Publications by authors named "Krystal Alligood"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synthesis and stereochemical effects of pyrrolidinyl-acetylenic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines as EGFR and ErbB-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Jan 13;19(1):21-6. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Department of Oncology Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

A novel class of pyrrolidinyl-acetyleneic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines has been identified which potently inhibit the EGFR and ErbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinases. Synthetic modifications of the pyrrolidine carbamate moiety result in a range of effects on enzyme and cellular potency. In addition, the impact of the absolute stereochemical configuration on cellular potency and oral mouse pharmacokinetics is described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.11.023DOI Listing
January 2009

Impact of common epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 variants on receptor activity and inhibition by lapatinib.

Cancer Res 2008 Jan;68(2):571-9

Department of Translational Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-associated mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and HER2 (ErbB2) on interactions with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib. Biochemical studies show that commonly observed variants of EGFR [G719C, G719S, L858R, L861Q, and Delta746-750 (del15)] are enzyme activating, increasing the tyrosine kinase V(max) and increasing the K(m)((app)) for ATP. The point mutations G719C and L861Q had minor effects on lapatinib K(i)s, whereas EGFR mutations L858R and del15 had a higher K(i) for lapatinib than wild-type EGFR. Structural analysis of wild-type EGFR-lapatinib complexes and modeling of the EGFR mutants were consistent with these data, suggesting that loss of structural flexibility and possible stabilization of the active-like conformation could interfere with lapatinib binding, particularly to the EGFR deletion mutants. Furthermore, EGFR deletion mutants were relatively resistant to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation in recombinant cells expressing the variants, whereas EGFR point mutations had a modest or no effect. Of note, EGFR T790M, a receptor variant found in patients with gefitinib-resistant NSCLC, was also resistant to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation. Two HER2 insertional variants found in NSCLC were less sensitive to lapatinib inhibition than two HER2 point mutants. The effects of lapatinib on the proliferation of human NSCLC tumor cell lines expressing wild-type or variant EGFR and HER2 cannot be explained solely on the basis of the biochemical activity or receptor autophosphorylation in recombinant cells. These data suggest that cell line genetic heterogeneity and/or multiple determinants modulate the role played by EGFR/HER2 in regulating cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2404DOI Listing
January 2008

Delineation of molecular mechanisms of sensitivity to lapatinib in breast cancer cell lines using global gene expression profiles.

Mol Cancer Ther 2007 May;6(5):1629-40

Department of Genomic and Proteomic Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

Lapatinib (GW572016) is a small-molecule dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1) and ErbB2 receptor kinase activities currently in phase III clinical trials. We used phosphoprotein and microarray analyses to carry out targeted pathway studies of phosphorylation and gene expression changes in human breast cancer cell lines in the presence or absence of lapatinib. Studies were done in four breast cancer cell lines, two of which were responsive and two of which were nonresponsive to lapatinib. Responsive cell lines, BT474 and SKBr3, constitutively overexpress ErbB2 and show an IC(50) of 25 or 32 nmol/L for lapatinib, respectively. In contrast, nonresponsive MDA-MB-468 and T47D cells expressed a low basal level of ErbB2 and showed IC(50) values in the micromolar range. Cells responsive to lapatinib exhibited strong differential effects on multiple genes in the AKT pathway. After 12 h of exposure to 1.0 micromol/L of lapatinib, AKT1, MAPK9, HSPCA, IRAK1, and CCND1 transcripts were down-regulated 7- to 25-fold in responsive BT474 and SKBr3 cells. In contrast, lapatinib weakly down-regulated the AKT pathway in nonresponsive breast cancer cell lines (<5-fold down-regulation of most genes in the pathway). Furthermore, the proapoptotic gene FOXO3A, which is negatively regulated by AKT, was up-regulated 7- and 25-fold in lapatinib-responsive SKBr3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Phosphorylated Akt and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO3A also decreased in responsive breast cancer cell lines exposed to lapatinib. Gene expression profiling also revealed that lapatinib stimulated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and modulated the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, glycolysis, and fatty acid metabolism. In BT474 and T47D cells, which expressed moderate basal levels of the estrogen and progesterone receptors, 1.0 micromol/L of lapatinib induced expression by 7- to 11-fold. These data provide insight into the mechanism of action of lapatinib in breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0399DOI Listing
May 2007

Alkynyl pyrimidines as dual EGFR/ErbB2 kinase inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006 May 17;16(9):2419-22. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

GlaxoSmithKline, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA.

