Publications by authors named "Kun-Huei Yeh"

104 Publications

Chemotherapy agents stimulate dendritic cells against human colon cancer cells through upregulation of the transporter associated with antigen processing.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 27;11(1):9080. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Single immunotherapy fails to demonstrate efficacy in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Research on immune reactions before and after systemic agents for mCRC is warranted. Our study examined cell line models to compare the expression of immune surface markers on colon cancer cells before and after chemotherapy agents. We also elucidated mechanisms underlying the effects of chemotherapy agents on immune surface markers. We used real-world clinical samples with NanoString analysis and the Perkin-Elmer Opal multiplex system. We established that chemotherapy agents, particularly 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), the active metabolite of irinotecan, stimulated the expression of stimulatory MHC class I alleles through stimulation the pathway of transporters associated with antigen processing 1 and 2 (TAP1 and TAP2) in cell line models. Application of infected cell protein 47 (ICP-47), a specific inhibitor of the TAP1/TAP2, significantly inhibited expression of TAP1/TAP2 and also inhibited the expression of the downstream MHC class I. In the functional assay, SN-38 significantly promoted the phagocytosis of colon cancer cells by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We confirmed that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, significantly increased after first-line chemotherapy and targeted therapy in the samples of real-world patients with de novo mCRC. Our study provides new insights for novel immunotherapy combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88648-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079421PMC
April 2021

Association between risk factors, molecular features and CpG island methylator phenotype colorectal cancer among different age groups in a Taiwanese cohort.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) represents a carcinogenesis pathway of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the association between CIMP CRC, molecular features and risk factors in East Asian population is less studied.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled newly diagnosed CRC patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital. Clinicopathological data and risk factors for CRC were collected during interview. The tumour samples were subjected to CIMP, RAS/BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability tests. CIMP-high was determined when ≧3 methylated loci of p16, MINT1, MINT2, MINT31 and MLH1 were identified. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between risk factors and CIMP-high CRC.

Results: Compared with CIMP-low/negative CRC, CIMP-high CRC was associated with more stage IV disease, BRAF V600E mutation and high body mass index (BMI ≧ 27.5 kg/m) in younger patients (age < 50 y), and more right-sided tumour, BRAF V600E mutation, MSI-high and colorectal polyp in elder patients (age ≧ 50 y). Multivariate analyses showed that BMI ≧27.5 kg/m was significantly associated with CIMP-high CRC in younger patients.

Conclusions: We identified distinct clinicopathological features for CIMP-high CRC among different age groups in Taiwan. Our data suggest the association between BMI ≧27.5 kg/m and CIMP-high CRC in patients younger than 50 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01300-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Nivolumab in previously treated advanced gastric cancer (ATTRACTION-2): 3-year update and outcome of treatment beyond progression with nivolumab.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: ATTRACTION-2 demonstrated that nivolumab improved overall survival (OS) vs placebo in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with ≥ 2 chemotherapy regimens. However, its long-term efficacy and outcome of treatment beyond progression (TBP) with nivolumab have not been clarified.

Methods: The 3-year follow-up data were collected. A subset analysis was performed to explore the efficacy of TBP by assessing postprogression survival (PPS) after the first event of disease progression.

Results: Overall, 493 patients were randomized (2:1) to receive nivolumab (n = 330) or placebo (n = 163). With a median follow-up of 38.5 (range 36.1-47.5) months, OS of the nivolumab group was significantly longer compared to the placebo group (median 5.3 vs 4.1 months; 3-year survival rate, 5.6% vs 1.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.75], P < 0.0001). The median OS of responders (n = 32) who achieved complete response or partial response was 26.7 months and the 3-year survival rate was 35.5% in the nivolumab group. Overall, 109 patients in the nivolumab group and 37 patients in the placebo group received TBP. PPS tended to be longer in the nivolumab group vs placebo group (median 5.8 vs 4.5 months; HR [95% CI], 0.69 [0.47-1.01], P = 0.057). In contrast, PPS was similar between both treatment groups in non-TBP patients (median 2.3 vs 2.2 months; HR 0.90, P = 0.42).

Conclusions: Long-term efficacy of nivolumab was confirmed at the 3-year follow-up, and a survival benefit of TBP with nivolumab was suggested. Biomarkers for selecting patients suitable for TBP with nivolumab should be identified in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-021-01173-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Spectrum of cancer patients receiving renal biopsy.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Renal Division, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: The frontier of onco-nephrology, particularly renal complications of cancer and treatment, remains unexplored. We revisit the fundamental tool of diagnosing kidney disease, renal biopsy, in cancer patients with renal manifestation.

Methods: Patients who received renal biopsy from July 2015 to July 2019 were analyzed. Primary outcomes included end-stage renal disease (ESRD), mortality, and catastrophic outcome defined as either ESRD or mortality. A Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier technique were used to assess the association with outcome measurements and survival analyses. Immunosuppression after renal biopsy and response to the treatment were evaluated.

Results: Among the 77 patients, the median age was 66 years (interquartile range [IQR] 59-73 years) and 46 (59.7%) were male. At the time of renal biopsy, 57 patients (74%) had various degrees of renal insufficiency. Tubulointerstitial damage score, quantified by renal pathology, were associated with higher hazards of ESRD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20 to 2.61; P = 0.004) and catastrophic outcome (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.70; P = 0.058). The response rate to immunosuppression was lower in those diagnosed with tubulointerstitial nephritis (1 of 4 patients, 25%) than those with glomerulopathy (10 of 20 patients, 50%).

