Publications by authors named "Kuldeep Bansal"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sagittal Balance, Pulmonary Function, and Spinopelvic Parameters in Severe Post-Tubercular Thoracic Kyphosis.

Asian Spine J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Purpose: To evaluate sagittal balance, pulmonary function, and spinopelvic parameters in patients with healed spinal tuberculosis with severe thoracic kyphosis.

Overview Of Literature: Deterioration of neurological function is an absolute indication of surgical intervention in severe post-tubercular kyphosis, but the relationship of compromise in lung function and spinal alignment with severity of kyphosis is still unclear.

Methods: Twenty patients (age, 14-60 years) with healed spinal tuberculosis with thoracic kyphosis >50° were included. Lateral-view radiography of the whole spine, including both hips, was performed for assessment of kyphotic angle (K angle), sagittal balance, lumbar lordosis, and spinopelvic parameters. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) by spirometry.

Results: A positive correlation between severity of kyphosis and sagittal imbalance was noted, with compensatory mechanisms maintaining the sagittal balance in only up to 80° of dorsal kyphosis. In >80° of kyphosis, FVC was found to be markedly decreased (mean FVC=50.6%). The mean K angle was lower in subjects with lower thoracic kyphosis. In lower thoracic kyphosis, due to short lordotic and long kyphotic curves, both lumbar lordosis and pelvic retroversion worked at compensation, whereas, in middle thoracic kyphosis, due to long lordotic curve, only lumbar lordosis was required. Normal pulmonary function (mean FVC, 83.0%) and lesser kyphotic deformity (mean K angle in adolescents, 69.8°; in adults, 94.4°) were found in adolescents.

Conclusions: In >80° of thoracic kyphosis, there is sagittal imbalance and a markedly affected pulmonary function. Such patients should be offered corrective surgery if they are symptomatic and medically fit to undergo the procedure. However, whether the surgical procedure would result in improved pulmonary function and sagittal balance needs to be evaluated by a follow-up study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2020.0464DOI Listing
May 2021

Intradural Conus Medullaris Lipoma With Neurological Deficit: A Rare Occurrence.

Cureus 2021 Mar 23;13(3):e14053. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Indian Spinal Injuries Center, New Delhi, IND.

Intradural lipoma without spinal dysraphism is a rare occurrence. Most of them are asymptomatic but can also present with neurological deficits. A 54-year-old male patient presented to us with progressive weakness in both lower limbs for six months. On physical examination and radiological workup, intradural lipoma was diagnosed. Due to progressive neurological deficit, the patient was treated surgically. On 2.5 years of follow-up, the patient showed complete neurological recovery. Intradural lipomas can also present with the neurological deficit at any age and should be managed surgically if the deficit is progressive in nature. Surgical management has a good outcome if done within two years of onset of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059682PMC
March 2021

An extremely rare presentation of AV fistula: Massive destruction of multiple vertebral bodies with paraparesis.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 30;12:123. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Spine Service, Indian Spinal Injuries Center, New Delhi, India.

Background: Spinal ventral epidural arteriovenous fistulas (EDAVFs) are rare and underdiagnosed entities and usually present with benign symptoms such as radiculopathy. To the best of our knowledge, EDAVFs presenting with massive vertebral body destruction have not been reported in the literature.

Case Description: A young male presented with mid back pain for 1 year and weakness of both lower limbs for 3 months. He was clinicoradiologically diagnosed with spinal tuberculosis and started on antitubercular treatment elsewhere. Radiological investigations suggested destruction and collapse of T12 and L1 vertebrae. Prominent flow voids were seen in T9-L2 epidural space, likely prominent epidural vessels. The primary differential diagnoses were spinal tuberculosis and neoplastic etiologies. T9 to L3 surgical stabilization and anterior decompression by pediculectomy of left T12 and L was done. The surgeon encountered massive bleeding at the time of anterior decompression and a vascular etiology was suspected. Biopsy revealed negative results for infection or malignancy. DSA revealed ventral EDAVFs, and hence, transcatheter embolization was performed. He had excellent outcome on assessment at 21 months postoperative follow-up.

