Publications by authors named "Krzysztof Czajkowski"

89 Publications

Pregnancy after bariatric surgery - a narrative literature review.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2021 Mar 24;16(1):30-37. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of General, Oncological, Metabolic and Thoracic Surgery, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

The purpose of this review was to analyze the literature about pregnancy after bariatric surgery. We searched for available articles on the subject from the last decade (2010 to 2020). The positive impact of bariatric surgery on the level of comorbidities and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes cannot be overrated. Weight loss after bariatric surgery reduces the incidence of obesity-related conditions in pregnancy. A pregnancy in a woman after bariatric surgery should be considered a high-risk pregnancy and taken care of by a multidisciplinary team with appropriate micronutrient and vitamin supplementation provided. Optimum time to conception should be chosen following the international recommendations. Every woman after bariatric surgery should be aware of symptoms of surgical complications and immediately contact their surgeon in case of abdominal pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2020.99281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991924PMC
March 2021

Barley malt-based composition as a galactagogue - a randomized, controlled trial in preterm mothers.

Ginekol Pol 2021 ;92(2):118-125

Department of Neonatology and Intensive Care Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: Delayed or insufficient breast milk production, as well as low milk supply, is still a challenging problem to overcome, particularly in the case of preterm delivery. Herbal galactagogues might be a good way to increase milk supply, however, there is a lack of clinical studies confirming their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to verify the safety and effectiveness as a galactagogue of the unique galactagogue composition based on barley malt with β -glucan and lemon balm.

Material And Methods: The study included 117 mothers of preterm infants randomly divided into the Galactagogue Group given galactagogue and the Placebo Group. A complete data set was obtained for 80 participants, divided equally between two groups. Volume of milk expressed by mothers during the first two weeks after delivery was the primary outcome and safety of the product was the secondary outcome.

Results: Volume of milk recorded on participants' last visit in the Galactagogue Group was significantly higher than in the Placebo Group (95 mL vs 62.5 mL, p = 0.049). The total expressed milk volume during the study was 4209 ± 335 mL in the Placebo Group vs 6036 ± 498 mL (p = 0.003) in the Galactagogue Group.

Conclusions: Supplementation with unique Galactagogue composition was safe and increased milk output which allowed achieving target minimal volume of 500 mL per day in first week of lactation in preterm mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2020.0107DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19 impact on perinatal care: risk factors, clinical manifestation and prophylaxis. Polish experts' opinion for December 2020.

Ginekol Pol 2021 ;92(1):57-63

Department of Newborns' Infectious Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coranovirus-2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) caused the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). Clinical course of the disease presents symptoms mainly from the respiratory system such as: cough, dyspnea and fever, and among some patients, can deteriorate even further to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), eventually leading to death. This outbreak, as well as previous ones (SARS, MERS) pose a significant challenge for health care managers, epidemiologists and physicians. Below we are presenting the clinical profile of the COVID-19 among special group of patients; pregnant women and newborns, who require special clinical management during hospitalization. In the summary of this manuscript, we present practical guidelines for managing pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, labor and care of the newborn of a positive mother, as well as practical guidelines for COVID-19 vaccinations. It is important to stress, that this manuscript is based on information available as of December 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2021.0023DOI Listing
February 2021

A successful vaginal myomectomy of cervical leiomyoma in early pregnancy.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

The prevalence of clinically symptomatic cervical leiomyomas in pregnancy is lower than 0.1%. Surgical intervention is necessary in extremely rare cases and only few are described in the literature. This study presents a case of successful vaginal myomectomy in the 13th week of pregnancy followed by a delivery of a healthy neonate in term by cesarean section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2021.0013DOI Listing
February 2021

Intrauterine growth retardation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - clinical presentation and literature review.

