Publications by authors named "Kunwar Paritosh"

10 Publications

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Organic waste conversion through anaerobic digestion: A critical insight into the metabolic pathways and microbial interactions.

Metab Eng 2022 Jan 2;69:323-337. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur, 302017, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digestion is a promising method for energy recovery through conversion of organic waste to biogas and other industrial valuables. However, to tap the full potential of anaerobic digestion, deciphering the microbial metabolic pathway activities and their underlying bioenergetics is required. In addition, the behavior of organisms in consortia along with the analytical abilities to kinetically measure their metabolic interactions will allow rational optimization of the process. This review aims to explore the metabolic bottlenecks of the microbial communities adopting latest advances of profiling and C tracer-based analysis using state of the art analytical platforms (GC, GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR). The review summarizes the phases of anaerobic digestion, the role of microbial communities, key process parameters of significance, syntrophic microbial interactions and the bottlenecks that are critical for optimal bioenergetics and enhanced production of valuables. Considerations into the designing of efficient synthetic microbial communities as well as the latest advances in capturing their metabolic cross talk will be highlighted. The review further explores how the presence of additives and inhibiting factors affect the metabolic pathways. The critical insight into the reaction mechanism covered in this review may be helpful to optimize and upgrade the anaerobic digestion system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2021.11.014DOI Listing
January 2022

Bioengineered bioreactors: a review on enhancing biomethane and biohydrogen production by CFD modeling.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):6418-6433

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is numerical strategy developed for simulating the behavior of liquid and gas flow. CFD may be applied starting from aerospace, engine design, vehicle aerodynamics, power plants and chemical industries for analyzing and solving relevant system design and process issues. Biogas produced during anaerobic digestion (AD) is sustainable and renewable alternative to fossil fuels. AD may improve the controlled production of biogas and offers significant environmental benefits. This review focuses on research outcomes relevant for enhanced biogas production by exploring the possible applications of CFD in AD technology. CFD-related research performed in AD conditions in order to improve mixing performance, reduce power consumption, and understand the effects of total solid (TS) concentrations on flow behavior have been discussed. In addition, the use of AD for bio-hydrogen production, wastewater treatment, and sludge treatment are looked in. This review also identifies novel areas for AD technology advancement where there is potential for economic improvement in renewable energy production. Finally, future research needs have been identified, focusing on the opportunities to integrate conceptual and mathematical models for advancing CFD simulations for bioenergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1972195DOI Listing
December 2021

Production of biofuels from biomass: Predicting the energy employing artificial intelligence modelling.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 23;340:125642. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malviya National Institute of Technology, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017 India. Electronic address:

Bioenergy may be a major replacement of fossil fuels which can make the path easier for sustainable development and decrease the dependency on conventional sources of energy. The main concern with the bioenergy is the availability of feedstock, dealing with its economics as well as its demand and supply chain management. This review deals with the finding of distinct potential of different Artificial Intelligence technologies focusing the challenges in bioenergy production system and its overall improvement in application. The study also highlights the contribution of Artificial Intelligence techniques for the prediction of energy from biomass and evaluates the computing-reasoning techniques for managing bioenergy production, biomass supply chain and optimization of process parameters for efficient bioconversion technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125642DOI Listing
November 2021

Enhancing hydrolysis and syntropy simultaneously in solid state anaerobic digestion: Digester performance and techno-economic evaluation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 13;338:125538. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effect of alkali and biochar addition for simultaneous increment of hydrolysis and syntropy for higher methane yield from pearl millet straw (PMS) in solid state anaerobic digestion. A taguchi based design of experiment was coupled with grey relation analysis for multiple output optimization. Study showed that 0.5 g (g/100 g PMS) of alkali and 10 g/L of biochar was the optimised dosing. Statistically, contribution of biochar and alkali was 48 and 21% respectively on the multiple output. The confirmation test revealed that hydrolysis rate constant, k and total volatile fatty acid/alkalinity ratio for reactor having optimised conditions was 0.0521 d and 0.36 while for control, it was 0.0595 d and 0.76 respectively. Techno-economic assessment showed US$ 25,652 of net present value and 11.29% of internal rate of return. Sensitivity analysis showed that capital expenditure and methane yield was most sensitive to net present value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125538DOI Listing
October 2021

Strategies to improve solid state anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: an overview.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 23;331:125036. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of lignocellulosic biomass may be attractive solution for its valorisation. Compared to liquid state anaerobic digestion (LSAD), SSAD can handle higher organic loading rates (OLR), requires a less water and smaller reactor volume. It may require lower energy demand for heating or mixing and has higher volumetric methane productivity. Besides numerous benefits of SSAD processes and progress in system design, there are still obstacles, which need to be overcome for its successful implementations. This review aims to compile the recent trends in enhancing the bioconversion of agricultural stubbles in SSAD. Several pretreatment procedures used to breaking lignin and cellulose complex, method to overcome carbon to nitrogen ratio imbalance, use of carbon-based conducting materials to enhance Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) conversion and additives for achieving nutrient balance will be discussed in this review. Leachate recirculation and its impacts on SSAD of agricultural stubbles are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125036DOI Listing
July 2021

Linkages between Respiratory Symptoms in Women and Biofuel Use: Regional Case Study of Rajasthan, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 09 25;16(19). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1E 6DE, UK.

