Publications by authors named "Kuang H Lim"

6 Publications

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Exposure to secondhand smoke among school-going adolescents in Malaysia: Findings from the tobacco and e-cigarettes survey among Malaysian adolescents (TECMA).

Tob Induc Dis 2020 20;18:96. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

Introduction: Many studies have revealed that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) substantially increases the risk of smoking related diseases especially among the vulnerable groups, yet data on the location of SHS exposure among youth in Malaysia are still lacking. The study aims to describe the prevalence and factors associated with SHS exposure at home, outside the home, and inside the school among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

Methods: We derived the data from the TECMA study, which used a cross-sectional study design and multi-stage sampling method to obtain a representative sample of school-going adolescents aged 11-19 years in Malaysia in 2016. Data were collected through a self-administered approach using a pre-validated standard questionnaire. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the data, and results are presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: SHS exposure for the past seven days was higher outside the home (51.2%; 95% CI: 49.2-53.2) compared to at home (37.8%; 95% CI: 35.8-39.9) while 27.3% (95% CI: 25.1-29.5) of school-going adolescents reported exposure to SHS inside the school in the past one month. In the regression analyses, older adolescents, those of Malay and Bumiputra Sarawak ethnicities, adolescents from rural areas and current smokers had higher likelihood of exposure to SHS at home, outside home and inside the school. Our study also found that adolescents who were current smokers had higher odds of being exposed to SHS at home (AOR=2.87; 95% CI: 2.57-3.21), outside the home (AOR=3.46; 95% CI: 3.05-3.92) and in the school (AOR=2.25; 95% CI: 2.01-2.51).

Conclusions: Health promotion measures should target parents/guardians and household members to reduce SHS exposure among adolescents. In addition, smoke-free regulation should be fully enforced in school. Furthermore, more public places should be designated non-smoking areas to reduce SHS exposure and denormalize smoking behavior.
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November 2020

Tobacco use and other aspects related to smoking among school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years in Malaysia: Analysis of three cross-sectional nationally representative surveys in 2003, 2009 and 2016.

Tob Induc Dis 2020 17;18:80. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

Introduction: Periodic surveys on tobacco use patterns and other aspects of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia provide information on the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures implemented. However, such information is limited in Malaysia. We investigated the prevalence of smoking and other related aspects among middle-secondary school students in Malaysia from the years 2003-2016 to fill this gap.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003, GYTS 2009, and the Tobacco and Electronic Cigarette Survey among Malaysia Adolescents (TECMA) 2016. The surveys employed multistage sampling to select representative samples of adolescents attending secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-validated self-administered anonymous questionnaire adopted from the GYTS.

Results: Between 2003 and 2016, major changes occurred in which there were reductions in the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. Reductions were also observed in exposure to SHS in public places and in the home. The proportion of school-going adolescents who support a ban on smoking in public places increased between 2013 to 2016, and there was a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents that were offered 'free' cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. However, there was no difference in the proportion of adolescents who initiated smoking before the age of 10 years and current smokers seeking advice to quit smoking across the time period.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that the smoking policies and measures have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, and access to cigarettes, among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. However, measures to reduce smoking initiation and increase smoking cessation need to be strengthened to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases in Malaysia in the long-term.
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September 2020

Malaysian adolescents' exposure to secondhand smoke in the car of their parents/guardians: A nationwide cross-sectional school-based study.

Tob Induc Dis 2020 12;18:53. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.

Introduction: We investigated the prevalence of children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the car of their parents/guardians and the associated factors.

Methods: A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from the nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents aged 11-19 years in Malaysia. Prevalence rates were computed and chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression were conducted.

Results: Of the participants, 23.3% reported exposure to SHS at least once in the car of their parents/guardians during the last 7 days before the survey. The prevalence and likelihood of SHS exposure were significantly higher in Malays, descendants of natives of Sabah and Sarawak, schools in rural areas, females, and current smokers. However, age group and knowledge on the harmful effects of SHS were not significant after adjusting for confounding effects.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of school-going adolescents were exposed to secondhand smoke in the car of their parents/guardians. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to include health promotion and smoke-free car regulations to be introduced to prevent severe health hazards and to reduce smoking initiation among non-smoking adolescents.
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June 2020

Prevalence and associated factors of ever use of electronic cigarettes: Findings from a hospitals and health clinics study based in Malaysia.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 23;16:55. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute for Health Behavioural Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new smoking devices that have gained popularity recently. However, there is limited evidence on e-cigarette consumption in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors and perception associated with e-cigarette use among those attending government hospitals and health clinics in Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in seven public hospitals and health clinics in Malaysia, which were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from the selected participants. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine the association between sociodemographics and perceptions of e-cigarette use.

Results: Almost three-quarters (73.6%; n=923/1254) of participants were aware of e-cigarettes and 13.2% (n=122/923) reported having ever used e-cigarettes. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (18.1%), smokers (21.4%), and younger age group 18-34 years (30.2%). Ever users showed favourable perceptions towards e-cigarettes compared to non-users (23.3% vs 30.14%, p<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that current smokers, younger age group and those possessing a positive perception towards e-cigarettes were likely to be ever users of e-cigarettes.

Conclusions: The study showed that the awareness level of e-cigarettes was high amongst the population but the prevalence of ever e-cigarette user was moderate. Most of the ever e-cigarette users were male, current smokers, young adults and those with favourable perceptions towards e-cigarettes. Therefore, effective health educational activities regarding safe usage of e-cigarettes targeting those group identified in this study are warranted to reduce the negative outcomes from the use of this product.
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November 2018

Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 26;16:01. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

Introduction: The continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence and its associated factors is an integral part of anti-smoking programmes and valuable for the evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures and policies. This study aimed at determining prevalence of smoking and identifying socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia aged 15 years and over.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 21 445 adults in Malaysia, aged 15 years and over, selected via a stratified, two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a standard validated questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among Malaysians.

Results: The overall prevalence of smoking was 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9-23.8%), with males having a significantly higher prevalence compared to females (43.0%, 95% CI: 41.1-44.6 vs 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). The highest smoking prevalence was observed among other ethnicities (35.7%), those aged 25-44 years (59.3%), and low educational attainment (25.2%). Males, those with lower educational attainment and Malays were significantly associated with smoking.

Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among Malaysians, aged 15 years and over, remains high despite the implementation of several anti-smoking measures over the past decades. Specially tailored anti-smoking policies or measures, particularly targeting males, the Malays, younger adults and those with lower educational attainment, are greatly warranted to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia.
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January 2018

Optimal BMI cut-off values for predicting diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in a multi-ethnic population.

Public Health Nutr 2013 Mar 31;16(3):453-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Institute for Medical Research, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults.

Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors.

Setting: All fourteen states in Malaysia.

Subjects: Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006.

Results: The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.
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March 2013