Publications by authors named "Kristina Harris Jackson"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intrauterine Transfer of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Mother-Infant Dyads as Analyzed at Time of Delivery.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 19;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for fetal development, and intrauterine transfer is the only supply of PUFAs to the fetus. The prevailing theory of gestational nutrient transfer is that certain nutrients (including PUFAs) may have prioritized transport across the placenta. Numerous studies have identified correlations between maternal and infant fatty acid concentrations; however, little is known about what role maternal PUFA status may play in differential intrauterine nutrient transfer. Twenty mother-infant dyads were enrolled at delivery for collection of maternal and umbilical cord blood, and placental tissue samples. Plasma concentrations of PUFAs were assessed using gas chromatography (GC-FID). Intrauterine transfer percentages for each fatty acid were calculated as follows: ((cord blood fatty acid level/maternal blood fatty acid level) × 100). Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare transfer percentages between maternal fatty acid tertile groups. A -value < 0.05 was considered significant. There were statistically significant differences in intrauterine transfer percentages of arachidonic acid (AA) (64% vs. 65% vs. 45%, = 0.02), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (41% vs. 19% vs. 17%, = 0.03), and total fatty acids (TFA) (27% vs. 26% vs. 20%, = 0.05) between maternal plasma fatty acid tertiles. Intrauterine transfer percentages of AA, EPA, and TFA were highest in the lowest tertile of respective maternal fatty acid concentration. These findings may indicate that fatty acid transfer to the fetus is prioritized during gestation even during periods of maternal nutritional inadequacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003544PMC
March 2021

Baseline red blood cell and breast milk DHA levels affect responses to standard dose of DHA in lactating women on a controlled feeding diet.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 03 12;166:102248. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 57105, USA; Fatty Acid Research Institute, Sioux Falls, SD, 57105, USA.

Background: The importance of providing the newborn infant with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from breast milk is well established. However, women in the United States, on average, have breast milk DHA levels of 0.20%, which is below the worldwide average (and proposed target) of >0.32%. Additionally, the relationship between maternal red blood cell (RBC) and breast milk DHA levels may provide insight into the sufficiency of DHA recommendations during lactation. Whether the standard recommendation of at least 200 mg/day of supplemental DHA during lactation is sufficient for most women to achieve a desirable RBC and breast milk DHA status is unknown.

Methods: Lactating women (n = 27) at about 5 weeks postpartum were enrolled in a 10-12 week controlled feeding study that included randomization to 480 or 930 mg choline/d (diet plus supplementation). As part of the intervention, all participants were required to consume a 200 mg/d of microalgal DHA. RBC and breast milk DHA levels were measured by capillary gas chromatography in an exploratory analysis.

Results: Median RBC DHA was 5.0% (95% CI: 4.3, 5.5) at baseline and 5.1% (4.6, 5.4) after 10 weeks of supplementation (P = 0.6). DHA as a percent of breast milk fatty acids increased from 0.19% (0.18, 0.33) to 0.34% (0.27, 0.38) after supplementation (P<0.05). The proportion of women meeting the target RBC DHA level of >5% was unchanged (52% at baseline and week 10). The proportion of women achieving a breast milk DHA level of >0.32% approximately doubled from 30% to 56% (p = 0.06). Baseline RBC and breast milk DHA levels affected their responses to supplementation. Those with baseline RBC and breast milk DHA levels above the median (5% and 0.19%, respectively) experienced no change or a slight decrease in levels, while those below the median had a significant increase. Choline supplementation did not significantly influence final RBC or breast milk DHA levels.

Conclusions: On average, the standard prenatal DHA dose of 200 mg/d did not increase RBC DHA but did increase breastmilk DHA over 10 weeks in a cohort of lactating women in a controlled-feeding study. Baseline DHA levels in RBC and breast milk affected the response to DHA supplementation, with lower levels being associated with a greater increase and higher levels with no change or a slight decrease. Additional larger, dose-response DHA trials accounting for usual intakes and baseline DHA status are needed to determine how to best achieve target breast milk DHA levels and to identify additional modifiers of the variable breast milk DHA response to maternal DHA supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102248DOI Listing
March 2021

Parallel declines in erythrocyte trans fatty acids and US fatal ischemic heart disease rates.