Women in low and middle-income countries predominantly use biofuel for cooking, resulting in potential adverse health outcomes. In India, it is estimated that about 40% of total primary energy consumption is in the domestic sector with biofuels alone accounting for about 75% of domestic energy consumption. This study assesses linkages between wood consumption and perceptions of women's health, combining results from a rapid assessment of eight rural districts in Rajasthan with a regression analysis of data from Rajasthan State (sample size 41,965 women) from the Demographic and Health Survey 7 dataset (2015-2016). The results of the rapid survey indicate that women who cook with biofuels perceive adverse health outcomes. Educational level, income, and age have an impact on fuel consumption and clean fuel purchased. The regression model drawing upon data on women at a regional level in Rajasthan yielded significant results suggesting a strong association between fuel type and symptoms of respiratory infection controlling for age and education. This research is timely as it provides valuable evidence for India's Ujjawala Scheme which has the mandate of providing LPG connections to women from below the poverty line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801899PMC
September 2019

Prioritization of solid concentration and temperature for solid state anaerobic digestion of pearl millet straw employing multi-criteria assessment tool.

Sci Rep 2019 08 15;9(1):11902. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 302 017, India.

India produces huge quantities of agricultural residues and stubbles and mainly disposed by burning on site causing air pollution. The organic matter present in the residues and stubble may be utilized by anaerobic digestion as a source of renewable energy subsequently reducing emission of greenhouse gases caused by burning. In the present study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of pearl millet straw was investigated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature with four different total solid (TS) content (15, 20, 25 and 30%). Results showed that 20 and 25% TS generated maximum methane (124.1 ± 7 and 162.4 ± 9L/kg VS) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature respectively. However, increasing TS content beyond 25% did not show significant increment on methane yield. Analytical analysis showed correlation between the reduction of volatile solids and methane yield as well as VFA (volatile fatty acid) accumulation at high TS content. Also, VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods as MultiCriteria Decision Making modelling (MCDM) applied to select best possible alternative for SSAD of pearl millet. MCDM analysis showed that VIKOR method endorsed the experimental results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48437-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695487PMC
August 2019

Biochar enabled syntrophic action: Solid state anaerobic digestion of agricultural stubble for enhanced methane production.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Oct 27;289:121712. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, JLN Marg, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

In this study, effect of hardwood biochar on solid state anaerobic digestion of wheat straw has been investigated. The concentration of biochar was 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g/L and added in inoculum along with wheat straw for anaerobic action. Results showed that 10 g/L of hardwood biochar led to 2-fold increment in methane yield (223 L/kg VS) compared to the control (110 L/kg VS). However, increasing the concentration of hardwood biochar did not help in significant increase in methane yield and raised pH and alkalinity up to 8.3 and 24.3 g/L respectively. Principal component analysis showed that methane yield is positively correlated with volatile solid reduction while biochar loading is directly correlated with pH as well as alkalinity and inversely correlated with total volatile fatty acid. This study revealed that biochar may help to maintain syntrophy in the anaerobic reactor and enhance methane yield significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121712DOI Listing
October 2019

Multicriteria Decision Model and Thermal Pretreatment of Hotel Food Waste for Robust Output to Biogas: Case Study from City of Jaipur, India.

Biomed Res Int 2018 16;2018:9416249. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017, Rajasthan, India.

The anaerobic batch test (45 days at 37°C) was performed to describe the effect of thermal pretreatment at moderate temperatures (60, 80, and 100°C) over durations of 10 and 20 minutes on the enhancement of biogas production using hotel food waste from city of Jaipur, India. The results showed that the total cumulative biogas production with thermal pretreatment (100°C, 10 minutes) was 41% higher than the control. Also, this alternative gets first rank using multicriteria decision making model, VIKOR. This outcome was obtained due to the enhancement of degradation of organic compounds such as protein and volatile solids that occurred in the linear trend. Modified Gompertz and Logistic models were used to study the effect of different pretreatment parameters on lag time and biogas yield. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on the physiochemical properties of food waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9416249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165605PMC
January 2019

Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

Biomed Res Int 2017 14;2017:2370927. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India.

Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2370927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331173PMC
April 2017
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