Publications by authors named "Kumar M"

8,194 Publications

CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES AND CHALLENGES IN NSCLC TREATMENT: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW.

Authors:
M Kumar A Sarkar

Exp Oncol 2022 05;44(1):7-16

Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science K K Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa 403726, India.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most lethal malignancies accountings for nearly 80% of all lung cancer cases diagnosed and causing over one million deaths annually worldwide. The discovery of molecular alterations including driver mutations and gene fusions has led to innovation of numerous targeted therapies, which certainly provided an edge over the classical chemotherapeutic treatment regimens and improved survival of the patients. Despite all the breakthrough innovations, the five-year survival statistics has not improved the way it was expected, pointing the challenges and limitations of currently approved diagnostic methods and therapies. This review summarizes various innovative therapies, treatment regimens developed over the last two decades for NSCLC treatment and the current challenges and limitations in the NSCLC treatment landscape.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.32471/exp-oncology.2312-8852.vol-44-no-1.17411DOI Listing
May 2022

Implementation and Validation of Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm in Eclipse Treatment Planning System for Indigenous Telecobalt Machine (Bhabhatron II).

J Med Phys 2022 Jan-Mar;47(1):50-56. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Homi Bhabha Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Background: The photon dose calculation model anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) available with eclipse integrated treatment planning system (TPS) (Varian) supports telecobalt dose calculation from Version 13.6 onward. Formerly, pencil beam convolution (PBC) was used for modeling telecobalt machines. Eclipse TPS no longer supports PBC dose calculation algorithm in v13.6 and above. The AAA dose calculation model is a three-dimensional PBC/superposition algorithm. Its configuration is based on Monte-Carlo-determined basic physical parameters that are tailored to measured clinical beam data.

Aim: The study investigated the feasibility of clinical implementation of AAA in Eclipse TPS for Bhabhatron II.

Materials And Methods: The indigenous telecobalt machine, Bhabhatron II, was configured as a generic machine because an inbuilt machine model for the same was not available in Varian Eclipse TPS algorithm library. In such a scenario, it was necessary to evaluate and validate dosimetric parameters of the TPS because improper tailoring would cause errors in dose calculations. Beam data measurements of the machine were carried out which were used for configuration of the algorithm.

Result: After successful configuration, a variety of plans created in TPS were executed on the machine and subsequently evaluated.

Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that AAA-based dose calculation in TPS is very well suited for accurate dose calculations for telecobalt machine and can be implemented for clinical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jmp.jmp_95_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9084584PMC
March 2022

Photoluminescence Properties of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Donor-Acceptor via Plasmon Coupling of Metal Nanostructures and Application on Photovoltaic Devices.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 May 12;13(19):4394-4401. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772, Korea.

Hybrid nanostructures composed of quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoparticles (MNS) have gained immense research interest because of their unique optical properties. In optoelectronic applications, quenching and enhancement in QD photoluminescence (PL) are critical parameters. Herein, gold nanoparticles coating a silica layer decorated with quantum dots ([email protected]@QDs) are prepared with diverse SiO thickness and QD diameter for investigating the exciton-plasmon interaction. This reveals the charge interaction between QDs and [email protected] resulting from different impacts of the Föster energy-transfer process and plasmon resonance enhancement. The variation in both radiative and nonradiative energy-transfer processes in CdSe/ZnS QDs donor-acceptor pairs clarifies the impact of [email protected] In addition, the hybrid structures are plainly incorporated with silicon solar cells, which activated the improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). With the significant tunability of the PL intensity in the visible and near-infrared regions, this hybrid nanostructure provides potential strategies for developing efficient optoelectronics via facile methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c00903DOI Listing
May 2022

Biodegradation of technical hexachlorocyclohexane by Cupriavidus malaysiensis.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 May 9;38(6):108. Epub 2022 May 9.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, 440020, Nagpur, India.

Lindane (γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane) has been used extensively as a pesticide all over the world. The production of Lindane entails the formation of four major Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, that is, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta as muck. These have been used as Technical HCH in developing countries as an inexpensive alternate source. However, HCH isomers pose a severe environmental hazard due to their highly persistent nature and toxicity. In this study, the effect of HCH application on the soil microbial diversity was studied. The species which could persist even after prolonged exposure at high HCH concentration, was isolated, screened, and enriched as potential t-HCH degraders. The selected isolate could degrade 88.05%, 92.19%, 91.54%, and 82.85% of the alpha, gamma, beta, and delta isomers, respectively at 100 mg/L HCH concentration. Identification of the isolate by 16s rRNA sequencing was similar to Cupriavidus malaysiensis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to observe this particular strain's ability to simultaneously degrade the four isomers, especially the most recalcitrant beta isomer. Therefore, the degradative capability of this strain, as a sole carbon source at higher HCH concentration (100 mg/l), can be exploited for bioremediation of HCH contaminated sites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-022-03284-7DOI Listing
May 2022