Nutr Res 2019 11 30;71:111-114. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC. Sioux Falls, SD, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USA. Electronic address:

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of mortality in the United States. There is substantial evidence that a sustained intake of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of fatal IHD. This has led many regulatory agencies to pressure dietary oil producers to remove IP-TFA from their products. That this has resulted in lower blood levels of IP-TFA in the United States is clear, but whether this has been accompanied by a reduction in the incidence of fatal IHD is unknown. To test the hypothesis that declining IP-TFA levels are associated with declining rates of fatal IHD, we compared the IP-TFA levels in red blood cells (RBC) analyzed in our laboratory between 2009 and 2016 (n = 53 194) with yearly US-specific IHD mortality rates. We found that decreasing RBC IP-TFA levels were strongly correlated with decreasing rates of fatal IHD (R = 0.9552, P < .0001). Recognizing the limitations of observational studies in addressing causation questions, our findings nevertheless support our hypothesis and suggest that efforts to remove IP-TFA from the food supply in the United States may be having the desired effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2019.09.010DOI Listing
November 2019

Recent Clinical Trials Shed New Light on the Cardiovascular Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2019 Jul-Sep;15(3):171-178

OMEGA QUANT ANALYTICS, LLC, SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA.

Three recent clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of marine omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease end points. In the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), 840 mg/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) resulted in a 28% reduced risk for heart attacks, 50% reduced risk for fatal heart attacks, and 17% reduced risk for total coronary heart disease events. In the ASCEND trial (A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes), cardiovascular disease death was significantly reduced by 19% with 840 mg/d of EPA and DHA. However, the primary composite end points were not significantly reduced in either study. In REDUCE-IT (the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial), there was a 25% decrease in the primary end point of major cardiovascular events with 4 g/d EPA (icosapent ethyl) in patients with elevated triglycerides (135-499 mg/dL) who also were taking a statin drug. For clinical practice, we now have compelling evidence of the cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. The findings of REDUCE-IT provide a strong rationale for prescribing icosapent ethyl for patients with hypertriglyceridemia who are on a statin. For primary prevention, the goal is to increase the population intake of omega-3 fatty acids to levels currently recommended, which translates to consuming at least one to two servings of fish/seafood per week. For individuals who prefer taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements, recent findings from clinical trials support the benefits for primary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14797/mdcj-15-3-171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822654PMC
January 2020

Predicting the effects of supplemental EPA and DHA on the omega-3 index.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 10;110(4):1034-1040

OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Background: Supplemental long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (EPA and DHA) raise erythrocyte EPA + DHA [omega-3 index (O3I)] concentrations, but the magnitude or variability of this effect is unclear.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to model the effects of supplemental EPA + DHA on the O3I.

Methods: Deidentified data from 1422 individuals from 14 published n-3 intervention trials were included. Variables considered included dose, baseline O3I, sex, age, weight, height, chemical form [ethyl ester (EE) compared with triglyceride (TG)], and duration of treatment. The O3I was measured by the same method in all included studies. Variables were selected by stepwise regression using the Bayesian information criterion.

Results: Individuals supplemented with EPA + DHA (n = 846) took a mean ± SD of 1983 ± 1297 mg/d, and the placebo controls (n = 576) took none. The mean duration of supplementation was 13.6 ± 6.0 wk. The O3I increased from 4.9% ± 1.7% to 8.1% ± 2.7% in the supplemented individuals ( P < 0.0001). The final model included dose, baseline O3I, and chemical formulation type (EE or TG), and these explained 62% of the variance in response (P < 0.0001). The model predicted that the final O3I (and 95% CI) for a population like this, with a baseline concentration of 4.9%, given 850 mg/d of EPA + DHA EE would be ∼6.5% (95% CI: 6.3%, 6.7%). Gram for gram, TG-based supplements increased the O3I by about 1 percentage point more than EE products.

Conclusions: Of the factors tested, only baseline O3I, dose, and chemical formulation were significant predictors of O3I response to supplementation. The model developed here can be used by researchers to help estimate the O3I response to a given EPA + DHA dose and chemical form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz161DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparing the serum TAG response to high-dose supplementation of either DHA or EPA among individuals with increased cardiovascular risk: the ComparED study.

Br J Nutr 2019 06 11;121(11):1223-1234. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Institut sur la nutrition et les aliments fonctionnels (INAF), Pavillon des Services,Université Laval,Québec,Canada.

