Publications by authors named "Kristin M Wall"

82 Publications

Association of Delayed Treatment of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea in Pregnancy and Preterm Birth.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA Department of Epidemiology, Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY.

Background: Treating chlamydia and gonorrhea in pregnancy has been shown to decrease the associated risk of preterm birth in some studies. Delayed treatment of these infections among non-pregnant patients carries known consequences. It is unclear whether delayed treatment in pregnancy similarly increases adverse outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at a safety-net hospital from July 2016 to June 2018. Women with at least one visit who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea were included. Women diagnosed after 36 weeks (preterm analysis) or 31 weeks (early preterm analysis) were excluded. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between no infection, timely treatment (<1 week), and delayed treatment (>1 week, not treated) with preterm (<37 weeks) and early preterm (<32 weeks) birth.

Results: Among 3,154 deliveries, 389 (12%) were preterm. Among 3,107 deliveries, 74 (2%) were early preterm. In adjusted models, women with timely (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7) and delayed (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) treatment had increased odds of preterm birth. Similarly, women with timely (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.2) and delayed (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9) treatment had increased odds of early preterm birth. Among women who tested positive, multiple infections was not associated with an increase in preterm birth (preterm: 17% vs. 20%, p = 0.53; early preterm: 5% vs. 6%, p = 0.74).

Conclusions: Chlamydia and gonorrhea are associated with preterm and early preterm birth, regardless of time to treatment. Creative solutions are needed to improve prevention of these infections in pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001490DOI Listing
June 2021

Developing and validating a risk algorithm to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic Rwandan women.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;21(1):392. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: Algorithms that bridge the gap between syndromic sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and treatment based in realistic diagnostic options and local epidemiology are urgently needed across Africa. Our objective was to develop and validate a risk algorithm for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) diagnosis among symptomatic Rwandan women and to compare risk algorithm performance to the current Rwandan National Criteria for NG/CT diagnosis.

Methods: The risk algorithm was derived in a cohort (n = 468) comprised of symptomatic women in Kigali who sought free screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and vaginal dysbioses at our research site. We used logistic regression to derive a risk algorithm for prediction of NG/CT infection. Ten-fold cross-validation internally validated the risk algorithm. We applied the risk algorithm to an external validation cohort also comprised of symptomatic Rwandan women (n = 305). Measures of calibration, discrimination, and screening performance of our risk algorithm compared to the current Rwandan National Criteria are presented.

Results: The prevalence of NG/CT in the derivation cohort was 34.6%. The risk algorithm included: age < =25, having no/primary education, not having full-time employment, using condoms only sometimes, not reporting genital itching, testing negative for vaginal candida, and testing positive for bacterial vaginosis. The model was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.831). Higher risk scores were significantly associated with increased prevalence of NG/CT infection (p < 0.001). Using a cut-point score of > = 5, the risk algorithm had a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 54%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 85%. Internal and external validation showed similar predictive ability of the risk algorithm, which outperformed the Rwandan National Criteria. Applying the Rwandan National Criteria cutoff of > = 2 (the current cutoff) to our derivation cohort had a sensitivity of 26%, specificity of 89%, PPV of 55%, and NPV of 69%.

Conclusions: These data support use of a locally relevant, evidence-based risk algorithm to significantly reduce the number of untreated NG/CT cases in symptomatic Rwandan women. The risk algorithm could be a cost-effective way to target treatment to those at highest NG/CT risk. The algorithm could also aid in sexually transmitted infection risk and prevention communication between providers and clients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06073-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080377PMC
April 2021

Etiologies of genital inflammation and ulceration in symptomatic Rwandan men and women responding to radio promotions of free screening and treatment services.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250044. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Project San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: The longstanding inadequacies of syndromic management for genital ulceration and inflammation are well-described. The Rwanda National Guidelines for sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management are not yet informed by the local prevalence and correlates of STI etiologies, a component World Health Organization guidelines stress as critical to optimize locally relevant algorithms.