Conclusion: Spinal epidural AVFs can rarely present with gross vertebral body destruction and paraparesis. Preoperative radiological assessment with suspicion of spinal epidural AVFs can help to avoid intraoperative difficulties and complications. Timely, management of spinal epidural AVFs can result in excellent outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_875_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053452PMC
March 2021

Severe Form of Bacterial Meningitis After Spine Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2021 Mar 14;13(3):e13877. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

Meningitis after spine surgery is a rare complication. In this report, we aim to discuss the case of a male patient who developed this rare condition after undergoing cervical spine surgery with devastating outcomes. We also engage in a review of the relevant literature. A 17-year-old boy presented with post-traumatic cervical kyphotic deformity with signs of cord compression. He was operated in three stages, all conducted in a single sitting. There was an incidental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, which was primarily repaired. On the fourth postoperative day, the patient developed altered sensorium and seizures. Evaluations for clinical signs of meningitis such as neck rigidity and Kernig's sign were inconclusive. CSF analysis confirmed the diagnosis of meningitis. Thereafter, the patient developed hydrocephalus and intractable infection, for which multiple procedures were done. Finally, we succeeded in controlling the infection, but the patient developed a neurological deficit, which did not resolve even after 2.5 years of follow-up. The clinical signs and symptoms of meningitis after cervical spine surgery are not very clear or suggestive. A strong index of suspicion should be maintained for the early detection of this condition to prevent devastating complications that result from it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043217PMC
March 2021

New Onset Sacroiliac Joint Pain After Transforaminal Interbody Fusion: What Are the Culprits?

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 12:21925682211003852. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Spine Service, 76434Indian Spinal Injuries Center, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

Study Design: A retrospective case-control study.

Objective: Only a few studies have studied the incidence of new-onset SI joint pain following lumbar spine fusion surgery. We aimed to explore the association between new-onset SI joint pain following Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) for degenerative spine disorders and changes in spinopelvic parameters.

Methods: A retrospective review of hospital records and imaging database of a tertiary care institute was done for patients who underwent TLIF from October 2018 to October 2019. The 354 patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria were divided into 2 groups(Group A, new-onset SI joint pain group, n = 34 and Group B, normal controls, n = 320). Symptomatic relief (>70% reduction in the VAS [Visual Analogue Scale] score) after 15 minutes of SI joint injection was considered diagnostic of SI joint pain. Clinical and radiological spinopelvic parameters were compared between the 2 groups.

Results: Patients with postoperative SI joint pain (Group A) had significantly less preoperative and postoperative lumbar lordosis (p < 0.001) compared to the other group. Most of the patients in Group A had a cephalad migration of the apex postoperatively (30/34 patients) whereas majority of patients in group B had either predominant caudal migration (44/320 patients) or no migration of the lumbar apex (272/320 patients).

Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative lumbar lordosis are significantly less and the postoperative pelvic tilt is significantly high in patients with new-onset SI joint pain compared to the control group. The cephalad migration of the lumbar apex is significantly associated with new-onset SI joint pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211003852DOI Listing
April 2021

Osteosynthesis in femoral neck fracture in two patients with ipsilateral lower limb amputation.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 25;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi, Delhi, India.