Conclusion: Renal biopsy may improve diagnostic accuracy and assist in treatment guidance of cancer patients with renal manifestation. Renal biopsy should be encouraged with clinical indication. Collaboration between oncologists and nephrologists is of paramount importance to provide more comprehensive care for caner patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Real-world evidence of the safety and effectiveness of regorafenib in Taiwanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: CORRELATE Taiwan.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: This analysis reports safety and effectiveness data from the Taiwanese cohort of the CORRELATE study.

Methods: CORRELATE was a prospective, observational study to assess the safety and effectiveness of regorafenib for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in real-world clinical practice that was conducted in 13 different countries in Asia, Europe and Latin America. The primary endpoint of the study was incidence of all treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs), and secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease control rate (DCR).

Results: The global study population (N = 1037) included 128 Taiwanese patients with a median age of 64 years, median weight of 62.02 kg and 66.41% were male. Reduced initiating doses of regorafenib and dose interruptions were common in Taiwanese patients (71.87% and 50.00%, respectively). The safety profile of regorafenib was consistent with that seen in Asian patients in the clinical development trials, including the CORRECT and CONCUR studies, with hand-foot-skin reactions (HFSR) of any grade occurring in 33.59% of patients. Median OS was 11.64 months in the Taiwanese patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.36-13.82) and median PFS was 2.17 months (95% CI, 1.97-2.89).

Conclusions: The safety and effectiveness of regorafenib in this real-world study was generally consistent with the known efficacy and safety profile in Asian patients in clinical trials.

Trial Registration: NCT02042144.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.12.015DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes in aggressive primary intestinal B- and T/NK-cell lymphomas.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Jan 21;120(1 Pt 2):293-302. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Cancer Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Cancer Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Primary intestinal lymphomas (PILs) are rare, and this study compared the clinical outcomes of aggressive primary intestinal B-cell lymphomas (aB-PILs) and T/natural killer-cell lymphomas (T/NK-PILs).

Methods: The clinical information of patients diagnosed with aggressive PILs at our institution between 1995 and 2015 were retrospectively investigated. Pathological subtypes were confirmed according to the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification. The correlation between clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was determined using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Cases of T/NK-PILs had higher initial bowel perforation incidence (67% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and lower complete response rate to first-line chemotherapy regimens (22% vs. 69%, P = 0.009) than aB-PILs. Patients with aB-PILs had a better 5-year event-free survival rate (55.8% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.026) and a 5-year OS rate (74.3% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.036) than those with T/NK-cell lymphomas. Multivariate analysis identified that female gender and stage III/IV were unfavorable prognostic factors. Among the 54 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), those with International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores of 0-2 had a better 5-year OS rate than those with scores of 3-5 (84.2% vs. 46.8%, P = 0.002). IPI scores of 3-5 (P = 0.026) and tumors located in the large intestine (P = 0.015) were poor prognostic factors based on the multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: The prognosis of T/NK-PILs was less favorable than that of aB-PILs. Female gender, stage III/IV disease, DLBCL with IPI scores of 3-5, or tumors in the large intestine were poor prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.10.001DOI Listing
January 2021

A Pilot Study of Metabolomic Pathways Associated With Fatigue in Survivors of Colorectal Cancer.

Biol Res Nurs 2021 Jan 22;23(1):42-49. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

School of Nursing, 38005College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei.

Background: Over 30% of cancer survivors experience chronic fatigue. An alteration in energy metabolism is one of the hypothesized mechanisms for cancer-related fatigue (CRF). No studies have evaluated for changes in metabolic profiles in cancer survivors with CRF. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate for differences in metabolic profiles between fatigued and non-fatigued survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Survivors were recruited from the surgical outpatient department and the oncology clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. Fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Fasting blood samples were collected on the day the fatigue questionnaire was completed. Metabolomic profile analysis was performed using non-targeted, liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fold change analyses, t-tests, and pathway analyses were performed to identify differences in metabolomic profiles between the fatigued and non-fatigued survivors.

Results: Of the 56 CRC survivors in this study, 28.6% (n = 16) were in the fatigue group. Statistically significant differences in carnitine, L-norleucine, pyroglutamic acid, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, spermine, hydroxyoctanoic acid, and paraxanthine were found between the two fatigue groups. In addition, two pathways were enriched for these metabolites (i.e., glutathione metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism).

Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence that two pathways that are involved with the regulation of ATP production and cellular energy (i.e., glutathione metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism) are associated with fatigue in CRC survivors. If these findings are confirmed, they may provide new therapeutic targets to decrease fatigue in cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1099800420942586DOI Listing
January 2021

A nationwide survey of fatigue in cancer patients in Taiwan: an unmet need.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Jun;50(6):693-700

Department of Hematology and Oncology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is an emerging clinical issue, although its prevalence and impact on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients in Taiwan remain unclear. The present nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted to provide a thorough overview of the prevalence, related factors and impact of CRF in Taiwan.

Methods: In this multi-center survey, data were collected using the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) Fatigue evaluation, Brief Fatigue Inventory-Taiwan (BFI-T), the Chinese version of the Symptom Distressed Scale and a fatigue experience survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlations between fatigue characteristics and the factors studied.