Ginekol Pol 2021 12;92(3):226-229. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Bariatric surgery is associated with a higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and small for gestational age neonates. We present two examples of IUGR after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, both associated with excessive restriction in patients caloric intake, one due to obstetrician's indications and the other resulting from patient's anxiety of weight gain in pregnancy. IUGR was observed accordingly in the 35th and 28th week of pregnancy. The first patient had an urgent cesarean section due to pathological cardiotocography tracings in the 35th week of pregnancy, with the newborn's weight of 1690 g (< 1st percentile). The second patient, admitted in the 28th week with suspected IUGR, had an elective cesarean section in the 36th week, with the newborn's weight of 2095 g (5th percentile). Although malabsorptive mechanisms are known to be involved in the impaired fetal growth after bariatric surgery, patients' and obstetricians' adherence to nutrition and supplementation regimen are of utmost importance. The problem of optimum daily caloric intake, vitamin and micronutrients supplementation in pregnancies after bariatric surgery is presently discussed in the literature. Optimum care and advice for bariatric patients have to be diversified as malabsorptive and restrictive operations lead to changes in metabolism, nutrition and hormonal balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2020.0163DOI Listing
February 2021

Amniotic fluid lactate level as a diagnostic tool for prolonged labour.

J Mother Child 2020 Dec 3. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Prolonged labour can lead to postpartum complications and adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. Measurable parameters can help in the active management of labour, timely diagnosis of dystocia and in the choice of the method of delivery. Progressive uterine contractions are necessary to complete labour successfully. Myometrial fatigue during prolonged labour causes a change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, resulting in an accumulation of intramuscular lactic acid and probably a subsequent increase in amniotic fluid lactate concentration. High amniotic fluid lactate level has been associated with ineffective uterine contractions leading to labour arrest. A considerable number of studies conducted so far indicate that the level of lactate in amniotic fluid may be a new non-invasive diagnostic tool for early prediction of prolonged labour and the need for immediate obstetric intervention. Low amniotic fluid lactate level may facilitate a decision to continue vaginal labour by oxytocin augmentation. A high level of amniotic fluid lactate is associated with surgical obstetric procedures. Measuring amniotic fluid lactate level might simplify the patient's allocation to a group, which will benefit from the administration of oxytocin and to a group that will not benefit from further prolongation of labour. This study aimed to briefly review current knowledge on amniotic fluid lactate concentrations measured using standard biochemical methods during the first stage of labour following normal pregnancy, as a possible diagnostic tool for prolonged labour. For this purpose, PubMed, EMBASE, Medline (1990 to July 2020) trials register and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34763/jmotherandchild.20202403.2027.d-20-00011DOI Listing
December 2020

Far-field signature of sub-wavelength microscopic objects.

Opt Express 2020 Nov;28(24):36206-36218

Information about microscopic objects with features smaller than the diffraction limit is almost entirely lost in a far-field diffraction image but could be partly recovered with data completition techniques. Any such approach critically depends on the level of noise. This new path to superresolution has been recently investigated with use of compressed sensing and machine learning. We demonstrate a two-stage technique based on deconvolution and genetic optimization which enables the recovery of objects with features of 1/10 of the wavelength. We indicate that l1-norm based optimization in the Fourier domain unrelated to sparsity is more robust to noise than its l2-based counterpart. We also introduce an extremely fast general purpose restricted domain calculation method for Fourier transform based iterative algorithms operating on sparse data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.410240DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of maternal characteristics, pregnancy course, and neonatal outcome in preterm births with and without prelabor rupture of membranes.

Ginekol Pol 2020;91(9):528-538

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcome of patients with prelabor rupture of membranes receiving expectant management and giving birth prematurely in comparison to preterm births of patients with intact membranes.

Material And Methods: It was a retrospective cohort study comparing maternal and neonatal outcome in two groups of preterm births. The first group included 299 consecutive singleton preterm births complicated by prelabor rupture of membranes. The second group consisted of 349 consecutive singleton preterm births without prelabor rupture of membranes.

Results: Patients without pPROM underwent Caesarean sections more often than women from the pPROM group (65.3% vs 45.2%; p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences regarding the gestational age during delivery were identified. Lower birth weight was detected in the group with no history of pPROM (p < 0.001). No differences regarding early-onset sepsis were identified and higher percentage of late-onset infections was observed in infants with no history of pPROM (8.9% vs 4.7%; p = 0.04). Pulmonary hypertension was more common in the infants from the pPROM group (4% vs 1.4%; p = 0.049). Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure were more prevalent in cases of no pPROM history - 20% vs 12.7% (p = 0.02) and 40% vs 25.8% (p < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: Development of multiple complications in preterm neonates may be more associated with the management, gestational age at birth, and birth weight than with the occurrence of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2020.0085DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of bariatric surgery on female sexual function: a cross-sectional study.