Femoral neck fracture in lower limb amputees poses treatment problems. The altered biomechanics of the hip in amputees, stump length, associated osteoporosis and difficulty in positioning these patients on the operation table are few of the technical challenges faced by an operating surgeon especially while salvaging the native hip joint. We report a case series of two lower limb amputee patients with fracture neck of femur in whom we salvaged the native hip joint by performing osteosynthesis. We observed satisfactory results of osteosynthesis in both of our patients on follow-up, with both achieving pretrauma ambulatory status in 6-8 weeks postoperatively. We concluded that each lower limb amputee patient with fracture neck of femur should be carefully evaluated on presentation and managed individually. These patients can be positioned and managed by osteosynthesis on a standard operating table or fracture table without requiring any special operating theatre set-up (traction devices).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-239060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006772PMC
March 2021

Letter to the Editor: Clinical Implication of Mid-Range Dynamic Instability in Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

Asian Spine J 2020 Oct 14;14(5):764-765. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Spine Service, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2020.0412.r1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595821PMC
October 2020

Extraosseus Ewing's Sarcoma of the Forearm.

Cureus 2020 Jul 7;12(7):e9051. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

A 22-year-old female presented with painful, progressive swelling of the right forearm for six months. Physical examination revealed a 7 cm x 5 cm firm, tender soft-tissue swelling over the anterior aspect of the right proximal forearm with normal overlying temperature. X-rays showed increased soft tissue shadow but without any bony involvement. Serum alkaline phosphatase, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and leukocyte count were raised. MRI of the right forearm revealed enhancing soft tissue lesion with internal hemorrhagic and necrotic components involving the flexor carpi radialis muscle. Core biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, wide local tumor excision, and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were done. The patient then lost to follow-up and presented again after six months with a fungating mass and neurovascular involvement for which an above-elbow amputation was done. We, through this case report, aim to discuss the clinical and radiological findings, line of management, and the importance of early detection and treatment and a regular follow-up for extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma of the extremity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410401PMC
July 2020

Assessment of Intracellular Delivery Potential of Novel Sustainable Poly(δ-decalactone)-Based Micelles.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Aug 2;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources have attracted much attention in recent years within the biomedical field. Lately, poly(δ-decalactone) based copolymer micelles have emerged as a potential drug delivery carrier material as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based polymers. However, their intracellular drug delivery potential is not yet investigated and therefore, in this work, we report on the synthesis and cellular uptake efficiency of poly(δ-decalactone) based micelles with or without a targeting ligand. Folic acid was chosen as a model targeting ligand and Rhodamine B as a fluorescent tracer to demonstrate the straightforward functionalisation aspect of copolymers. The synthesis of block copolymers was accomplished by a combination of facile ring-opening polymerisation and click chemistry to retain the structure uniformity. The presence of folic acid on the surface of micelles with diameter ~150 nm upsurge the uptake efficiency by 1.6 fold on folate receptor overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells indicating the attainment of targeting using ligand functionality. The drug delivery capability of these carriers was ascertained by using docetaxel as a model drug, whereby the in vitro cytotoxicity of the drug was significantly increased after incorporation in micelles 48 h post incubation. We have also investigated the possible endocytosis route of non-targeted micelles and found that caveolae-mediated endocytosis was the preferred route of uptake. This work strengthens the prospect of using novel bio-based poly(δ-decalactone) micelles as efficient multifunctional drug delivery nanocarriers towards medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465297PMC
August 2020

Evolution of Nanotechnology in Delivering Drugs to Eyes, Skin and Wounds via Topical Route.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Jul 27;13(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad 500037, Telangana, India.

The topical route is the most preferred one for administering drugs to eyes, skin and wounds for reaching enhanced efficacy and to improve patient compliance. Topical administration of drugs via conventional dosage forms such as solutions, creams and so forth to the eyes is associated with very low bioavailability (less than 5%) and hence, we cannot rely on these for delivering drugs to eyes more efficiently. An intravitreal injection is another popular drug delivery regime but is associated with complications like intravitreal hemorrhage, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, and cataracts. The skin has a complex structure that serves as numerous physiological barriers to the entry of exogenous substances. Drug localization is an important aspect of some dermal diseases and requires directed delivery of the active substance to the diseased cells, which is challenging with current approaches. Existing therapies used for wound healing are costly, and they involve long-lasting treatments with 70% chance of recurrence of ulcers. Nanotechnology is a novel and highly potential technology for designing formulations that would improve the efficiency of delivering drugs via the topical route. This review involves a discussion about how nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems have evolved, and their potential in overcoming the natural barriers for delivering drugs to eyes, skin and wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13080167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463474PMC
July 2020

Outcome of Dome Osteotomy With Plate Osteosynthesis for Genu Valgum in Late Adolescents and Young Adults.