Results: A total of 1207 cancer patients were recruited from 23 hospitals in Taiwan. Fatigue was the most distressing symptom in Taiwanese cancer patients. The distress score was higher if CRF was diagnosed using ICD-10 compared with BFI-T. Rest and nutritional supplementation were the most common non-pharmacological treatments; blood transfusion was the most common pharmacological treatment. There were 45% of patients reported not receiving a timely intervention for fatigue.

Conclusions: Fatigue is the most bothersome symptom reported by Taiwanese cancer patients. Caregivers should be aware of the impact of CRF on QOL in cancer patients, constantly measure the severity of fatigue and provide appropriate interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284537PMC
June 2020

Complement C1q mediates the expansion of periportal hepatic progenitor cells in senescence-associated inflammatory liver.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 03 5;117(12):6717-6725. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 100 Taipei, Taiwan;

Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) develop in patients with chronic hepatitis, which creates a microenvironment for the growth of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) at the periportal area and subsequent development of HCCs. We investigated the signal from the inflammatory liver for this pathogenic process in the hepatic conditional β-catenin knockout mouse model. Senescent β-catenin-depleted hepatocytes in aged mice create an inflammatory microenvironment that stimulates periportal HPC expansion but arrests differentiation, which predisposes mice to the development of liver tumors. The release of complement C1q from macrophages in the inflammatory niche was identified as the unorthodox signal that activated the β-catenin pathway in periportal HPCs and was responsible for their expansion and de-differentiation. C1q inhibitors blocked the β-catenin pathway in both the expanding HPCs and the liver tumors but spared its orthodox pathway in pericentral normal hepatocytes. This mechanism has been validated in human liver specimens from patients with chronic hepatitis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C1q- mediated activation of β-catenin pathway in periportal HPCs is a previously unrecognized mechanism for replenishing hepatocytes in the inflammatory liver and, if unchecked, for promoting hepatocarcinogenesis. C1q may become a new target for blocking carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1918028117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104370PMC
March 2020

Regorafenib in Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: Subgroup analysis of the phase 3 CONCUR trial.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Aug 28;35(8):1307-1316. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Tongji University Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aim: In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR.

Methods: Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety.

Results: A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%.

Conclusions: This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497105PMC
August 2020

A phase 3 study of nivolumab in previously treated advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (ATTRACTION-2): 2-year update data.

Gastric Cancer 2020 05 20;23(3):510-519. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Division of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: Nivolumab showed improvement in overall survival (OS) in ATTRACTION-2, the first phase 3 study in patients with gastric/gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer treated with ≥ 2 chemotherapy regimens. The 2-year follow-up results of ATTRACTION-2 are presented herein.

Methods: ATTRACTION-2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (49 sites; Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan). The median (min-max) follow-up period was 27.3 (24.1-36.3) months. The primary endpoint was OS. A subanalysis of OS was performed based on best overall response and tumor-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression status.

Results: Overall, 493 of 601 screened patients were randomized (2:1) to receive nivolumab (330) or placebo (163). OS (median [95% confidence interval; CI]) was significantly longer in the nivolumab group (5.26 [4.60-6.37] vs 4.14 [3.42-4.86] months in placebo group) at the 2-year follow-up (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.62 [0.51-0.76]; P < 0.0001). A higher OS rate was observed in the nivolumab vs placebo group at 1 (27.3% vs 11.6%) and 2 years (10.6% vs 3.2%). The OS benefit was observed regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression. Among patients with a complete or partial response (CR or PR) in the nivolumab group, the median OS (95% CI) was 26.6 (21.65-not applicable) months; the OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 87.1% and 61.3%, respectively. No new safety signals were identified.

Conclusions: Nivolumab treatment resulted in clinically meaningful long-term improvements in OS in patients with previously treated G/GEJ cancer. The long-term survival benefit of nivolumab was most evident in patients with a CR or PR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-019-01034-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165140PMC
May 2020

Exploratory subgroup analysis of patients with prior trastuzumab use in the ATTRACTION-2 trial: a randomized phase III clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction cancer.

Gastric Cancer 2020 01 13;23(1):143-153. Epub 2019 May 13.

Division of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: Data on immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer are lacking. Because HER2 status was not captured in the ATTRACTION-2 trial, we used patients with prior trastuzumab use (Tmab+) as surrogate for HER2 expression status to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab as third- or later-line therapy in these patients.

Methods: In ATTRACTION-2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 multicenter trial, patients were randomized (2:1) to receive nivolumab (3 mg/kg) or placebo every 2 weeks until disease progression or toxicity requiring study discontinuation. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety were assessed.

Results: Of 493 enrolled patients, 81 (nivolumab, n = 59; placebo, n = 22) were Tmab+ and 412 (nivolumab, n = 271; placebo, n = 141) were Tmab-. In both groups, patients receiving nivolumab showed a longer median OS vs placebo (Tmab+, 8.3 [95% confidence interval, 5.3-12.9] vs 3.1 [1.9-5.3] months, hazard ratio, 0.38 [0.22-0.66]; P = 0.0006; Tmab-, 4.8 [4.1-6.0] vs 4.2 [3.6-4.9] months, 0.71 [0.57-0.88]; P = 0.0022). PFS was longer in both groups receiving nivolumab vs placebo (Tmab+, 1.6 [1.5-4.0] vs 1.5 [1.3-2.9] months, 0.49 [0.29-0.85]; P = 0.0111; Tmab-, 1.6 [1.5-2.4] vs 1.5 [1.5-1.5] months, 0.64 [0.51-0.80]; P = 0.0001).