Sci Rep 2020 07 22;10(1):12138. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Karowa 2 St., 00-315, Warsaw, Poland.

The generally negative impact of obesity on female sexuality is well-established. The possible association between bariatric surgery, weight loss, and female sexuality is much less described. The aim of the study was to analyse the possible association between bariatric surgery and female sexual function. It was a cross-sectional study of 623 patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 1999 and 2017. Patients were recruited on the basis of medical records from the Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw. Patients were invited to complete a questionnaire which consisted of self-designed demographic questions and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The total FSFI score, as well as each subdomain, improved significantly after surgery. The prevalence of low score (< 26.55) was significantly lower after the surgery in comparison to the status prior to the procedure (36.3% vs. 57.5%; p < .001). There were no differences regarding the number of sexually active patients before and after the surgery (75.3% vs. 76.1%; p < .63). There were observed statistically significant, positive correlations between BMI decrease and each subdomain of the FSFI score as well as the total score. Weight loss surgery seems to decrease the risk of sexual dysfunction presence and the advantages are associated with the total BMI loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69176-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376208PMC
July 2020

The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Menstrual Abnormalities-a Cross-Sectional Study.

Obes Surg 2020 Nov 13;30(11):4505-4509. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of General, Oncological, Metabolic and Thoracic Surgery, Military Institute of Medicine, Szaserów 128 St., 04-141, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Obesity is associated with hyperestrogenism along with other hormonal abnormalities affecting the menstrual cycle. The most effective and decisive method of obesity treatment is bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on menstrual cycle, the incidence of menstrual abnormalities, hyperandrogenism manifestation, and contraception use.

Materials And Methods: It was a cross-sectional study of 515 pre-menopausal women who had undergone bariatric surgery between 1999 and 2017 in a bariatric center. Data was collected via anonymous questionnaire, and the questions covered a 1-year period before the surgery and the last year before questionnaire completion.

Results: Before the surgery, 38.6% of the patients reported irregular menstruations in comparison with 25.0% after bariatric surgery (RR = 0.65; 95%CI 0.53-0.79). The mean number of menstruations per year did not differ before and after surgery (10.2 ± 3.9 vs 10.4 ± 3.3; p < .45). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of prolonged menstruations, acne, and hirsutism prevalence. A total of 14.4% of patients before surgery reported estrogen-based contraception use in comparison with 15.0% after the surgery (p < .95). There were no significant differences in the frequency of OC use (11.0% before surgery vs 13.6% 12 months after the surgery vs 11.5% at the moment of survey administration; p < 0.46).

Conclusion: Bariatric surgery improves the regularity of the menstrual cycle in obese women in reproductive age. The lack of any changes in the combined hormonal contraception (CHC) use, especially OC, before and after bariatric surgery may be a result of a possibly low level of contraception counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04840-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524851PMC
November 2020

Effective dipolar polarizability of amorphous arrays of size-dispersed nanoparticles.

Opt Lett 2020 Jun;45(12):3220-3223

Inhomogeneity of nanoparticle size, shape, and distribution is ubiquitous and inherent in fabricated arrays or may be a deliberate attempt to engineer the optical response. It leads to a spread of polarizabilities of interacting elements and phases of scattered light, and quantitative understanding of these effects is important. Focusing on random/amorphous arrays of optical antennas, we combine T-matrix calculations and an analytical approach based on an effective dipolar polarizability within a film of dipoles framework to quantify the spectral response as a function of the particle inhomogeneity and stochastic clustering. The interplay of position-dependent stochastic coupling and size distribution of antennas determines the optical properties of such arrays as a function of mean/standard deviation of diameter and minimum separation. The resonance wavelength, amplitude, and scattering-to-absorption ratio exhibit oscillations around their size-averaged values with periods and amplitudes given by average structural factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.391647DOI Listing
June 2020

Immunohistochemical results and case report of an incidental finding of uterine polypoid adenomyoma after long-time therapy for metrorrhagia.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Jul 11;216(7):152998. Epub 2020 May 11.

