Publications by authors named "Kristina W Olsen"

2 Publications

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Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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August 2021

Identification of a unique epigenetic profile in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

Fertil Steril 2021 03 4;115(3):732-741. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To investigate whether epigenetic profiles of mural granulosa cells (MGC) and leukocytes from women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from those of women with normal or high ovarian reserve.

Design: Prospectively collected material from a multicenter cohort of women undergoing fertility treatment.

Setting: Private and university-based facilities for clinical services and research.

Patient(s): One hundred and nineteen women of various ages and ovarian reserve status (antimüllerian hormone level) who provided blood samples and MGC.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Measures of epigenetic aging rates from whole-genome methylation array data: DNA methylation variability, age acceleration, DNA methylation telomere length estimator (DNAmTL), and accumulation of epimutations.

Result(s): Comparison of DOR or high ovarian reserve samples to controls (normal ovarian reserve) showed differential methylation variability between DOR and normal samples at 4,199 CpGs in MGC, and 447 between high and normal (false-discovery rate < 0.05). Variable sites in MGC from DOR were enriched in regions marked with the repressive histone modification H3K27me3, and also included genes involved in folliculogenesis, such as insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) and antimüllerian hormone (AMH). Regardless of ovarian reserve, very few signals were detected in leukocytes, and no overlaps with those in MGC were found. Furthermore, we found a higher number of epimutations in MGC from women with DOR (Kruskal-Wallis test, difference in mean = 3,485).

Conclusion(s): The somatic cells of human ovarian follicles have a distinctive epigenetic profile in women with DOR. A high frequency of epimutations suggests premature aging. Ovarian reserve status was not reflected in the leukocyte epigenetic profile.
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March 2021