Conclusions: Nivolumab was efficacious and safe as third- or later-line therapy regardless of prior trastuzumab use in patients with advanced G/GEJ cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-019-00970-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942596PMC
January 2020

Novel Insights of Lymphomagenesis of -Dependent Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 17;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the most common subtype of gastric lymphoma. Most gastric MALT lymphomas are characterized by their association with the (HP) infection and are cured by first-line HP eradication therapy (HPE). Several studies have been conducted to investigate why most gastric MALT lymphomas remain localized, are dependent on HP infection, and show HP-specific intratumoral T-cells (e.g., CD40-mediated signaling, T-helper-2 (Th2)-type cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory molecules, and FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells) and their communication with B-cells. Furthermore, the reason why the antigen stimuli of these intratumoral T-cells with tonic B-cell receptor signaling promote lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma has also been investigated. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, it has been demonstrated that the translocated HP cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) can promote B-cell proliferation through the activation of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP-2) phosphorylation-dependent signaling, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, the expression of CagA and these CagA-signaling molecules is closely associated with the HP-dependence of gastric MALT lymphomas (completely respond to first-line HPE). In this article, we summarize evidence of the classical theory of HP-reactive T-cells and the new paradigm of direct interaction between HP and B-cells that contributes to the HP-dependent lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphomas. Although the role of first-line HPE in the treatment of HP-negative gastric MALT lymphoma remains uncertain, several case series suggest that a proportion of HP-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains antibiotic-responsive and is cured by HPE. Considering the complicated interaction between microbiomes and the genome/epigenome, further studies on the precise mechanisms of HP- and other bacteria-directed lymphomagenesis in antibiotic-responsive gastric MALT lymphomas are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520890PMC
April 2019

Low-dose nab-paclitaxel-based combination chemotherapy in heavily pretreated pancreatic cancer patients.

J Formos Med Assoc 2020 Jan 7;119(1 Pt 1):97-105. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan; Graduate Institutes of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taiwan; Graduate Institutes of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taiwan; National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Heavily pretreated pancreatic cancer patients have a grave prognosis. In this case series study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy for such patients.

Methods: The data of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients (n = 40) treated with nab-paclitaxel after the failure of gemcitabine or fluoropyrimidines at our institution in 2013-2015 were reviewed.

Results: The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was two (range, 1-6). Eighteen patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≥2. The regimens comprised nab-paclitaxel combined with the following drugs: gemcitabine (n = 28), gemcitabine and fluoropyrimidine (n = 3), platinum and fluoropyrimidine (n = 4), fluoropyrimidine (n = 4), and irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine (n = 1). The median dose of nab-paclitaxel was 63 (range, 51-72) mg/m/dose, with the schedule of D1/15, D1/8, and D1/8/15 followed in 23, 14, and 3 patients, respectively. The median overall survival was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.6-5.7) months. Among 32 evaluable patients, two partial responses and six stable diseases were observed. The median progression-free survival was 2.6 (95% CI, 1.9-3.2) months. Grade 3/4 leucopenia or neutropenia was observed in three and two patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 anemia was observed in four patients. Other significant (grade 3 or more) nonhematological toxicities were not frequent, except for sepsis/infection (n = 7). However, more severe anemia or sepsis/infection was significantly associated with disease control.

Conclusion: In heavily pretreated pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients, low-dose nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy was fairly tolerable with modest efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2019.01.015DOI Listing
January 2020

CpG Island Methylator Phenotype May Predict Poor Overall Survival of Patients with Stage IV Colorectal Cancer.

Oncology 2019 12;96(3):156-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan,

Objective: We aimed to study the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in patients with different stages of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Material And Methods: We analyzed CIMP in stage I-IV CRC specimens from patients who were diagnosed between 2005 and 2013. CIMP status was determined using a 5-gene MethyLight-based assay. The clinicopathologic characteristics were reviewed and the overall survival (OS) was compared between patients with CIMP-high CRC and those with CIMP-low/negative CRC.

Results: Among 450 CRC specimens with successfully determined CIMP statuses, 74 (16.4%) were CIMP-high CRC. Although there was no difference in OS between patients with CIMP-high and CIMP-low/negative CRC across all stages (p = 0.4526), intriguingly, patients with stage IV CIMP-high CRC had significantly worse OS than those with stage IV CIMP-low/negative CRC (p = 0.0047). In a multivariate analysis, CIMP status remained an independent prognostic factor for overall mortality (HR = 5.60, 95% CI: 2.12-14.79, p = 0.0005) in metastatic CRC after adjusting for clinicopathologic variables and anti-cancer therapies.

Conclusion: Our results revealed that the presence of CIMP independently predicts poor OS in patients with stage IV CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000493387DOI Listing
March 2019

Phase II study of metabolic response to one-cycle chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Formos Med Assoc 2019 Jun 28;118(6):1024-1030. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No 1, Jen Ai Road Section 1, Taipei, 10051, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: In the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the optimal use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in measuring metabolic tumor response is undetermined. We launched a phase II trial to evaluate early metabolic response to one-cycle induction chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced ESCC.