II(ND) Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

We present a 25-year-old female woman with a 9-year history of metrorrhagia, in whom a uterine polypoid adenomyoma (UPA) was incidentally detected. Intense nuclear staining in the uterine adenomyoma tissue showed an immunoreaction with BAF250a/ARID1A, Arginase-2 as well as 1LRH-2E1/NR5A2, suggesting a role of these proteins and transcriptional activity of their genes in uterine polypoid adenomyoma development. Neither Nidogen-2 nor SF-1/NR5A1 were expressed in UPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2020.152998DOI Listing
July 2020

The Influence of Bariatric Surgery on Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes-A Case-Control Study.

J Clin Med 2020 May 2;9(5). Epub 2020 May 2.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Karowa 2 St., 00-315 Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Obesity in pregnant women increases the incidence of pregnancy-induced comorbidities and the rate of operative deliveries.

Purpose Of The Study: As bariatric surgery is the reference method of treatment of obesity, we wanted to evaluate its influence on the course of pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.

Material And Methods: Data was collected from 627 female patients after bariatric surgery, of whom 107 had a history of pregnancy after the surgery, and 345 non-bariatric patients who had a delivery at a tertiary perinatal center. Sixty-one cases were matched (1:1) with controls for age, pre-pregnancy BMI and presence of pre-pregnancy comorbidities. The main endpoints were gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), small (SGA) and large for gestational age infants (LGA) and cesarean sections (CS).

Results: Patients after bariatric procedures were significantly less likely to have GDM (19.67%/37.7%; = 0.0433), PIH (11.47%/16.39%; = 0.6072) and preterm delivery (13.11%/37.7%; = 0.0026). The CS rate was higher (57.38%/40.98%; = 0.0987). There was an increased risk of SGA (18.03%/13.11%; = 0.6072) and a decreased risk of LGA (6.56%/16.39%; = 0.146).

Conclusions: Patients after bariatric surgery have a decreased risk of pregnancy-induced comorbidities, preterm deliveries and LGA infants, with an increase in rate of CS and SGA infants compared to general population matched for pre-pregnancy BMI, age and presence of pre-pregnancy comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291074PMC
May 2020

Comparison of HPV Testing and Colposcopy in Detecting Cervical Dysplasia in Patients With Cytological Abnormalities.

In Vivo 2020 May-Jun;34(3):1307-1315

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of HPV testing and colposcopy in patients with abnormal cytology results.

Patients And Methods: A total of 186 women with cytological abnormalities were included in the study. The patients underwent colposcopy examinations and DNA HPV testing of cervical smear with genotyping.

Results: The HPV test was demonstrated to be more sensitive (79.4%) than specific (60.2%) and was more sensitive than colposcopy for detecting CIN changes (79.4% vs. 73.7%). Combined tests achieved a high sensitivity (90.9%) and negative predictive value (96.1%) in detecting patients with CIN2+ and demonstrated the highest positive predictive value (77.3%) for detecting CIN1+. Colposcopy had a very good specificity (83.5%) and positive predictive value (71.2%) in finding CIN1+ cases.

Conclusion: HPV tests showed a higher sensitivity than colposcopy, but colposcopy results presented higher specificity. Combining HPV testing and colposcopy proved to be the most efficient method for detecting CIN lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.11906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279809PMC
February 2021

Spontaneous unilateral exophthalmos after a vaginal delivery.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 Apr 13:1120672120914534. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Spontaneous orbital exophthalmos is an extremely rare incident during a vaginal delivery. In most cases, it is associated with venous malformations and presents spontaneous resolution.

Case Description: We report a case of orbital hematoma after vaginal delivery due to a superior ophthalmic vein rupture. The patient presented proptosis of the right eye and diplopia immediately after the delivery and was diagnosed with unilateral orbital hematoma. The patient was given conservative treatment with complete resolution of clinical symptoms 4 weeks after the delivery.

Conclusion: Increased abdominal pressure during a vaginal delivery may lead to a spontaneous orbital hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672120914534DOI Listing
April 2020

Recommendations for neurological, obstetrical and gynaecological care in women with multiple sclerosis: a statement by a working group convened by the Section of Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology of the Polish Neurological Society.

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2020 21;54(2):125-137. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Medical Faculty, University of Rzeszow, Poland.

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common non-traumatic neurological cause of disability in young adults, affecting women 1-3 times more often than men. Several specific challenges arise from the fact that young women diagnosed with MS often have to make decisions related to treatment and family planning at the same time. These issues are connected with fertility, the impact of pregnancy on disease course, the choice of pregnancy timing, and the optimal mode of disease-modifying therapy in the context of a planned pregnancy, contraception, urological complaints, and sexual dysfunction.