A case of cholesterol embolization syndrome mimicking rapidly progressive renal failure causing end-stage kidney disease.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2021 Sep-Oct;32(5):1489-1494

Department of Nephrology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Cholesterol embolization syndrome is an uncommon complication of coronary angioplasty. Its clinical manifestations are nonspecific and may be ascribed to other causes mimicking vasculitis syndrome. In an appropriate clinical setting, the diagnosis can be confirmed by tissue biopsy. In this case report, we present a middle-aged male who presented with cutaneous and renal manifestations within two weeks of primary angioplasty. The patient had progressive clinical deterioration in the form of dry gangrene of toes and end-stage renal disease requiring surgical amputation and maintenance hemodialysis respectively within two months of symptoms onset.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.344775DOI Listing
May 2022

Deciphering the environmental impact on spike architectural traits for grain yield consolidation in bread wheat ( L.).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Apr 15;29(4):2800-2810. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Division of Genetics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

The realization of grain yield in wheat is decided by source-sink balance under prevailing environmental conditions. Management conditions like changing the sowing time influence the source-sink capacity through modification in agronomic traits. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to decipher the influence of spike architectural traits (SATs) on grain yield and to open avenues for further grain yield enhancement. Comparatively early sowing over timely sowing gives the advantage of realizing higher grain yield with a positive relationship with SATs namely spike length, spikelets per spike, individual spike weight, individual grain weight, number of grains per spikelet, grain length, and grain width of upper and lower spike portion. Confirmatory factorial analysis revealed that spike length, spikelets per spike, individual spike weight, grains per spikelet were having a significant effect in deciding grain yield in early sown. The presence of a significant effect of genotype by environment interaction over grain yield and SATs allows the exploitation of available genotypic and environmental variability for further yield enhancement. GGE analysis on transformed and standardized grain yield-trait (GY-trait) combinations was used in the selection of genotypes having high GY-trait combinations for both sowing times. In early sowing, WG 11 was the best for high GY with high individual spike weight; grain length and grain width at lower and upper parts of the spike; and shorter days to 50% flowering. Genotypes exclusively having the high GY-trait combination along with low values of remaining GY-trait combinations were also selected with genotype focused GGE approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9073038PMC
April 2022

Telemedicine as an unexpected catalyst during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Nepal J Epidemiol 2022 Mar 31;12(1):1171-1174. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Ph.D. Scholar (Palliative Care), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India.

Telemedicine that also known as the practice of medicine at a distance whereby information technology is used to ensure the delivery of medical care services. Telemedicine is not a new concept in the world and India.Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) started telemedicine in India during year 2001 as a pilot project and in year 2005 Ministry of Health and family welfare started full time program of telemedicine by connecting all major health institutions. Telemedicine is connecting people across border and culture. The need-based changes are coming in telemedicine sectors such as smart apps, involvement of private sector players and high intensity internet connections reaching to rural areas and difficult demographic locations. During Covid-19 pandemic telemedicine benefited people by supplying health information and consultation without breaching them without breeching physical contact restrictions. The ease of access to telemedicine applications, its low cost, and the lack of infrastructure requirements propelled to become the top choice in these dayswhere physical distancingconsidered the aforementioned, thus we can conclude that telemedicine is promising tool.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nje.v12i1.42459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9057174PMC
March 2022

Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Profile among Different Stages of COVID-19 Infection.

Natl Acad Sci Lett 2022 May 4:1-7. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029 India.

Aim: To characterize Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A) among different stages of COVID-19 infection.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included six healthy individuals and 68 patients who were admitted with COVID-19 in the Department of Medicine, at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from July 2020 to September 2020. Patients were categorized into mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 groups, and serum samples were drawn for the measurement of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A) which was done by BD™ Cytometric Bead Array.

Results: All the cytokines showed dynamic expression in the COVID-19 group, of which only IL-6 was statistically significant. Among the three severity groups of COVID-19, increased severity did not transform into increased cytokine level, with the exception for IL-6, which was statistically significant.

Conclusions: In our small sample study, six cytokines expressions were evaluated however most of them were elevated in COVID-19 patients but were not statistically significant except IL-6.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40009-022-01123-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065657PMC
May 2022

Environmental health and risk assessment metrics with special mention to biotransfer, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of environmental pollutants.

