Publications by authors named "Kristin S Golombeck"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Onconeural antigen spreading in paraneoplastic neurological disease due to small cell lung cancer.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2018 Jul 9;2018(7):omy034. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Münster, Germany.

Cellular and humoral immunity towards distinct onconeural antigens is the hallmark of paraneoplastic neurological diseases (PNDs). Stable formation of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to particular onconeural antigens occurs in the majority of cases, whereas persistent coexistence of antibodies specific for multiple onconeural antigens is a relatively rare phenomenon of certain malignant tumors like small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We here describe onconeural antigen spreading in a 70-year-old Caucasian male with PND due to SCLC. Onconeural antigen spreading may be promoted by two mutually non-exclusive mechanisms: (i) a switch of antigen expression pattern of the underlying tumor tissue as a result of a mutagenic process caused by the cancer itself and (ii) a self-propagated paraneoplastic immune response with persistent neuronal destruction, liberation, processing and presentation of intracellular neural antigens. This illustrates a potential dissociation between peripheral anti-tumoral immunity and central anti-neural immunity during the course of PND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omy034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037119PMC
July 2018

Immune cell profiling in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary angiitis of the central nervous system reflects the heterogeneity of the disease.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 08 7;321:109-116. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Clinic of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, University Hospital Münster, University Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the CNS vasculature with poorly understood pathophysiology. Comprehensive immune-cell phenotyping revealed increased frequencies of leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PACNS patients compared to patients with multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and somatoform disorders (n = 18 per group). Changes in the intrathecal immune-cell profile were heterogeneous in PACNS. While proportions of T-cell subsets remained unaltered, some PACNS patients showed a shift toward NK- or B cells. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis was observed in a subgroup of PACNS patients with an increased frequency of antibody producing plasma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.06.004DOI Listing
August 2018

Amygdala enlargement and emotional responses in (autoimmune) temporal lobe epilepsy.

Sci Rep 2018 06 22;8(1):9561. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Systems Neuroscience, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE-AE) is increasingly recognized as a distinct adult electroclinical syndrome. However, functional consequences of morphological alterations of the amygdala in TLE-AE are poorly understood. Here, two emotional stimulation designs were employed to investigate subjective emotional rating and skin conductance responses in a sample of treatment-naïve patients with suspected or confirmed autoimmune TLE-AE (n = 12) in comparison to a healthy control group (n = 16). A subgroup of patients completed follow-up measurements after treatment. As compared to healthy controls, patients with suspected or confirmed autoimmune TLE-AE showed markedly attenuated skin conductance responses and arousal ratings, especially pronounced for anxiety-inducing stimuli. The degree of right amygdala enlargement was significantly correlated with the degree of autonomic arousal attenuation. Furthermore, a decline of amygdala enlargement following prompt aggressive immunotherapy in one patient suffering from severe confirmed autoimmune TLE-AE with a very recent clinical onset was accompanied by a significant improvement of autonomic responses. Findings suggest dual impairments of autonomic and cognitive discrimination of stimulus arousal as hallmarks of emotional processing in TLE-AE. Emotional responses might, at least partially, recover after successful treatment, as implied by first single case data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27914-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015084PMC
June 2018

Genetic predisposition in anti-LGI1 and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Ann Neurol 2018 04;83(4):863-869

Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Germany.

We performed a genome-wide association study in 1,194 controls and 150 patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR, n = 96) or anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated1 (anti-LGI1, n = 54) autoimmune encephalitis. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis was highly associated with 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA-II region (leading SNP rs2858870 p = 1.22 × 10 , OR = 13.66 [7.50-24.87]). Potential associations, below genome-wide significance, were found with rs72961463 close to the doublecortin-like kinase 2 gene (DCLK2) and rs62110161 in a cluster of zinc-finger genes. HLA allele imputation identified association of anti-LGI1 encephalitis with HLA-II haplotypes encompassing DRB1*07:01, DQA1*02:01 and DQB1*02:02 (p < 2.2 × 10 ) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis with HLA-I allele B*07:02 (p = 0.039). No shared genetic risk factors between encephalitides were identified. Ann Neurol 2018;83:863-869.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25216DOI Listing
April 2018

NMDAR encephalitis: passive transfer from man to mouse by a recombinant antibody.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2017 11 3;4(11):768-783. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Neurology Medical Faculty Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Düsseldorf Germany.

Objective: Autoimmune encephalitis is most frequently associated with anti-NMDAR autoantibodies. Their pathogenic relevance has been suggested by passive transfer of patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in mice in vivo. We aimed to analyze the intrathecal plasma cell repertoire, identify autoantibody-producing clones, and characterize their antibody signatures in recombinant form.

Methods: Patients with recent onset typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis were subjected to flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral and intrathecal immune response before, during, and after immunotherapy. Recombinant human monoclonal antibodies (rhuMab) were cloned and expressed from matching immunoglobulin heavy- (IgH) and light-chain (IgL) amplicons of clonally expanded intrathecal plasma cells (cePc) and tested for their pathogenic relevance.