State Of The Art: While MS does not in itself adversely affect fertility, pregnancy or childbirth, pregnancy needs to be carefully planned. This requires the interdisciplinary co-operation of a neurologist, gynaecologist and psychologist. Data on the impact of disease-modifying drugs on foetal development are very limited, and none of these drugs is 100% safe during pregnancy. In the second and third trimesters, MS relapse rate decreases. Unfortunately, it increases within the first 3-6 months after delivery. Adequate disease control should be achieved before pregnancy, as relapse rate in the period of two years preceding pregnancy is one of the strongest predictive factors for post-partum relapses.

Clinical Implications: The following is a statement by a working group of experts in neurology, gynaecology, obstetrics and urology, convened by the Section of Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology of the Polish Neurological Society, addressing the issues that are specific to the female MS population. The aim of this statement is to provide guidance in pregnancy planning and disease management, both during pregnancy and post-partum.

Future Directions: This statement reflects expert opinion and is not intended to be read as guidelines. It rather provides up-to-date information on how to optimise care of female MS patients of childbearing age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/PJNNS.a2020.0015DOI Listing
July 2020

The Present Utility of the Oxytocin Challenge Test-A Single-Center Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jan 3;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, 00-315 Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: The oxytocin challenge test (OCT) used to be one of the most important tools in assessing fetal well-being before ultrasonography became prevalent. We show that, after modifying the classification of the results and the intervention algorithm, OCT can still be a useful tool in present-day obstetrics.

Material And Methods: The study included 318 OCTs performed in patients admitted to our department from 2010 to 2012. A modified classification of test results was introduced, dividing the results in four groups: I-negative, II-positive, III-non-diagnostic and type IV (fetal tachycardia or increased variability). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of OCT in assessing intrauterinal fetal well-being and predicting the necessity for ending the pregnancy.

Results: A significant difference ( < 0.001) in the delivery method and the indications for cesarean sections (CS) was found between negative and positive OCT results. CS indicated by an abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern had to be performed in 40% of cases with positive OCT results, having constituted 84.6% of all CSs in this group. After negative OCTs, 12.8% pregnancies were ended by CS from FHR indications (62.3% of all the indications).

Conclusions: A positive OCT result can be a valuable predictor of an abnormal fetal heart rate pattern after the test and during the delivery, as well as a higher probability of a CS from cardiotocography (CTG) indications, with positive predictive value (PPV) 0.50 and negative predictive value (NPV) 0.85.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020028PMC
January 2020

Ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumor concomitant with simple endometrial hyperplasia: a case study with selected immunohistochemistry.

J Int Med Res 2020 Apr 23;48(4):300060519886984. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

IInd Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.

Ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors are often associated with endometrial hyperplasia or even uterine cancer. Herein, we present a case report of a 65-year-old female patient who had undergone curettage of the uterine cavity several times due to abnormal and irregular uterine bleeding. Owing to recurrent episodes of vaginal bleeding as well as ineffective pharmacological treatment of simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, the patient underwent a laparoscopically-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Owing to an enlarged right ovary with bluish color, intra-operative pathological examination was immediately performed. Surprisingly, an ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumor was diagnosed, and the surgery was extended to pelvic lymphadenectomy and omentectomy. Immunohistochemical staining with selected antibodies (Arginase 2, Nidogen 2, BAF250a/ARID1A, GPR30, SF-1/NR5A, and 1LRH-2E1/NR5A2) was also performed. In conclusion, in cases of recurrent vaginal bleeding concomitant with endometrial hyperplasia, the existence of rare ovarian tumors connected with extensive estrogenic stimulation must be taken into account. Immunostaining with selected antibodies (Arginase 2, Nidogen 2, ARID1A, or GPR30) may help elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms associated with the BAF250a/development of various ovarian/endometrial abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060519886984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607058PMC
April 2020

A nanofabricated plasmonic core-shell-nanoparticle library.

Nanoscale 2019 Nov 30;11(44):21207-21217. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.

