities. Aqueous film forming foam used in firefighting, wastewater effluent, landfill leachate, and biosolids are major sources of PFAS input to soil and groundwater. Remediation of PFAS contaminated solid and aqueous media is challenging, which is attributed to the chemical and thermal stability of PFAS and the complexity of PFAS mixtures. In this review, remediation of PFAS contaminated soils through manipulation of their bioavailability and destruction is presented. While the mobilizing amendments (e.g., surfactants) enhance the mobility and bioavailability of PFAS, the immobilizing amendments (e.g., activated carbon) decrease their bioavailability and mobility. Mobilizing amendments can be applied to facilitate the removal of PFAS though soil washing, phytoremediation, and complete destruction through thermal and chemical redox reactions. Immobilizing amendments are likely to reduce the transfer of PFAS to food chain through plant and biota (e.g., earthworm) uptake, and leaching to potable water sources. Future studies should focus on quantifying the potential leaching of the mobilized PFAS in the absence of removal by plant and biota uptake or soil washing, and regular monitoring of the long-term stability of the immobilized PFAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025151PMC
January 2021