Methods: ESCC patients in stage classification T3N0, N1M0, or M1a (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 6th edition) received one-cycle chemotherapy comprising paclitaxel, cisplatin, and 24-h infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin on days 1 and 8, followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, 40 Gy, with paclitaxel/cisplatin and then esophagectomy. PET was performed at baseline and day 14 of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). We hypothesized early metabolic responders with >35% reduction in maximum standardized uptake value (SUV), would have better pCR Results.

Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 16 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9-27) and 22 months (16-40), respectively. The early metabolic response rate was 55%; and the pCR rate was 34% in the esophagectomy population. The early metabolic response was not associated with pCR or survival. In an exploratory analysis, the postchemotherapy SUV was an independent prognostic factor for pCR, PFS, and OS.

Conclusion: Our study failed to validate the predefined early metabolic response for pCR to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced ESCC patients. However, postchemotherapy SUV may be prognostic and predictive, and warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2018.11.003DOI Listing
June 2019

Aflibercept plus FOLFIRI in Asian patients with pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized Phase III study.

Future Oncol 2018 Aug 17;14(20):2031-2044. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, PR China.

Aim: To investigate whether the benefit of combining aflibercept with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) chemotherapy could be confirmed in patients from the Asia-Pacific region (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01661270). Patients & methods: Asian patients with oxaliplatin-pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer were randomized to receive aflibercept or placebo, followed by FOLFIRI. The primary end point was progression-free survival.

Results: The intention-to-treat population comprised 332 patients. A clinical supply misallocation resulted in 198/332 (60%) patients receiving at least one cycle of misallocated treatment. Nevertheless, the addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was shown to improve progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.629; 95% CI: 0.488-0.812). Adverse events were in line with expectations.

Conclusion: The beneficial treatment effect associated with the addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was confirmed in Asian patients with pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2017-0669DOI Listing
August 2018

A Phase I Study of S-1-based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Gemcitabine and S-1 in Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

Anticancer Res 2018 Aug;38(8):4805-4812

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Background/aim: Radiotherapy is not routinely used in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted a phase I study to investigate concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by chemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: S-1 was administered at 50-70 mg/m/day with radiotherapy in 2.5-3.6 Gy/day for 10-12 fractions. After CCRT, gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m on days 1 and 15) and S-1 (60-100 mg/day on days 1-7 and 15-21), were administered in a 4-week cycle.

Results: After enrolling 10 patients, the study was terminated due to slow recruitment. Dose-limiting toxicities and maximum tolerated doses were not identified. Most patients experienced mild toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. One patient developed grade 3 infection. One patient achieved partial remission, while the remaining nine patients had stable disease, with a local disease control rate of 100% after CCRT.

Conclusion: A short-course CCRT followed by chemotherapy was potentially feasible in patients with metastatic PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12790DOI Listing
August 2018

Number of Resected Lymph Nodes and Survival of Patients with Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy.

Anticancer Res 2018 03;38(3):1569-1577

Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Background: The association of extended lymph node (LN) dissection with improved outcomes in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is debatable.

Patients And Methods: We reviewed data from patients with esophageal cancer enrolled in three phase II clinical trials of preoperative paclitaxel and cisplatin-based CRT during 2000-2012. Patients with ESCC who underwent planned esophagectomy were enrolled. The number of resected LNs and other clinicopathological factors were analyzed regarding their impact on progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival using Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: In total, 139 patients were included. The median PFS and OS were 24.4 and 31.8 months, respectively. The median number of resected and positive LNs were 19 (range=2-96) and 0 (range=0-9), respectively. The mean number of positive LNs did not differ significantly among quartile groups of total resected LNs (quartile 1: 2-12, 2: 13-19, 3: 20-29, and 4: 30-96). The resected LN number analyzed as dichotomies divided by the median or as continuous variables was not associated with PFS or OS. However, in an exploratory analysis, patients of quartiles 2 and 3 had longer PFS and OS than those with quartiles of 1 and 4 in multivariate analysis (p=0.019 and 0.005, respectively).

Conclusion: Although extensive LN dissection was not associated with improved survival, resection of 13-29 LNs was associated with improved survival in patients with locally advanced ESCC receiving preoperative paclitaxel and cisplatin-based CRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12386DOI Listing
March 2018

Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin Might Provide Equal Benefit as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Resectable Synchronous Colon Cancer and Liver-confined Metastases: A Nationwide Database Study.

Anticancer Res 2017 12;37(12):7095-7104

Graduate Institute of Oncology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C

Background: Although irinotecan and oxaliplatin are both standard treatments for advanced colon cancer, it remains unknown whether either is effective for patients with resectable synchronous colon cancer and liver-confined metastasis (SCCLM) after curative surgery.

Patients And Methods: A population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with de novo SCCLM between 2004 and 2009 was established by searching the database of the Taiwan Cancer Registry and the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients who underwent curative surgery as their first therapy followed by chemotherapy doublets were classified into the irinotecan group or oxaliplatin group accordingly. Patients who received radiotherapy or did not receive chemotherapy doublets were excluded.

Results: We included 6,533 patients with de novo stage IV colon cancer. Three hundred and nine of them received chemotherapy doublets after surgery; 77 patients received irinotecan and 232 patients received oxaliplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy. The patients in both groups exhibited similar overall survival (median: not reached vs. 40.8 months, p=0.151) and time to the next line of treatment (median: 16.5 vs. 14.3 months, p=0.349) in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Additionally, patients with resectable SCCLM had significantly shorter median overall survival than patients with stage III colon cancer who underwent curative surgery and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy, but longer median overall survival than patients with de novo stage IV colon cancer who underwent surgery only at the primary site followed by standard systemic chemotherapy (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Irinotecan and oxaliplatin exhibited similar efficacy in patients who underwent curative surgery for resectable SCCLM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12183DOI Listing
December 2017

Phase II Study of BGJ398 in Patients With FGFR-Altered Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma.