Chemosphere 2022 May 4;302:134836. Epub 2022 May 4.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, 201 002, Uttar Pradesh, India; Analytical and Environmental Science Division & Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR-Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, 364 002, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:

The environment pollutants, which are landed up in environment because of human activities like urbanization, mining and industrializations, affects human health, plants and animals. The living organisms present in environment are constantly affected by the toxic pollutants through direct contact or bioaccumulation of chemicals from the environment. The toxic and hazardous pollutants are easily transferred to different environmental matrices like land, air and water bodies such as surface and ground waters. This comprehensive review deeply discusses the routes and causes of different environmental pollutants along with their toxicity, impact, occurrences and fate in the environment. Environment health and risk assessment tools that are used to evaluate the harmfulness, exposure of living organisms to pollutants and the amount of pollutant accumulated are explained with help of bio-kinetic models. Biotransfer, toxicity factor, biomagnification and bioaccumulation of different pollutants in the air, water and marine ecosystems are critically addressed. Thus, the presented survey would be collection of correlations those addresses the factors involved in assessing the environmental health and risk impacts of distinct environmental pollutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134836DOI Listing
May 2022

Effectiveness of psychological techniques in dental management for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

BMC Oral Health 2022 05 6;22(1):162. Epub 2022 May 6.

Applied Oral Sciences and Community Dental Care, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong.

Background: A rise in the reported numbers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) highlights the need for dental practitioners to be more familiar with the treatment approaches for these special needs children to ensure comfortable, well-accepted and efficient management while in dental office.

Aim: This paper aimed to acquire a deeper understanding of some of the innovative and best approaches to managing children with ASD in dental settings.

Design: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, and grey literature based on the PRISMA 2020 statement, using main keywords such as: 'management', 'dental', 'children', and 'Autism Spectrum Disorder'. Original full-text papers including randomised controlled trials (RCT) and all other designs of non-randomised controlled studies (NRS) reporting relevant intervention studies in English were included without any publication time limit. The quality of the evidence found eligible for the review were then assessed using the ROB-2 and ROBINS-I tools. Subsequently, the details of management interventions and impact of treatment approaches were compared and discussed.

Results: Out of the 204 articles found, 109 unrelated articles were excluded during the initial screening. The full papers of remaining 28 were retrieved and only 15 (7%) articles were eligible to be reviewed; eight RCTs with 'some concerns' and 'high risk' categories particularly concerning their randomisation design, and seven NSRs with 'serious' to 'critical' bias largely due to confounding factors.

Conclusion: Our review found inconclusive evidence on the strength of recent psychological and non-pharmacological approaches used to manage children with ASD in dental settings. Small sample size and lack of a control group in certain studies affected the strength of evidence and credibility of the findings. Nevertheless, this review shared informative details on some innovative approaches for better understanding of the management of children with ASD for dental professionals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02200-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9074276PMC
May 2022

Historical seasonal changes in prescribed burn windows in California.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 3:155723. Epub 2022 May 3.

University of California Irvine, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Irvine, CA, United States.

Prescribed (Rx) burns are conducted on days when the meteorological thresholds of maximum air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are all met (burn window) in order to ensure safe Rx burn practices. Limited burn windows have been consistently identified as one of the most important constraints for conducting Rx burns in California. We investigate whether burn windows across California can be extended from the typical fall season to include other opportune seasons for facilitating specific management objectives. We quantify the seasonal Rx burn efficiencies by assessing the frequency and burned areas using an aggregate of Rx datasets, and we compute the seasonal spatiotemporal trends in the number of days the set of meteorological parameters are met over thirty-five years (1984 to 2019) using the gridMET 4 km dataset. Our results indicate that while fall burns are most frequently executed (40% of the time), the spring (and to a lesser extent winter) seasons yield efficient Rx burns similar to fall, because greater acres are being consumed with less burns. In addition, winter and spring seasons experience burn window opportunities (70-90% of the time) over larger areas than the other seasons, and this is predominantly over forested regions in Northern California. Our results also indicate that burn windows in the winter and spring are decreasing at a rate of one day per year over a larger spatial area than that of summer and fall. This decrease is primarily driven by changes in the number of days the relative humidity thresholds are met. Policymakers recognize the critical importance Rx burns have on a multitude of ecosystem restoration factors, fire behavior dynamics, and firefighter safety. Therefore, there is a need to capitalize on these additional burn window seasons before these opportunities become less feasible in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155723DOI Listing
May 2022

Study on Chemotypic Variability of Coleus forskohlii Briq., Samples Collected from Different Phytogeographical Locations of India and Evaluation of Its Inhibitory Potential.

J Chromatogr Sci 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Pharmacognosy Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India.