Cureus 2020 Apr 29;12(4):e7894. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medicine Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

Aim To evaluate the degree of correction and outcomes after correction of genu valgum deformity using dome osteotomy with plate osteosynthesis in late adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 27 knees in 21 patients underwent correction using dome osteotomy fixed with 3.5-mm low-profile proximal humeral locking system (PHILOS) plate. The functional, clinical, and radiological assessments were performed preoperatively and at six months postoperatively. Functional assessment was performed using the Bostman score, while clinical and radiological assessments were performed by measuring intermalleolar distance, tibiofemoral angle, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, and mechanical axis deviation. All values were compared preoperatively and postoperatively using the paired t-test and Wilcoxon's test. Results The comparison between preoperative and postoperative data was statistically significant (P<0.0001). Twenty patients had an excellent knee score, and one patient had a good score. None had an unsatisfactory score. Conclusions Dome osteotomy fixed with well-contoured, 3.5-mm low-profile PHILOS plate allows deformity correction at the CORA (center of rotation of angulation) of the knee and permits early knee mobilization without significant procedure or implant-related complications with excellent outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255559PMC
April 2020

Neglected Comminuted Fracture of the Capitellum.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7765. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medicine Science and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

Fracture of the capitellum is a rare injury, accounting for about 1% of the fractures around the elbow. We report the case of a young adult with elbow pain and swelling presenting to us three weeks after the injury. Radiographs suggested a comminuted fracture of the capitellum extending medially to the trochlea. Using the anterolateral approach to the elbow, an open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture with screws was done. The procedure had an excellent functional outcome. Through this case report, we aim to highlight the importance of radiographic assessment and decision-making regarding the surgical approach and choice of the implant in the treatment of comminuted capitellar fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243095PMC
April 2020

Extended Curettage and Fibular Grafting in Enchondroma of the Acromion.

Cureus 2020 Apr 11;12(4):e7630. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medicine Science and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

We report the case of a six-year-old male child with progressive pain and swelling of the right shoulder for six months. On examination, there was a 7x7 cm globular, tender swelling with firm consistency over the posterolateral corner of the right shoulder. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion in the acromion process of the scapula. Biopsy showed lobules of hypocellular cartilage separated by fibroconnective stroma suggestive of an enchondroma. Extended curettage and fibular bone grafting of the lesion was done. At one-year follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and had full, painless shoulder range of motion. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published record of an enchondroma of the acromion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213675PMC
April 2020

Giant Cell Tumor of the Calcaneus.

Cureus 2020 Mar 30;12(3):e7467. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Orthopaedics, University College of Medicine Science and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, IND.

A 17-year-old female presented to us with pain and swelling in the right heel. Examination revealed the swelling to be tender, hard and fixed to the calcaneus. Radiographs showed an expansile, lytic lesion of the calcaneus with well-defined margins and no extraosseus spread. A core biopsy was done which showed multinucleated giant cells in a sea of mononuclear stromal cells, suggestive of a giant cell tumour (GCT). Curettage and filling up of the defect with bone cement was done under anaesthesia. The patient was fully ambulatory three months after the surgery. At two-year follow-up, the patient continued to be asymptomatic and radiographs revealed no signs of recurrence. It is important to note that GCT can occur in these rare sites and unusual age groups, and hence requires a good level of awareness of the surgeon and adequate preoperative workup, including biopsy, before proceeding to the definitive treatment of the lesion. Considering its potential local aggressiveness, early intervention is necessary. The patient should be kept under regular follow-up to detect any recurrence or metastasis in early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187992PMC
March 2020

Synthetic polymers from renewable feedstocks: an alternative to fossil-based materials in biomedical applications.