Three-layer core-shell-nanoparticle nanoarchitectures exhibit properties not achievable by single-element nanostructures alone and have great potential to enable rationally designed functionality. However, nanofabrication strategies for crafting core-shell-nanoparticle structure arrays on surfaces are widely lacking, despite the potential of basically unlimited material combinations. Here we present a nanofabrication approach that overcomes this limitation. Using it, we produce a library of nanoarchitectures composed of a metal core and an oxide/nitride shell that is decorated with few-nanometer-sized particles with widely different material combinations. This is enabled by resolving a long-standing challenge in this field, namely the ability to grow a shell layer around a nanofabricated core without prior removal of the lithographically patterned mask, and the possibility to subsequently grow smaller metal nanoparticles locally on the shell only in close proximity of the core. Focusing on the application of such nanoarchitectures in plasmonics, we show experimentally and by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations that these structures exhibit significant optical absorption enhancement in small metal nanoparticles grown on the few nanometer thin dielectric shell layer around a plasmonic core, and derive design rules to maximize the effect by the tailored combination of the core and shell materials. We predict that these structures will find application in plasmon-mediated catalysis and nanoplasmonic sensing and spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr08097jDOI Listing
November 2019

Palliative treatment of intestinal obstruction in patients with gynecologic malignancies - single center experience.

Ginekol Pol 2019 ;90(9):496-499

2nd Chair and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: One of the common symptoms in patients with advanced gynecologic tumors is intestinal obstruction. Palliativemanagement may include pharmacological treatment, stenting as well as surgical removal of obstruction cause.Selection of appropriate treatment should be based on careful and individual assessment of advantages, disadvantagesand possible complications. The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of non-invasive treatment in patientswith gynecologic malignancies suffering from intestinal obstruction.

Material And Methods: It was a retrospective analysis of factors associated with primary non-invasive intestinal obstructiontreatment effectiveness. Data were collected from medical records of 17 patients managed and followed-up in a singlegynecologic oncology center due to endometrial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, uterine leiomyosarcoma, and ovarian canceradmitted to the ward because of symptomatic intestinal obstruction. Mean observation time lasted 40.6 months. Non-invasivetreatment included fluid therapy, dexamethasone, buscolysin, mebeverine, ranitidine, simethicone, omeprazole,magnesium sulphate, semi-liquid diet, and parenteral nutrition. Characteristics including age, BMI, comorbidities, oncologicaltreatment, histology type, stage, grade, presence of ascites, location of primary tumor and metastases were analyzed.

Results: The number of obstruction episodes varied from 1 to 5. Mean time between multiple episodes lasted 3.2 months. 5 patientsrequired surgical treatment. For the rest of the patients primary non-invasive treatment was sufficient.

Conclusions: Most cases of bowel obstruction in patients with advanced gynecologic malignancies can be successfullymanaged without invasive treatment. Moreover, non-invasive obstruction management can be applied multiple times incase of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2019.0086DOI Listing
May 2020

Peroxiredoxin-1 as a prognostic factor in patients with ovarian cancer.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2019 Sep 1;26(3):415-419. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Immunology, Cenrtre for Biostructure Research, Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1) belongs to a family of antioxidant enzymes and has proved to be a versatile molecule regulating cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. PRDX1-regulated signaling pathways play an important role in the progression and metastasis of human tumours, especially in breast, esophageal and lung cancers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of PRDX-1 in ovarian cancer tissues, and to test the clinical value of PRDX-1 as a prognostic factor in this malignancy.

Material And Methods: PRDX-1 expression was assessed by automated immunohistochemistry in tumours taken from 55 patients with ovarian cancer during primary surgery. Specimen were formalin-fixed and preserved in paraffin-embedded blocks. The results were correlated with clinicopathological data.

Results: A high expression of PRDX-1 was observed in 20% of cases, and was associated with worse compliance to chemotherapy protocol (P<0.002), worse response to chemotherapy (P<0.04), and higher levels of CA 125 after the 1st line treatment (P<0.004). PRDX-1 positive subjects had a significantly lower 5-year disease-free survival (9.1% vs. 42.6%, P<0.01) and a lower 5-year overall survival (9.1% vs. 56.7%; P<0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that a high expression of PRDX-1 is an independent prognostic factor of poor, overall survival (P<0.002) and a disease-free survival (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Results of the study show that PRDX-1 expression in tumour tissues can be another biomarker of prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/105899DOI Listing
September 2019

Influence of Glycemic Control on Coagulation and Lipid Metabolism in Pregnancies Complicated by Pregestational and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1176:81-88