J Clin Oncol 2018 01 28;36(3):276-282. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Milind Javle and Rachna T. Shroff, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Maeve Lowery and Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Karl Heinz Weiss and Christoph Springfeld, Universitäts Klinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Mitesh J. Borad, Ramesh K. Ramanathan, and Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ; Lipika Goyal and Andrew X. Zhu, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA; Saeed Sadeghi and Richard S. Finn, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA; Anthony El-Khoueiry, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles; Robin Kate Kelley, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA; Teresa Macarulla, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain; Ivan Borbath, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels; Eric Van Cutsem, University Hospitals Gasthuisberg and KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Su Pin Choo, National Cancer Centre of Singapore, Singapore; Do-Youn Oh, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; Philip A. Philip, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI; Li-Tzong Chen, National Institute of Cancer Research and National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan; Kun-Huei Yeh, National Taiwan University Hospital Cancer Center, and Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Thanyanan Reungwetwattana, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Kristen Ciombor, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH; and Anuradha Patel, Suman Sen, Dale Porter, and Randi Isaacs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.

Purpose No standard treatment exists for patients with cholangiocarcinoma for whom first-line gemcitabine-based therapy fails. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 ( FGFR2) fusions/translocations are present in 13% to 17% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. BGJ398, an orally bioavailable, selective pan-FGFR kinase inhibitor, has shown preliminary clinical activity against tumors with FGFR alterations. Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase II study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02150967) evaluated BGJ398 antitumor activity in patients age ≥ 18 years with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma containing FGFR2 fusions or other FGFR alterations whose disease had progressed while receiving prior therapy. Patients received BGJ398 125 mg once daily for 21 days, then 7 days off (28-day cycles). The primary end point was investigator-assessed overall response rate. Results Sixty-one patients (35 women; median age, 57 years) with FGFR2 fusion (n = 48), mutation (n = 8), or amplification (n = 3) participated. At the prespecified data cutoff (June 30, 2016), 50 patients had discontinued treatment. All responsive tumors contained FGFR2 fusions. The overall response rate was 14.8% (18.8% FGFR2 fusions only), disease control rate was 75.4% (83.3% FGFR2 fusions only), and estimated median progression-free survival was 5.8 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 7.6 months). Adverse events included hyperphosphatemia (72.1% all grade), fatigue (36.1%), stomatitis (29.5%), and alopecia (26.2%). Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 25 patients (41%) and included hyperphosphatemia (16.4%), stomatitis (6.6%), and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (4.9%). Conclusion BGJ398 is a first-in-class FGFR kinase inhibitor with manageable toxicities that shows meaningful clinical activity against chemotherapy-refractory cholangiocarcinoma containing FGFR2 fusions. This promising antitumor activity supports continued development of BGJ398 in this highly selected patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.75.5009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075847PMC
January 2018

First-line antibiotic therapy in Helicobacter pylori-negative low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

Sci Rep 2017 10 30;7(1):14333. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

First-line antibiotic treatment for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is effective in HP-positive low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma), but its role in HP-negative cases is uncertain. In this exploratory retrospective study, we assessed the outcome and potential predictive biomarkers for 25 patients with HP-negative localized gastric MALToma who received first-line HP eradication (HPE) therapy. An HP-negative status was defined as negative results on histology, rapid urease test, C urea breath test, and serology. We observed an antibiotic response (complete remission [CR], number = 8; partial remission, number = 1) in 9 (36.0%) out of 25 patients. A t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation was detected in 7 (43.8%) of 16 antibiotic-unresponsive cases, but in none of the 9 antibiotic-responsive cases (P = 0.027). Nuclear BCL10 expression was significantly higher in antibiotic-unresponsive tumors than in antibiotic-responsive tumors (14/16 [87.5%] vs. 1/9 [11.1%]; P = 0.001). Nuclear NF-κB expression was also significantly higher in antibiotic-unresponsive tumors than in antibiotic-responsive tumors (12/16 [75.0%] vs. 1/9 [11.1%]; P = 0.004). A substantial portion of patients with HP-negative gastric MALToma responded to first-line HPE. In addition to t(11;18)(q21;q21), BCL10 and NF-κB are useful immunohistochemical biomarkers to predict antibiotic-unresponsive status in this group of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14102-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5662601PMC
October 2017

Nivolumab in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, at least two previous chemotherapy regimens (ONO-4538-12, ATTRACTION-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2017 Dec 6;390(10111):2461-2471. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan; National Cheng Kung University Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: Patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, two or more previous regimens of chemotherapy have a poor prognosis, and current guidelines do not recommend any specific treatments for these patients. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody inhibitor of programmed death-1 (PD-1), in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer who had been previously been treated with two or more chemotherapy regimens.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 49 clinical sites in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, eligible patients (aged ≥20 years with unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, standard therapy [including two or more previous chemotherapy regimens], with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] performance status of 0-1, and naive to anti-PD-1 therapy or other therapeutic antibodies and pharmacotherapies for the regulation of T cells) were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) using an interactive web response system to receive 3 mg/kg nivolumab or placebo intravenously every 2 weeks, stratified by country, ECOG performance status, and number of organs with metastases. Study treatment was continued until progressive disease per investigator assessment or onset of toxicities requiring permanent discontinuation. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is ongoing but not recruiting new patients, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02267343.