Ther Deliv 2020 05 15;11(5):297-300. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2020-0033DOI Listing
May 2020

Facile methodology of nanoemulsion preparation using oily polymer for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2020 10;10(5):1228-1240

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Aqueous solubility of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a determining factor that has a direct impact on formulation strategies and overall bioavailability. Fabrication of nanoemulsions of poorly soluble drugs is one of the widely utilized approaches to overcome this problem. However, thermodynamic instability and tedious manufacturing processes of nanoemulsions limit their clinical translation. Therefore, this study was focused on circumventing the abovementioned hurdles by utilizing the polymer as an oil phase, instead of conventional oils. The nanoemulsion was prepared via a facile low-energy nanoprecipitation method using renewable poly(δ-decalactone) (PDL), as an oil phase and Pluronic F-68 as surfactant. The prepared nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of size, drug encapsulation efficiency, stability, and toxicity. Five different hydrophobic drugs were utilized to evaluate the drug delivery capability of the PDL nanoemulsion. The prepared nanoemulsions with sizes less than 200 nm were capable to enhance the aqueous solubility of the drugs by 3 to 10 times compared with the well-established Pluronic F-68 micelles. No phase separation or significant changes in size and drug content was observed with PDL nanoemulsions after high-speed centrifugation and 3 months of storage at two different temperatures (20 °C and 50 °C). PDL nanoemulsions were found to be non-heamolytic up to concentrations of 1 mg/mL, and the cell cytotoxicity studies on MDA-MB-231 and MEF cells suggest a concentration and time-dependent toxicity, where the PDL polymer itself induced no cytotoxicity. The results from this study clearly indicate that the PDL polymer has a tremendous potential to be utilized as an oil phase to prepare stable nanoemulsions via a facile methodology, ultimately favouring clinical translations. Graphical abstract TOC graphic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-019-00703-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447668PMC
October 2020

Green Nanotechnology: Advancement in Phytoformulation Research.

Medicines (Basel) 2019 Mar 14;6(1). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

The ultimate goal of any scientific development is to increase well-being and human health. Novel strategies are required for the achievement of safe and effective therapeutic treatments beyond the conventional ones, and society needs new requirements for new technologies, moving towards clean and green technology development. Green nanotechnology is a branch of green technology that utilizes the concepts of green chemistry and green engineering. It reduces the use of energy and fuel by using less material and renewable inputs wherever possible. Green nanotechnology, in phytoformulations, significantly contributes to environmental sustainability through the production of nanomaterials and nanoproducts, without causing harm to human health or the environment. The rationale behind the utilization of plants in nanoparticle formulations is that they are easily available and possess a broad variability of metabolites, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and nucleotides. For instance, gold (Au) nanoparticles have attracted substantial attention for their controllable size, shape, and surface properties. A variety of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have also been synthesized from plant extracts. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles are also important metal oxide nanomaterials that have been synthesized from a number of plant extracts. International and domestic laws, government and private-party programs, regulations and policies are being carefully reviewed and revised to increase their utility and nurture these nanoscale materials for commercialization. Inspiring debates and government initiatives are required to promote the sustainable use of nanoscale products. In this review, we will discuss the potential of the utilization of plant extracts in the advancement of nanotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473607PMC
March 2019

Role of Polymers in 3D Printing Technology for Drug Delivery - An Overview.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(42):4979-4990

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Abo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Background: 3D printing (3DP) is an emerging technique for fabrication of a variety of structures and complex geometries using 3D model data. In 1986, Charles Hull introduced stereolithography technique that took advances to beget new methods of 3D printing such as powder bed fusion, fused deposition modeling (FDM), inkjet printing, and contour crafting (CC). Being advantageous in terms of less waste, freedom of design and automation, 3DP has been evolved to minimize incurred cost for bulk production of customized products at the industrial outset. Due to these reasons, 3DP technology has acquired a significant position in pharmaceutical industries. Numerous polymers have been explored for manufacturing of 3DP based drug delivery systems for patient-customized medication with miniaturized dosage forms.