Studies have shown that the reduction in serum TAG concentrations with long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation is highly variable among individuals. The objectives of the present study were to compare the proportions of individuals whose TAG concentrations lowered after high-dose DHA and EPA, and to identify the predictors of response to both modalities. In a double-blind, controlled, crossover study, 154 men and women were randomised to three supplemented phases of 10 weeks each: (1) 2·7 g/d of DHA, (2) 2·7 g/d of EPA and (3) 3 g/d of maize oil, separated by 9-week washouts. As secondary analyses, the mean intra-individual variation in TAG was calculated using the standard deviation from the mean of four off-treatment samples. The response remained within the intra-individual variation (±0·25 mmol/l) in 47 and 57 % of participants after DHA and EPA, respectively. Although there was a greater proportion of participants with a reduction >0·25 mmol/l after DHA than after EPA (45 υ. 32 %; P 0·25 mmol/l after both DHA and EPA had higher non-HDL-cholesterol, TAG and insulin concentrations compared with other responders at baseline (all P < 0·05). In conclusion, supplementation with 2·7 g/d DHA or EPA had no meaningful effect on TAG concentrations in a large proportion of individuals with normal mean TAG concentrations at baseline. Although DHA lowered TAG in a greater proportion of individuals compared with EPA, the magnitude of TAG lowering among them was similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519000552DOI Listing
June 2019

Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2017 May 31;120:8-14. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Institut sur la nutrition et les aliments fonctionnels (INAF), Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation.

Methods: In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures.

Results: The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, P<0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+3.3% compared with control, P<0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P<0.0001) while EPA increased (+2.5%, P<0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537).

Conclusions: The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates to long-term cardiovascular risk needs to be investigated in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2017.03.008DOI Listing
May 2017

Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA.

Int Breastfeed J 2016 28;12. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Sanford Research, Children's Health Research Center, 2301 E. 60th Street North, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 USA.

Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content.

Methods: New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: At baseline, breast milk DHA content ( = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements ( = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%,  < 0.0001). In a subset of 60 mothers who submitted a second sample, median breast milk DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% ( < 0.01).

Conclusions: Findings suggest that providing nursing mothers with their breast milk DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13006-016-0099-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5273852PMC
January 2017

Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2016 12 28;21(3-4):131-138. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Center for Human Nutrition | Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Mail Stop F-8305; RC1 North, 12800 E. 19th Avenue P18-5402 M, Aurora, CO, 80045-2537, USA.

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying ~50 μL of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10911-016-9365-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161681PMC
December 2016

Analysis of breast milk fatty acid composition using dried milk samples.

Int Breastfeed J 2016 25;11. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

OmegaQuant Analytics LLC, Sioux Falls, SD USA ; Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD USA.

Background: The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to help overcome these obstacles. Milk FA were measured by gas chromatography and reported as percent of total FA; the FA of primary interest in this study were DHA and industrially produced trans FA (iTFA). Experiments were carried out using pooled milk samples from US (n = 5) and Malawian women (n = 50). Experiments compared liquid vs. DMS samples (n = 55), assessed stability of FA composition under different storage conditions (n = 5), and compared the results from two different labs using the same methods (n = 5).

Results: Both % DHA and % iTFA levels in liquid and DMS samples were strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively, P < 0.0001). The % DHA in DMS samples was stable for up to four weeks at room temperature and up to three years at -80 °C; only slight deviations from the acceptable range of variability (±15 %) occurred in the 4 °C and -20 °C conditions for % DHA. The % iTFA was stable under all conditions. All % DHA and % iTFA were within 15 % of the referent when analyzed in two laboratories.

Conclusions: Valid FA composition values can be obtained from DMS samples using this robust collection and transport system which should facilitate studies of the role of milk FA composition in infant development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13006-016-0060-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4727292PMC
January 2016

Should there be a target level of docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2016 Mar;19(2):92-6

aOmegaQuant Analytics, LLC bSanford School of Medicine - University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article examines the evidence for and against establishing a target level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk.

Recent Findings: Two target levels for milk DHA have been recently proposed. One (∼0.3% of milk fatty acids) was based on milk DHA levels achieved in women consuming the amount of DHA recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for pregnant and lactating women (at least 200 mg DHA/day). Another (∼1.0%) was based on biomarker studies of populations with differing lifelong intakes of fish. Populations or research cohorts with milk DHA levels of 1.0% are associated with intakes that allow both the mother and infant to maintain relatively high DHA levels throughout lactation. Lower milk DHA levels may signal suboptimal maternal stores and possibly suboptimal infant intakes.