Findings: Between Nov 4, 2014, and Feb 26, 2016, we randomly assigned 493 patients to receive nivolumab (n=330) or placebo (n=163). At the data cutoff (Aug 13, 2016), median follow-up in surviving patients was 8·87 months (IQR 6·57-12·37) in the nivolumab group and 8·59 months (5·65-11·37) in the placebo group. Median overall survival was 5·26 months (95% CI 4·60-6·37) in the nivolumab group and 4·14 months (3·42-4·86) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78; p<0·0001). 12-month overall survival rates were 26·2% (95% CI 20·7-32·0) with nivolumab and 10·9% (6·2-17·0) with placebo. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 34 (10%) of 330 patients who received nivolumab and seven (4%) of 161 patients who received placebo; treatment-related adverse events led to death in five (2%) of 330 patients in the nivolumab group and two (1%) of 161 patients in the placebo group. No new safety signals were observed.

Interpretation: In this phase 3 study, the survival benefits indicate that nivolumab might be a new treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. Ongoing trials that include non-Asian patients are investigating nivolumab for advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer in various settings and earlier treatment lines.

Funding: Ono Pharmaceutical and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31827-5DOI Listing
December 2017

Computed tomographic characteristics for patients with unresectable gastric cancer harboring low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis.

Med Oncol 2017 Aug 19;34(8):143. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan.

Although current staging workups could differentiate most patients with operable from inoperable advanced gastric cancers, there are still some patients with low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis, defined as only metastasis with multiple subcentimeter lesions in peritoneum, receiving unnecessary open-close procedures. The computed tomography (CT) of the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer harboring low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis was retrospectively identified and then thoroughly reviewed by two independent radiologists unaware of the peritoneal carcinomatosis status. Of the 798 patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer between January 2007 and December 2010, 52 patients harboring advanced gastric cancer with low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis receiving surgery with curative intent were identified. Descriptive statistic was used for the radiologic characteristics. The most common radiologic characteristic of CT was omental fat stranding (57.7%), followed by omental clustered subcentimeter nodules (53.8%), distant enlarged lymph node (40.4%), distant grouping of small lymph nodes (36.5%), peritoneal nodules or thickening (34.6%), minimal loculated ascites (21.2%), intestinal wall thickening or irregularity (9.6%), and hydronephrosis or hydroureter without stone or urothelial lesion (5.8%). Comprehensively reviewing the radiologic characteristics of CT may identify the patients harboring advanced gastric cancer with low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-017-1004-4DOI Listing
August 2017

Association of MDM2 expression with shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(7):e0180628. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Departments of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

This study evaluated the prognostic roles of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and p53 in pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. A total of 137 advanced or recurrent adenocarcinoma patients who were treated with gemcitabine-based palliative chemotherapy were reviewed, selected from 957 patients with pancreatic malignancy between 2008 and 2013 at our hospital. Immunohistochemical staining for MDM2 and p53 with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues was independently reviewed. Nuclear or cytoplasmic expression of MDM2 and p53 was found in tumor cells of 30 (21.9%) and 71 (51.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with MDM2 expression had shorter median overall survival (OS) (3.7 vs 5.8 mo; P = .048) and median progression-free survival (PFS) (1.5 vs 2.5 mo; P < .001); by contrast, p53 expression was not correlated with OS or PFS. In the multivariate analysis, MDM2 expression (hazard ratio = 1.731; P = .025) was an independent and unfavorable prognostic factor of OS. Additionally, MDM2 expression was significantly associated with progressive disease (PD) and death (P = .015) following first-line gemcitabine-based therapy. In advanced pancreatic cancer patients, MDM2 expression is associated with shorter OS and PFS after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180628PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5498069PMC
October 2017

Distinct Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Helicobacter pylori Negative Gastric Cancer.

PLoS One 2017 2;12(2):e0170942. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Whether the characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) are different in patients with and without Helicobacter pylori (HP) remains controversial. The definitions of HP status in patients with atrophic gastritis but negative tests for HP are heterogeneous. We aimed to assess the impact of HP on the prognosis of GC using different definitions.

Methods: From 1998 Nov to 2011 Jul, five hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients with GC were included. HP status was determined by serology and histology. Patients with any positive test were defined as HP infection. Patients without HP infection whose serum pepsinogen (PG) I <70 ng/dl and PG I/II ratio < 3.0 were defined as atrophic gastritis and they were categorized into model 1: HP positive; model 2: HP negative; and model 3: exclusion of these patients.

Results: We found four characteristics of HP negative GC in comparison to HP positive GC: (1) higher proportion of the proximal tumor location (24.0%, P = 0.004), (2) more diffuse histologic type (56.1%, p = 0.008), (3) younger disease onset (58.02 years, p = 0.008) and (4) more stage IV disease (40.6%, p = 0.03). Patients with negative HP had worse overall survival (24.0% vs. 35.8%, p = 0.035). In Cox regression models, the negative HP status is an independent poor prognostic factor (HR: 1.34, CI:1.04-1.71, p = 0.019) in model 1, especially in stage I, II and III patients (HR: 1.62; CI:1.05-2.51,p = 0.026).