Coleus forskohlii Briq. is an important medicinal herb, endowed with a wide range of medicinal properties against the variety of ailments. Seven germplasm of C. forskohlii collected from different phyto-geographical locations and identification of elite chemotype was performed with the help of high performance thin layer chromatography. Data of soil analysis correlated with the bioactive compounds and inhibitory potential of the species. Quantification of forskolin and its isomer (iso-forskolin) content were done in all the collected samples of C. forskohlii, which revealed a wide range of variations, varying from 1.15-0.004% and 0.0091 to 0.1077% per dry weights basic, respectively. Variation in the bioactive content may be due to the soil nature and environmental factors. Soil analysis of collected samples demonstrated that there is significant variation in available NPK and micronutrient content and may be reasoned for existing chemotypic variability. In vitro biological activity (antioxidant and antidiabetic) analyses were performed, which reveals that germplasms have a high amount of forskolin and iso-forskolin, both show more activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of elicitors and precursors on the production of bioactive compounds and identification of best elite germplasm among the populations, to provide basic lead to the industry for commercial exploitability including its location-specific commercial cultivation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmac033DOI Listing
April 2022

Comparison of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) and Dengue in Hospitalized Children.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Pediatric Emergency and Intensive Care Units, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh 160012, India.

Objective: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children is a febrile illness that has overlapping presentation with other locally prevalent illnesses. Clinicolaboratory profile of children admitted with MIS-C and dengue were compared to understand their presentation at the outset.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of children ≤ 12 y admitted with MIS-C (WHO definition) or laboratory-confirmed dengue between August 2020 and January 2021 at a tertiary center in North India.

Results: A total of 84 children (MIS-C - 40; dengue - 44) were included. The mean (SD) age [83.5 (39) vs. 91.6 (35) mo] was comparable. Rash (72.5% vs. 22.7%), conjunctival injection (60% vs. 2.3%), oral mucocutaneous changes (27.5% vs. 0) and gallop rhythm (15% vs. 0) were seen more frequently with MIS-C, while petechiae [29.5% vs. 7.5%], myalgia (38.6% vs. 10%), headache (22.7% vs. 2.5%), and hepatomegaly (68.2% vs. 27.5%) were more common with dengue. Children with MIS-C had significantly higher C-reactive protein (124 vs. 3.2 mg/L) and interleukin 6 (95.3 vs. 20.7 ng/mL), while those with dengue had higher hemoglobin (12 vs. 10.2 g/dL) lower mean platelet count (26 vs. 140 × 10/L), and greater elevation in aspartate (607 vs. 44 IU/L) and alanine (235.5 vs. 56 IU/L) aminotransferases. The hospital stay was longer with MIS-C; however, PICU stay and mortality were comparable.

Conclusion: In hospitalized children with acute febrile illness, the presence of mucocutaneous features and highly elevated CRP could distinguish MIS-C from dengue. The presence of petechiae, hepatomegaly, and hemoconcentration may favor a diagnosis of dengue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-022-04184-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9068862PMC
May 2022

Wound Infiltration and Instillation Technique for Postoperative Analgesia Using Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries.

Cureus 2022 Mar 28;14(3):e23592. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Surgery, North Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC) Medical College and Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, IND.

Background: Pain relief after surgery continues to be a major medical challenge in clinical practice. Lumbar spine surgery is associated with significant postoperative pain. Providing optimal analgesia locally in the area of surgical wound, with little systemic side-effects, is a favourable option and has become an intrinsic part of multimodal analgesia. We aimed to assess and compare the effectiveness of local infiltration and instillation of bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

Materials And Methods: Forty-four adult patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I and II were randomly assigned into two groups, incorporating 22 patients per group. After the completion of lumbar spine surgery and after hemostasis was achieved, patients in group A received instillation of 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine at the surgical wound site and patients in group B received 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine infiltration into the paravertebral muscles on either side. Postoperative numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 20, and 24 hours; the time to first analgesic required, total rescue analgesic consumption, and adverse effects were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0 (Released 2011; IBM Corp, Armonk, New York, United States).

Results: Time to the first analgesic requirement was significantly longer in group A (12.39±1.56 hours) compared to the B group (2.48±0.58 hours) (P < 0.001). The amount of rescue analgesia (diclofenac sodium) required was significantly higher in group B (135.00±46.17 milligrams) compared to A (93.75±33.32 milligrams) (P = 0.001). The number of analgesic demands was higher in the infiltration group compared to the instillation group and was observed to be statistically significant. Hemodynamic parameters remained comparable between the groups.

Conclusion: Local instillation of surgical wound site provided better pain control than infiltration technique and is effective and safe postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laminectomy surgeries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.23592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9059674PMC
March 2022
-->