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Hypercoagulability and altered lipid metabolism, which are observed in normal pregnancy, can be enhanced in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of glycemic control on coagulation and lipid metabolism in women with pregestational (PGDM) and gestational (GDM) diabetes treated with insulin. There were 50 patients with PGDM and 101 patients with GDM enrolled into the study. Serum lipid and coagulation parameters were assessed at 18-22, 25-28, and 31-34 weeks of pregnancy and were compared within the diabetic groups with reference to the effectiveness of glycemia control. We found that poor glycemic control was associated with shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and increased activity of antithrombin III (ATIII) in both diabetic groups and with a higher plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) content level in the GDM group. Poorly controlled PGDM was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol and high-density cholesterol (HDL) in the second trimester and triglycerides in the third trimester. In patients with poorly controlled GDM, a higher concentration of HDL was observed in third trimester, whereas a higher triglyceride level was found in both second and third trimesters. Positive correlations between total cholesterol and APTT and between triglyceride and APTT and ATIII were found in the poorly controlled PGDM group. We conclude that poor glycemic control of diabetic pregnancy impacts both lipid metabolism and the blood coagulation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_382DOI Listing
September 2019

Prognostic value of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

Ginekol Pol 2019 10;90(5):235-241. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key enzyme for fibrin degradation and the proteolytic defense against formation of the thrombotic endothelial deposits. tPA is involved in carcinogenesis but its exact role in tumor biology is not very well understood and a prognostic value of tPA remains ambiguous in different cancers. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value of plasma tPA in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the course of the first line chemotherapy.

Material And Methods: the study covered 60 patients with EOC who underwent the 1st line chemotherapy. Plasma tPA was assessed at onset, after 3 and 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The groups were stratified according to tPA level at onset of chemotherapy (low tPA group < 6.5 mg/L, N = 37 and high tPA group > 6.5 mg/L, N = 23). Survival analysis was repeated for the cut-off of tPA level at 6.5 mg/L and 5.1 mg/L after 3 and 6 cycles.

Results: Only subjects with tPA > 6.5 mg/L at onset of chemotherapy had a significantly lower probability of a 5-year survival (34.8% vs. 72.7%, P < 0.006) and lower chance for disease free survival within 5 years (39.3% vs. 72.7%, P < 0.014). tPA < 6.5 mg/L plasma level evaluated at onset of chemotherapy was an independent marker of better overall survival (RR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.19-0.98) but not disease-free survival.

Conclusions: Plasma tPA may serve as a marker of survival if assessed at onset of the first line chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2019.0043DOI Listing
March 2020

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 in Blood at Onset of Chemotherapy Unfavorably Affects Survival in Primary Ovarian Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1153:47-54

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) belongs to the family of the plasminogen activator system. PAI-1 stimulates fibrinolysis and also promotes tumor progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of blood plasma PAI-1 content in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who start the first-line chemotherapy. PAI-1 content was measured in the blood of 61 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at onset of first-line chemotherapy. The patients were further stratified into the low PAI-1 group (≤20 ng/mL; 33 patients) and the high PAI-1 group (>20 ng/mL; 28 patients). We found that the greater plasma PAI-1 content was associated with a significantly lower probability of a 5-year-long survival compared to that when PAI-I content was lower (45.5% vs. 69.5%, respectively; p = 0.04). However, the risk of cancer recurrence within 5 years failed to differ appreciably. A multivariate analysis revealed that the lower PAI-1 plasma content was an independent factor of longer overall survival (death risk ratio of 0.36, 95%CI = 0.16-0.79; p < 0.01). We conclude that PAI-1 is yet another biomarker of survival in patients with ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_353DOI Listing
September 2019

Single-pixel imaging with sampling distributed over simplex vertices.

Opt Lett 2019 Mar;44(5):1241-1244

We propose a method of reduction of experimental noise in single-pixel imaging by expressing the subsets of sampling patterns as linear combinations of vertices of a multidimensional regular simplex. This method also may be directly extended to complementary sampling. The modified measurement matrix contains nonnegative elements with patterns that may be directly displayed on intensity spatial light modulators. The measurement becomes theoretically independent of the ambient illumination, and in practice becomes more robust to the varying conditions of the experiment. We show how the optimal dimension of the simplex depends on the level of measurement noise. We present experimental results of single-pixel imaging using binarized sampling and real-time reconstruction with the Fourier domain regularized inversion method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.001241DOI Listing
March 2019

Peroxiredoxin-5 is a negative survival predictor in ovarian cancer.