Conclusion: We found the distinct characteristics of HP negative GC. The prognosis of HP negative GC was poor.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170942PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5289528PMC
August 2017

Anti-angiogenic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Cancer Res Treat 2017 Oct 3;49(4):851-868. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Despite advancements in therapy for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers, their prognosis remains dismal. Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in cancer growth and metastasis, and recent studies indicate that pharmacologic blockade of angiogenesis is a promising approach to therapy. In this systematic review, we summarize current literature on the clinical benefit of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric cancer. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and conference proceedings including the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the European Society for Medical Oncology, and the European Cancer Congress. Included studies aimed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenic agents in advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Each trial investigated at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, progression-free survival/time to progression, and/or objective response rate. Our search yielded 139 publications. Forty-two met the predefined inclusion criteria. Included studies reported outcomes with apatinib, axitinib, bevacizumab, orantinib, pazopanib, ramucirumab, regorafenib, sorafenib, sunitinib, telatinib, and vandetanib. Second-line therapy with ramucirumab and third-line therapy with apatinib are the only anti-angiogenic agents so far shown to significantly improve survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Overall, agents that specifically target the vascular endothelial growth factor ligand or receptor have better safety profile compared to multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2016.176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5654167PMC
October 2017

The B-cell-activating factor signalling pathway is associated with Helicobacter pylori independence in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without t(11;18)(q21;q21).

J Pathol 2017 Feb 29;241(3):420-433. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

We previously reported that activation of the B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) pathway upregulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induces BCL3 and BCL10 nuclear translocation in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-independent gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumours with evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). However, the significance of BAFF expression in HP independence of gastric low-grade MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) remains unexplored. Sixty-four patients who underwent successful HP eradication for localized HP-positive gastric MALT lymphomas without t(11;18)(q21;q21) were studied. BAFF expression was significantly higher in the HP-independent group than in the HP-dependent group [22/26 (84.6%) versus 8/38 (21.1%); p < 0.001]. Similarly, BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) expression (p = 0.004) and nuclear BCL3 (p = 0.004), BCL10 (p < 0.001), NF-κB (p65) (p = 0.001) and NF-κB (p52) (p = 0.005) expression were closely correlated with the HP independence of these tumours. Moreover, BAFF overexpression was significantly associated with BAFF-R expression and nuclear BCL3, BCL10, NF-κB (p65) and NF-κB (p52) expression. These findings were further validated in an independent cohort, including 40 HP-dependent cases and 18 HP-independent cases of gastric MALT lymphoma without t(11;18)(q21;q21). The biological significance of BAFF signalling in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-negative lymphoma cells was further studied in two types of lymphoma B cell: OCI-Ly3 [non-germinal centre B-cell origin DLBCL without t(11;18)(q21;q21) cell line] and MA-1 [t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1-positive DLBCL cell line]. In both cell lines, we found that BAFF activated the canonical NF-κB and AKT pathways, and induced the formation of BCL10-BCL3 complexes, which translocated to the nucleus. BCL10 and BCL3 nuclear translocation and NF-κB (p65) transactivation were inhibited by either LY294002 or by silencing BCL3 or BCL10 with small interfering RNA. BAFF also activated non-canonical NF-κB pathways (p52) through tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation, NF-κB-inducing kinase accumulation, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) α/β phosphorylation and NF-κB p100 processing in both cell lines. Our data indicate that the autocrine BAFF signal transduction pathway contributes to HP independence in gastric MALT lymphomas without the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4852DOI Listing
February 2017

Expressions of the CagA protein and CagA-signaling molecules predict Helicobacter pylori dependence of early-stage gastric DLBCL.

Blood 2017 01 18;129(2):188-198. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Department of Oncology and.

We previously reported that early-stage gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), including DLBCLs with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (DLBCL[MALT]) and without ("pure" DLBCL) the features of MALT lymphomas, can achieve long-term complete remission after frontline Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication (HPE). We recently reported that expression of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and CagA-signaling molecules (phospho-Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase [p-SHP2] and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase [p-ERK]) is associated with HP dependence of gastric MALT lymphoma. However, the significance of CagA and CagA-signaling molecules in gastric DLBCL remains unexplored. The association between expression of CagA, p-SHP-2, and p-ERK in malignant B cells and tumor response to HPE was evaluated in 63 patients with stage IE/IIE1 HP-positive gastric DLBCL who received HPE as frontline treatment. We detected CagA expression in 20 of 42 DLBCL (MALT) cases (47.6%) and in 13 of 21 "pure" DLBCL cases (61.9%). CagA expression was higher in HP-dependent tumors than in HP-independent tumors (74.3% [26 of 35] vs 25.0% [7 of 28]). Patients with CagA expression responded to HPE quicker than those without expression (median time to complete remission, 4.0 months vs 5.0 months). The expression of CagA was closely associated with p-SHP-2 and p-ERK expression. Combined CagA, p-SHP-2, and p-ERK expression showed an increased positive predictive value (81.8% vs 75.9%) and an increased specificity (84.0% vs 75.0%) for HP dependence compared with CagA expression alone. Our results indicated that CagA and its signaling molecules can be detected in the malignant B cells of gastric DLBCL, and the expression of these molecules is clinically and biologically associated with HP dependence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-04-713719DOI Listing
January 2017