Results: Intrathecal accumulation of B and plasma cells corresponded to the clinical course. The presence of cePc with hypermutated antigen receptors indicated an antigen-driven intrathecal immune response. Consistently, a single recombinant human GluN1-specific monoclonal antibody, rebuilt from intrathecal cePc, was sufficient to reproduce NMDAR epitope specificity in vitro. After intraventricular infusion in mice, it accumulated in the hippocampus, decreased synaptic NMDAR density, and caused severe reversible memory impairment, a key pathogenic feature of the human disease, in vivo.

Interpretation: A CNS-specific humoral immune response is present in anti-NMDAR encephalitis specifically targeting the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR. Using reverse genetics, we recovered the typical intrathecal antibody signature in recombinant form, and proved its pathogenic relevance by passive transfer of disease symptoms from man to mouse, providing the critical link between intrathecal immune response and the pathogenesis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis as a humorally mediated autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682115PMC
November 2017

Treating refractory post-herpetic anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis with rituximab.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2017 Jul 3;2017(7):omx034. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Herpes simplex virus-1 has been identified as the trigger factor in certain cases of NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. We report on a 67-year-old female patient, who was severely affected by post-herpetic NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. Her symptoms did not improve under methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange under acyclovir prophylaxis. She received protein A immunoadsorption and a long-term immunosuppression with rituximab. Under treatment, activated T-cells as well as B- and plasma cells decreased in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and anti-NMDA-R IgG titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid declined with near complete cessation of intrathecal autoantibody synthesis. The patient regained near complete independence and profoundly improved on formal neuropsychological assessment. Despite reduction of antiviral defense through of lowered activated T cells and concomitantly decreasing HSV-specific IgG antibodies, no evidence of viral reactivation was detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omx034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5495011PMC
July 2017

Neurochondrin is a neuronal target antigen in autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2017 Jan 5;4(1):e307. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Institute of Experimental Immunology (R.M., M. Scharf, I.M.D., S.M., Y.D., B.T., C.P., S.B., W.S., L.K.), Euroimmun AG, Lübeck; Department of Neurology (C.C.G., K.S.G., M.H., U.B., A.S.-M., K.B., C.S., H.L., M.D., T.W., H.W., S.G.M., N.M.), University of Münster; Centre for Neurology and Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research (L.S., M. Synofzik), Tübingen; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) (L.S., M. Synofzik), Tübingen; and Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Department of Neurology (K.-P.W.), University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: To report on a novel neuronal target antigen in 3 patients with autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.

Methods: Three patients with subacute to chronic cerebellar ataxia and controls underwent detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessment together with quantitative high-resolution structural MRI. Sera and CSF were subjected to comprehensive autoantibody screening by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunoblot. Immunoprecipitation with lysates of hippocampus and cerebellum combined with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the autoantigen, which was verified by recombinant expression in HEK293 cells and use in several immunoassays. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed on peripheral blood and CSF, and peripheral blood was subjected to T-cell receptor spectratyping.

Results: Patients presented with a subacute to chronic cerebellar and brainstem syndrome. MRI was consistent with cortical and cerebellar gray matter atrophy associated with subsequent neuroaxonal degeneration. IFA screening revealed strong immunoglobulin G1 reactivity in sera and CSF with hippocampal and cerebellar molecular and granular layers, but not with a panel of 30 recombinantly expressed established neural autoantigens. Neurochondrin was subsequently identified as the target antigen, verified by IFA and immunoblot with HEK293 cells expressing human neurochondrin as well as the ability of recombinant neurochondrin to neutralize the autoantibodies' tissue reaction. Immune phenotyping revealed intrathecal accumulation and activation of B and T cells during the acute but not chronic phase of the disease. T-cell receptor spectratyping suggested an antigen-specific T-cell response accompanying the formation of antineurochondrin autoantibodies. No such neurochondrin reactivity was found in control cohorts of various neural autoantibody-associated neurologic syndromes, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, cerebellar type of multiple system atrophy, hereditary cerebellar ataxias, other neurologic disorders, or healthy donors.

Conclusion: Neurochondrin is a neuronal target antigen in autoimmune cerebellar degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5141526PMC
January 2017

Evidence of a pathogenic role for CD8(+) T cells in anti-GABAB receptor limbic encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016 Jun 29;3(3):e232. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Departments of Neurology (K.S.G., K.B., C.M., M.H., H.W., S.G.M., H.L., C.C.G., N.M.) and Clinical Radiology (W.S.), and Institute of Physiology I-Neuropathophysiology (S.G.M.), University of Münster; Departments of Epileptology (G.W., C.E.E.) and Neuropathology (K.M.v.L., A.J.B.), University of Bonn; Epilepsy Center Hamburg (M.L.), Evangelisches Krankenhaus Alsterdorf, Hamburg; and Department of Neuropathology (M.G.), University of Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: To characterize the cellular autoimmune response in patients with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (GABAB-R LE).

Methods: Patients underwent MRI, extensive neuropsychological assessment, and multiparameter flow cytometry of peripheral blood and CSF.