Ginekol Pol 2019 ;90(1):1-6

Department of Immunology, Center for Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) constitute a family of antioxidant enzymes which are also involved in the process of carcinogenesis. They are composed of six identified isoforms (PRDX-1-6) and are supposed to play different roles in tumor progression, depending on type of cancer and member of the PRDX family. The aim of the study was to assess the prog- nostic value of PRDXs in ovarian cancer.

Material And Methods: a dataset of patients with ovarian cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed. Expression of PRDX-1 to 6 mRNA was evaluated in 260 samples. The prognostic value of PRDXs was assessed using the Cox regression model which included the following clinical and pathological data: age, clinical stage, tumor grade, and residual disease.

Results: Within the PRDXs family, only higher expression of PRDX-5 was associated with worse overall survival both, in unselected patients and > 50-year-olds. PRDX-5 expression and residual disease were independent negative prognostic factors of patient survival.

Conclusions: PRDX-5 is a negative predictor of survival in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2019.0001DOI Listing
January 2020

Effective Optical Properties of Inhomogeneously Distributed Nanoobjects in Strong Field Gradients of Nanoplasmonic Sensors.

Plasmonics 2018 28;13(6):2423-2434. Epub 2018 May 28.

1Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.

Accurate and efficient modeling of discontinuous, randomly distributed entities is a computationally challenging task, especially in the presence of large and inhomogeneous electric near-fields of plasmons. Simultaneously, the anisotropy of sensed entities and their overlap with inhomogeneous fields means that typical effective medium approaches may fail at describing their optical properties. Here, we extend the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to overcome this limitation by introducing a gradient within the effective medium description of inhomogeneous nanoparticle layers. The effective medium layer is divided into slices with a varying volume fraction of the inclusions and, consequently, a spatially varying effective permittivity. This preserves the interplay between an anisotropic particle distribution and an inhomogeneous electric field and enables more accurate predictions than with a single effective layer. We demonstrate the usefulness of the gradient effective medium in FDTD modeling of indirect plasmonic sensing of nanoparticle sintering. First of all, it yields accurate results significantly faster than with explicitly modeled nanoparticles. Moreover, by employing the gradient effective medium approach, we prove that the detected signal is proportional to not only the nanoparticle size but also its size dispersion and potentially shape. This implies that the simple volume fraction parameter is insufficient to properly homogenize these types of nanoparticle layers and that in order to quantify optically the state of the layer more than one independent measurement should be carried out. These findings extend beyond nanoparticle sintering and could be useful in analysis of average signals in both plasmonic and dielectric systems to unveil dynamic changes in exosomes or polymer brushes, phase changes of nanoparticles, or quantifying light absorption in plasmon assisted catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11468-018-0769-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280852PMC
May 2018

Real-time single-pixel video imaging with Fourier domain regularization.

Opt Express 2018 Aug;26(16):20009-20022

We present a closed-form image reconstruction method for single-pixel imaging based on the generalized inverse of the measurement matrix. Its numerical cost scales proportionally with the number of measured samples. Regularization of the inverse problem is obtained by minimizing the norms of the convolution between the reconstructed image and a set of spatial filters. The final reconstruction formula can be expressed in terms of matrix pseudoinverse. At high compression, this approach is an interesting alternative to the methods of compressive sensing based on l1-norm optimization, which are too slow for real-time applications. For instance, we demonstrate experimental single-pixel detection with real-time reconstruction obtained in parallel with measurement at a frame rate of 11 Hz for highly compressive measurements with a resolution of 256 × 256. To this end, we preselect the sampling functions to match the average spectrum obtained with an image database. The sampling functions are selected from the Walsh-Hadamard basis, from the discrete cosine basis, or from a subset of Morlet wavelets convolved with white noise. We show that by incorporating the quadratic criterion into the closed-form reconstruction formula, we can use binary rather than continuous sampling and reach similar reconstruction quality as is obtained by minimizing the total variation. This makes it possible to use cosine- or Morlet-based sampling with digital micromirror devices without advanced binarization methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.020009DOI Listing
August 2018