Publications by authors named "Kunihiko Saito"

6 Publications

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Effects of early high nutrition related to metabolic imprinting events on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of grass-fed Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle).

J Anim Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 899-0065, Japan.

The study was conducted to clarify how early high plane of nutrition related to metabolic imprinting affected growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of grass-fed Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle). Wagyu steers were allocated randomly into two dietary groups: 1) steers fed milk replacer (crude protein 26.0%, crude fat 25.5%; maximum intake 0.6 kg/d) until 3 mo of age and then fed roughage (orchard grass hay) ad libitum from 4 to 10 mo of age (roughage group, RG; n = 11); 2) steers fed milk replacer (maximum intake of 1.8 kg per day) until 3 mo of age and then fed a high-concentrate diet from 4 to 10 mo of age (early high nutrition, EHN; n = 12). After 11 mo of age, all steers were fed roughage ad libitum until 31 mo of age and then slaughtered. Growth performance, carcass traits, longissimus muscle (LM) meat quality and intramuscular fat (IMF) content, plasma Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration, and bone mineral density were measured. Body weight was greater in EHN steers (571 kg) than RG steers (520 kg; P < 0.01). Plasma IGF-I levels were higher in EHN steers than in RG steers at 3, 10, and 14 mo of age (P < 0.01, P < 0.005, P < 0.001, respectively); however, plasma IGF-I levels were lower in EHN steers compared to RG steers at 30 mo of age (P < 0.01). The total weight of the muscles and bones of the left half of the carcass were not different between the two groups (P = 0.065). Five of the 19 muscles investigated (semimembranosus, P = 0.036; infraspinatus, P = 0.024; supraspinatus, P = 0.0019; serratus ventralis cervicis, P = 0.032; serratus ventralis thoracis, P = 0.027) were heavier in EHN steers. Total fat weight in the left half of the carcass was 30% greater (P = 0.025) in HNE carcasses. Subcutaneous and perirenal fat weights were 53% and 84% greater (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, respectively) in EHN carcasses. The LM IMF content was greater in EHN loins (13.2%) compared to RG loins (9.4%) at 31 mo of age (P = 0.038); however, no differences were found for shear force, tenderness, and cook loss. These results suggested early high-nutrition affected the growth and meat quality of livestock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab123DOI Listing
May 2021

Change of fatty acid composition of the lumbar longissimus during the final stage of fattening in the Japanese Black cattle.

Anim Sci J 2016 Apr 17;87(4):578-83. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Food Resources Education and Research Center, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Hyogo, Japan.

Consideration of the shortened fattening period seems to be worthwhile for the realization of profitable beef production. In this study, change of fatty acid composition of the lumbar longissimus during the final stage of fattening was investigated in Japanese Black cattle. Each of 110 fattening animals was sampled three times: the initial two samples were taken by biopsy (25.7 months and 27.5 months on average) and the final one was from carcasses (29.9 months on average). Preliminary analysis indicated that removing muscle tissues from the constant body position of the living animals should be essential for sampling. Average monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) at three sampling points were 58.1%, 58.5% and 60.5%, and the differences of the third sampling with the first and second samplings were significant. Both in steers and heifers, MUFA also increased as the fattening stage proceeded, and MUFA of the heifers at all the sampling points were significantly higher than those of the steers. The increasing rate of MUFA rose from 0.21 percentage points (pp)/month at period 1 (from the first sampling to the second sampling) to 0.84 pp/month at period 2 (from the second sampling to the slaughter).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12443DOI Listing
April 2016

Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

Authors:
Kunihiko Saito

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2014 ;90(9):333-46

Kansai Medical University.

Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4324925PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.90.333DOI Listing
July 2015

Effects of genetic and environmental factors on muscle glycogen content in Japanese Black cattle.

Anim Sci J 2014 Aug 9;85(8):793-8. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Livestock Experiment Station of Yamagata Integrated Agricultural Research Center, Shinjo, Japan.

Monosaccharides such as glucose contribute to the development of meat flavor upon heating via the Maillard reaction; therefore, monosaccharide content is related to beef palatability. Here, we analyzed the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the content of glycogen, one of the precursors of monosaccharides, in the muscles of 958 fattened Japanese Black cattle from Yamagata Prefecture. Analysis of variance showed that muscle glycogen content was affected by the farm and postmortem periods, but not by sex, slaughter age, slaughter month or number of days detained at the slaughter yard. Additionally, consumption of digestible brown rice feed elevated muscle glycogen levels. Glycogen heritability was estimated to be 0.34, and genetic correlations between glycogen and carcass weight (CW) or beef marbling standard (BMS) were weak. The predicted breeding values varied among paternal lines. These results demonstrated that genetic factors might improve muscle glycogen content and therefore beef palatability, but do not influence CW or BMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4271676PMC
August 2014

Estimation of beef marbling in the Longissimus muscle with computer image analysis of ultrasonic pictures of the Iliocostalis muscle area.

Anim Sci J 2014 Mar 21;85(3):247-53. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, Japan.

This study investigated an objective method for estimating beef marbling using ultrasonic images of the Iliocostalis muscle and the Lomgissimus muscle area sections. Thirty-one Japanese Black cattle steers were used in this study. The end of the left side shoulder blade bone was scanned using an ultrasonic device. Ultrasonic images were captured of the Longissimus muscle area and that around the Iliocostalis muscle area. Twenty items were measured in the two images using computer image analysis software. The level of beef marbling was measured according to the Beef Marbling Standard (BMS) for carcass grading, and the percentage of ether-extractable fat content in the Longissimus muscle (EE). The difference in the gray level between the Iliocostalis muscle and intermuscular fat (X10) was used to estimate the BMS and the EE, which were highly correlated (r(2)  = 67.72% and 61.30%). An equation was developed using four parameters from the two ultrasonic images, which could estimate the BMS (r(2)  = 85.88%). This equation could also estimate the EE (r(2)  = 68.98%). The equations used to estimate beef marbling were based on one to four parameters that included X10. Thus, ultrasonic images of the Iliocostalis muscle area section are important for estimating beef marbling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12148DOI Listing
March 2014