Method: Published research articles on 3D printed based drug delivery have been thoroughly studied and the polymers used in those studies are summarized in this article.

Results: We have discussed the polymers utilized to fabricate 3DP systems including their processing considerations, and challenges in fabrication of high throughput 3DP based drug delivery systems.

Conclusion: Despite several advantages of 3DP in drug delivery, there are still a few issues that need to be addressed such as lower mechanical properties and anisotropic behavior, which are obstacles to scale up the technology. Polymers as a building material certainly plays crucial role in the final property of the dosage form. It is an effort to bring an assemblage of critical aspects for scientists engaged in 3DP technology to create flexible, complex and personalized dosage forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666181226160040DOI Listing
November 2019

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Emerging Colloidal Nano Drug Delivery Systems.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Oct 18;10(4). Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Abo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are nanocarriers developed as substitute colloidal drug delivery systems parallel to liposomes, lipid emulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, and so forth. Owing to their unique size dependent properties and ability to incorporate drugs, SLNs present an opportunity to build up new therapeutic prototypes for drug delivery and targeting. SLNs hold great potential for attaining the goal of targeted and controlled drug delivery, which currently draws the interest of researchers worldwide. The present review sheds light on different aspects of SLNs including fabrication and characterization techniques, formulation variables, routes of administration, surface modifications, toxicity, and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321253PMC
October 2018

Renewable poly(δ-decalactone) based block copolymer micelles as drug delivery vehicle: and evaluation.

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Mar 1;26(3):358-368. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Abo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Polymers from natural resources are attracting much attention in various fields including drug delivery as green alternatives to fossil fuel based polymers. In this quest, novel block copolymers based on renewable poly(δ-decalactone) (PDL) were evaluated for their drug delivery capabilities and compared with a fossil fuel based polymer i.e. methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL). Using curcumin as a hydrophobic drug model, micelles of PDL block copolymers with different orientation i.e. AB (mPEG-b-PDL), ABA (PDL-b-PEG-b-PDL), ABC (mPEG-b-PDL-b-poly(pentadecalactone) and (mPEG-b-PCL) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The size, drug loading and curcumin stability studies results indicated that mPEG-b-PDL micelles was comparable to its counterpart mPEG-b-PCL micelles towards improved delivery of curcumin. Therefore, mixed micelles using these two copolymers were also evaluated to see any change in size, loading and drug release. Drug release studies proposed that sustained release can be obtained using poly(pentadecalactone) as crystalline core whereas rapid release can be achieved using amorphous PDL core. Further, mPEG-b-PDL micelles were found to be non-haemolytic, up to the concentration of 40 mg/mL. toxicity studies on rats advised low-toxic behaviour of these micelles up to 400 mg/kg dose, as evident by histopathological and biochemical analysis. In summary, it is anticipated that mPEG-b-PDL block copolymer micelles could serve as a renewable alternative for mPEG-b-PCL copolymers in drug delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856948PMC
March 2018

Amphiphilic block copolymers from a renewable ε-decalactone monomer: prediction and characterization of micellar core effects on drug encapsulation and release.