Summary: Based on the current data, a reasonable milk DHA target appears to be approximately 0.3%, which is about the worldwide average. Although this may not be the 'optimal' level (which remains to be defined), it is clearly an improvement over the currently low milk DHA levels (∼0.2%) seen in many Western populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000251DOI Listing
March 2016

Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2015 Oct 9;102(4):757-70. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and

Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein.

Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria.

Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria.

Results: All groups achieved ∼5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P < 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P < 0.01; between diets, P = NS). After WM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80-90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50-60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary patterns that emphasize either animal or plant protein improve MetS criteria similarly. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00937638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.104026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4588738PMC
October 2015

Higher Intake of PUFAs Is Associated with Lower Total and Visceral Adiposity and Higher Lean Mass in a Racially Diverse Sample of Children.

J Nutr 2015 Sep 12;145(9):2146-52. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Nutrition Sciences and the Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with protection from obesity-related phenotypes in adults; however, the relation between reported intake of PUFAs with body-composition outcomes in children remains unknown.

Objective: Our objective was to examine how self-reported intakes of PUFAs, including total, n-6 (ω-6), and n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs and ratios of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and PUFAs to saturated fatty acids (SFAs), are associated with measures of adiposity and lean mass (LM) in children. We hypothesized that higher self-reported intakes of PUFAs and the ratio of PUFAs to SFAs would be positively associated with LM and negatively associated with total adiposity.

Methods: Body composition and dietary intake were measured in a racially diverse sample of 311 children (39% European American, 34% African American, and 27% Hispanic American) aged 7-12 y. Body composition and abdominal fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scans, respectively. Self-reported dietary intakes (including total PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and SFAs) were assessed by using two 24-h recalls. Independent-sample t tests and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted.

Results: Total PUFA intake was positively associated with LM (P = 0.049) and negatively associated with percentage of body fat (%BF; P = 0.033) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT; P = 0.022). A higher ratio of PUFAs to SFAs was associated with higher LM (P = 0.030) and lower %BF (P = 0.028) and IAAT (P = 0.048). Intakes of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were positively associated with LM (P = 0.017 and P = 0.021, respectively), and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs was negatively associated with IAAT (P = 0.014). All results were independent of biological, environmental, and genetic covariates.

Conclusions: Our results show that a higher self-reported intake of PUFAs and a higher ratio of PUFAs to SFAs are positively associated with LM and negatively associated with visceral adiposity and %BF in a healthy cohort of racially diverse children aged 7-12 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726778.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.212365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548162PMC
September 2015

Effects of whole and refined grains in a weight-loss diet on markers of metabolic syndrome in individuals with increased waist circumference: a randomized controlled-feeding trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2014 Aug 18;100(2):577-86. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

From the Departments of Nutritional Sciences (KHJ, SGW, AMH, JAG, and PMK-E), Biobehavioral Health (SGW), and Veterinary and Biomedical Science (JPVH); the Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics (JPVH and PMK-E); and the Social, Life, and Engineering Sciences Imaging Center (SKL), Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; the Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, General Mills Inc, Minneapolis, MN (SSJ); the Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland (ABR); the Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden (ABR); the Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia (AMH); and the Robinson Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia (JAG).

Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS.

Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals with or at risk of MetS.

Design: A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel study was conducted in 50 overweight and obese individuals with increased waist circumference and one or more other MetS criteria. Participants consumed a controlled weight-loss diet containing either WG or RG (control) products for 12 wk. Body composition, MetS criteria and related markers, and plasma alkylresorcinols (compliance marker of WG intake) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. A subgroup (n = 28) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT).

Results: Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups; however, the RG group tended to have higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.06). Alkylresorcinols increased with consumption of the WG diet and did not change with consumption of the RG diet (time × treatment, P < 0.0001), which showed dietary compliance. There were no differences in anthropometric changes between groups; however, weight, body mass index, and percentage of body AT decreased at both 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.05), and reductions in percentage of abdominal AT occurred by 6 wk and did not change between 6 and 12 wk (P = 0.09). Both glucose (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) were lower with the consumption of the WG compared with the RG diet. However, when noncompliant individuals (n = 3) were removed, the glucose effect was stronger (P = 0.01) and the HDL-cholesterol effect was no longer significant (P = 0.14).

Conclusions: Replacing RGs with WGs within a weight-loss diet does not beneficially affect abdominal AT loss and has modest effects on markers of MetS. WGs appear to be effective at normalizing blood glucose concentrations, especially in those individuals with prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.078048DOI Listing
August 2014
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