Anilinoalkynylpyrimidines were prepared and evaluated as dual EGFR/ErbB2 kinase inhibitors. A preference was found for substituted phenyl and heteroaromatic rings attached to the alkyne. In addition, the presence of a potential hydrogen bond donor appended to this ring was favored. Selected molecules in the series demonstrated some activity against human tumor cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.01.111DOI Listing
May 2006

A unique structure for epidermal growth factor receptor bound to GW572016 (Lapatinib): relationships among protein conformation, inhibitor off-rate, and receptor activity in tumor cells.

Cancer Res 2004 Sep;64(18):6652-9

Department of Computational, Analytical and Structural Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

GW572016 (Lapatinib) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in clinical development for cancer that is a potent dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB-1) and ErbB-2. We determined the crystal structure of EGFR bound to GW572016. The compound is bound to an inactive-like conformation of EGFR that is very different from the active-like structure bound by the selective EGFR inhibitor OSI-774 (Tarceva) described previously. Surprisingly, we found that GW572016 has a very slow off-rate from the purified intracellular domains of EGFR and ErbB-2 compared with OSI-774 and another EGFR selective inhibitor, ZD-1839 (Iressa). Treatment of tumor cells with these inhibitors results in down-regulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. We evaluated the duration of the drug effect after washing away free compound and found that the rate of recovery of receptor phosphorylation in the tumor cells reflected the inhibitor off-rate from the purified intracellular domain. The slow off-rate of GW572016 correlates with a prolonged down-regulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in tumor cells. The differences in the off-rates of these drugs and the ability of GW572016 to inhibit ErbB-2 can be explained by the enzyme-inhibitor structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1168DOI Listing
September 2004

Anti-tumor activity of GW572016: a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks EGF activation of EGFR/erbB2 and downstream Erk1/2 and AKT pathways.

Oncogene 2002 Sep;21(41):6255-63

Department of Discovery Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, NC 27709-3398, USA.

Dual EGFR/erbB2 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic strategy for epithelial tumors, as ligand-induced erbB2/EGFR heterodimerization triggers potent proliferative and survival signals. Here we show that a small molecule, GW572016, potently inhibits both EGFR and erbB2 tyrosine kinases leading to growth arrest and/or apoptosis in EGFR and erbB2-dependent tumor cell lines. GW572016 markedly reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and erbB2, and inhibited activation of Erk1/2 and AKT, downstream effectors of proliferation and cell survival, respectively. Complete inhibition of activated AKT in erbB2 overexpressing cells correlated with a 23-fold increase in apoptosis compared with vehicle controls. EGF, often elevated in cancer patients, did not reverse the inhibitory effects of GW572016. These observations were reproduced in vivo, where GW572016 treatment inhibited activation of EGFR, erbB2, Erk1/2 and AKT in human tumor xenografts. Erk1/2 and AKT represent potential biomarkers to assess the clinical activity of GW572016. Inhibition of activated AKT in EGFR or erbB2-dependent tumors by GW572016 may lead to tumor regressions when used as a monotherapy, or may enhance the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapeutics, since constitutive activation of AKT has been linked to chemo-resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205794DOI Listing
September 2002

Comparison of the biochemical and kinetic properties of the type 1 receptor tyrosine kinase intracellular domains. Demonstration of differential sensitivity to kinase inhibitors.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jan 5;277(2):1576-85. Epub 2001 Nov 5.

Department of Systems Research, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB-2, and ErbB-4 are members of the type 1 receptor tyrosine kinase family. Overexpression of these receptors, especially ErbB-2 and EGFR, has been implicated in multiple forms of cancer. Inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity are being evaluated clinically for cancer therapy. The potency and selectivity of these inhibitors may affect the efficacy and toxicity of therapy. Here we describe the expression, purification, and biochemical comparison of EGFR, ErbB-2, and ErbB-4 intracellular domains. Despite their high degree of sequence homology, the three enzymes have significantly different catalytic properties and substrate kinetics. For example, the catalytic activity of ErbB-2 is less stable than that of EGFR. ErbB-2 uses ATP-Mg as a substrate inefficiently compared with EGFR and ErbB-4. The three enzymes have very similar substrate preferences for three optimized peptide substrates, but differences in substrate synergies were observed. We have used the biochemical and kinetic parameters determined from these studies to develop an assay system that accurately measures inhibitor potency and selectivity between the type 1 receptor family. We report that the selectivity profile of molecules in the 4-anilinoquinazoline series can be modified through specific aniline substitutions. Moreover, these compounds have activity in whole cells that reflect the potency and selectivity of target inhibition determined with this assay system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M105907200DOI Listing
January 2002