J Mater Chem B 2016 Nov 20;4(44):7119-7129. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Here we describe a methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(ε-decalactone) (mPEG-b-PεDL) copolymer and investigate the potential of the copolymer as a vehicle for solubilisation and sustained release of indomethacin (IND). The indomethacin loading and release from mPEG-b-PεDL micelles (amorphous cores) was compared against methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)(mPEG-b-PCL) micelles (semicrystalline cores). The drug-polymer compatibility was determined through a theoretical approach to predict drug incorporation into hydrated micelles. Polymer micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation and characterised for size, morphology, indomethacin loading and release. All the formulations generated spherical micelles but significantly larger mPEG-b-PεDL micelles were observed compared to mPEG-b-PCL micelles. A higher compatibility of the drug was predicted for PCL cores based on Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) using the Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) approach, but higher measured drug loadings were found in micelles with PεDL cores compared to PCL cores. This we attribute to the higher amorphous content in the PεDL-rich regions which generated higher micellar core volumes. Drug release studies showed that the semicrystalline PCL core was able to release IND over a longer period (80% drug release in 110 h) compared to PεDL core micelles (80% drug release in 72 h).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6tb01839dDOI Listing
November 2016

Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of in vitro toxicity in hepatocytes of linear polyesters with varied aromatic and aliphatic co-monomers.

J Control Release 2016 12 4;244(Pt B):214-228. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG72RD, UK. Electronic address:

Polyesters are extensively used in drug delivery because of their controllable biodegradation properties and perceived favorable cytocompatibility. However, new ester-based materials are continually being sought which can be produced from readily accessible monomers, which can be tuned for drug encapsulation and which retain good cellular compatibilities. In this study, 5 polyesters of similar molar mass were synthesized by reacting 1,10-decanediol with different ratios of succinic acid/phenylsuccinic acid and the effect of the phenyl side-chain group addition on polymer properties relevant to drug delivery was investigated. A polymer with a 70/30 ratio of succinic acid and phenylsuccinic acid was selected based on its ability to encapsulate a model dye in nanoparticle (NP) formulations, and was found to be slowly degradable in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) but more rapidly degraded in the presence of a lipase. The compatibility of NP formulations of this polymer either with or without a Pluronic F68 stabilizing coating was assessed in vitro using the C3A hepatocyte cell line. Cell viability was assessed, at NP concentrations ranging from 4.68-300μgmL 24h post-exposure, using the Alamar Blue, CDFA and Neutral Red assays. C3A cells internalized both coated and uncoated polyester NPs to a similar extent, with uptake observed to increase over time (10-1440min). Although cell viability was >80% at the concentrations tested, in all assays, it was found that a Pluronic F68 coated poly (decanediol-phenylsuccinate-co-succinate) stimulated significant DNA damage driven by an oxidant mechanism, whereas the non-coated polyester analogue and the Pluronic F68 alone had no effect. The results obtained suggest that new polyesters can be synthesized with desirable properties from the materials perspective but formulation with additional excipients requires careful evaluation for drug delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.08.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Development and characterization of triazine based dendrimers for delivery of antitumor agent.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2010 Dec;10(12):8395-404

Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, M.P. 470003, India.

In the present study we developed the novel kind of triazine dendrimers by utilizing differential reactivity of the cyanuric chloride (triazine trichloride) which overcome the limitations associated with the others classes of dendrimers like toxicity, low yield, high synthesis cost etc. Triazine dendrimers were synthesized by divergent method using triazine trichloride as core and diethanolamine as branching unit to avoid the use of protecting group and functional group interconversion up to third generation. These hydroxyl terminated dendrimers were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, ES mass spectroscopy, and by elemental analysis. The yield of pure G3 dendrimers was 63%. This novel dendrimers increases the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic drug Paclitaxel up to 0.562 mg/ml as well as showed control release behavior. Hemolytic and toxicology studies of this dendrimer in mice showed no adverse toxicity to the kidneys and the liver up to 200 mg/kg dose (i.p). Triazine being a hydrophobic compound, the core of this dendrimer is hydrophobic and supposed to easily incorporate the hydrophobic guest while presence of hydroxyl group on periphery increases its water solubility and reduces its toxicity; and thus it is useful in various fields like gene delivery, MRI contrasting agents, vaccines or as solubilization tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2010.3003DOI Listing
December 2010