Results: We identified a series of 3 cases of nonparaneoplastic GABAB-R LE and one case of paraneoplastic GABAB-R LE associated with small cell lung cancer. All patients exhibited temporal lobe epilepsy, neuropsychological deficits, and MRI findings typical of LE. Absolute numbers of CD19(+) B cells, CD138(+) CD19(+) plasma cells, CD4(+) T cells, activated HLADR(+) CD4(+) T cells, as well as CD8(+) T cells and HLADR(+) CD8(+) T cells did not differ in peripheral blood but were elevated in CSF of patients with GABAB-R LE compared to controls. Augmented absolute numbers of CD138(+) CD19(+) plasma cells and activated HLADR(+) CD8(+) T cells in CSF corresponded to higher overall neuropsychological and memory deficits in patients with GABAB-R LE. A histologic specimen of one patient following selective amygdalohippocampectomy revealed perivascular infiltrates of CD138(+) plasma cells and CD4(+) T cells, whereas cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were detected within the brain parenchyma in close contact to neurons.

Conclusion: Our data suggest a pathogenic role for CD8(+) T cells in addition to the established role of plasma cell-derived autoantibodies in GABAB-R LE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853055PMC
June 2016

Immunoadsorption therapy in autoimmune encephalitides.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016 Apr 26;3(2):e207. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Epilepsy Center Bethel (M.D.O., C.B., M.B.-H., C.G.B.), Krankenhaus Mara, Bielefeld; Department of Neurology (M.D.O.), University Hospital Erlangen; Department of Neurology (K.S.G., H.L., H.W., N.M.), University of Münster; Department of Nephrology (M.A.-T., R.V.), Bethel-EvKB, Bielefeld; Department of Medicine D (M.B., H.P., G.T.), Division of General Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Rheumatology, University Hospital of Münster; and Laboratory Krone (D.M.), Bad Salzuflen, Germany.

Objective: It was hypothesized that in encephalitides with autoantibodies directed to CNS surface antigens an antibody-removing intervention might speed up recovery.

Methods: The outcome of autoimmune encephalitis in 19 patients with antibodies against surface antigens (leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 [LGI1], n = 3; contactin-associated protein-2 [CASPR2], n = 4; NMDA receptor [NMDAR], n = 7) and intracellular antigens (glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD], n = 5) after immunoadsorption in addition to corticosteroid therapy was evaluated retrospectively. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores and data on seizures, memory, and antibody titers directly after immunoadsorption (early follow-up) and after a median of 4 months (late follow-up) were compiled.

Results: Immediately after immunoadsorption, 9 of 14 patients with antibodies against LGI1, CASPR2, or NMDAR (64%), but none with GAD antibodies, had improved by at least one mRS point. Five of the 7 patients with LGI1 or CASRP2 antibodies had become seizure-free, and 2 patients with NMDAR antibodies had a memory improvement of more than 1 SD of a normal control population. At late follow-up, 12 of 14 patients with surface antibodies had improved (86%), and none of the patients with GAD antibodies.

Conclusions: It is suggested that addition of immunoadsorption to immunosuppression therapy in patients with surface antibodies may accelerate recovery. This supports the pathogenic role of surface antibodies.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that immunoadsorption combined with immunosuppression therapy is effective in patients with autoimmune encephalitis with surface antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772911PMC
April 2016

Impaired Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis.

Front Neurol 2015 30;6:250. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Systems Neuroscience, University of Muenster , Muenster , Germany.

Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular, the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs) to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2) antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence, and arousal ratings). The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663278PMC
December 2015

Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD138+ plasma cells prevail in cerebrospinal fluid in non-paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia with contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies.

J Neuroinflammation 2012 Jul 3;9:160. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, Inflammatory Disorders of the Nervous System and Neurooncology, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, Münster 48149, Germany.

Objective: The purpose of this paper is to report a patient with otherwise unexplained cerebellar ataxia with serum antibodies against contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR-2) and provide a detailed description of the composition of cellular infiltrates in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to the peripheral blood (PB). CASPR-2 antibodies strongly labeling axons of cerebellar granule neurons have recently been identified in sera from nine patients with otherwise unexplained progressive cerebellar ataxia with mild to severe cerebellar atrophy.

Design: This is a report of a single case.

Methods: The study methods used were neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emisson tomography, lumbar puncture and multicolor flow-cytometry.

Results: A 23-year-old Caucasian male presented with a two-year history of a progressive cerebellar and brainstem syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed pronounced cerebellar atrophy, especially of the medial parts of the hemispheres and the vermis. Cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed pronounced hypometabolism of the whole cerebellum. CASPR-2 antibodies were detected in the serum but not the CSF, and none of the staging and laboratory assessments revealed other causes of progressive cerebellar degeneration. Interestingly, flow-cytometry of the CSF as compared to the PB showed increased fractions of CD138+ plasma cells as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+ CD8+ T cells suggesting that both B cells and CD8+ T cells were preferentially recruited to and activated within the CSF- (and putatively central nervous system (CNS)-) compartment.

Conclusion: We confirm the association of CASPR-2 serum antibodies with cerebellar ataxia and provide the first evidence for a combined humoral and cellular immune response in this novel antibody-associated inflammatory CNS disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-9-160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464990PMC
July 2012