Methods: Radio announcements and pharmacists recruited symptomatic patients to seek free STI services in Kigali. Clients who sought services were asked to refer sexual partners and symptomatic friends. Demographic, behavioral risk factor, medical history, and symptom data were collected. Genital exams were performed by trained research nurses and physicians. We conducted phlebotomy for rapid HIV and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) serologies and vaginal pool swab for microscopy of wet preparation to diagnose Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and vaginal Candida albicans (VCA). GeneXpert testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) were conducted. Here we assess factors associated with diagnosis of NG and CT in men and women. We also explore factors associated with TV, BV and VCA in women. Finally, we describe genital ulcer and RPR results by HIV status, gender, and circumcision in men.

Results: Among 974 men (with 1013 visits), 20% were positive for CT and 74% were positive for NG. Among 569 women (with 579 visits), 17% were positive for CT and 27% were positive for NG. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with CT in men included younger age, responding to radio advertisements, <17 days since suspected exposure, and not having dysuria. Factors associated with NG in men included not having higher education or full-time employment, <17 days since suspected exposure, not reporting a genital ulcer, and having urethral discharge on physical exam. Factors associated with CT in women included younger age and < = 10 days with symptoms. Factors associated with NG in women included younger age, lower education and lack of full-time employment, sometimes using condoms vs. never, using hormonal vs. non-hormonal contraception, not having genital ulcer or itching, having symptoms < = 10 days, HIV+ status, having BV, endocervical discharge noted on speculum exam, and negative vaginal wet mount for VCA. In multivariate analyses, only reporting >1 partner was associated with BV; being single and RPR+ was associated with TV; and having < = 1 partner in the last month, being pregnant, genital itching, discharge, and being HIV and RPR negative were associated with VCA. Genital ulcers and positive RPR were associated with being HIV+ and lack of circumcision among men. HIV+ women were more likely to be RPR+. In HIV+ men and women, ulcers were more likely to be herpetic rather than syphilitic compared with their HIV- counterparts.

Conclusions: Syndromic management guidelines in Rwanda can be improved with consideration of the prevalence of confirmed infections from this study of symptomatic men and women representative of those who would seek care at government health centers. Inclusion of demographic and risk factor measures shown to be predictive of STI and non-STI dysbioses may also increase diagnostic accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250044PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057583PMC
April 2021

Genital abnormalities, hormonal contraception, and HIV transmission risk in Rwandan serodifferent couples.

J Infect Dis 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Rwanda Zambia Health Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: We explored the role of genital abnormalities and hormonal contraception in HIV transmission among heterosexual serodifferent couples in Rwanda.

Methods: From 2002-2011, non-antiretroviral treatment using HIV serodifferent couples were followed and sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, family planning provided, and HIV-negative partners retested. Couples were assessed for genital ulcers; non-ulcerative genital sexually transmitted infection (STI) including gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis; and non-STI vaginal infections including bacterial vaginosis and candida. Multivariable models evaluated associations between covariates and HIV transmission genetically linked to the index partner.

Results: Among 877 couples where the man was HIV-positive, 37 linked transmissions occurred. Factors associated with women's HIV acquisition included female partner genital ulceration (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=14.1) and male partner non-ulcerative STI (aHR=8.6). Among 955 couples where the woman was HIV-positive, 46 linked transmissions occurred. Factors associated with men's HIV acquisition included female partner non-ulcerative STI (aHR=4.4), non-STI vaginal dysbiosis (aHR=7.1), and male partner genital ulceration (aHR=2.6). Hormonal contraception use was not associated with HIV transmission or acquisition.

Conclusions: Our findings underscore the need for integrating HIV services with care for genital abnormalities. Barriers (e.g., cost for training, demand creation, advocacy, client education; provider time; clinic space) to joint HIV/STI testing need to be considered and addressed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab071DOI Listing
February 2021

Antiretroviral Therapy Use and HIV Transmission Among Discordant Couples in Nonresearch Settings in Kigali, Rwanda.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 06;48(6):424-428

From the Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy for HIV prevention among discordant couples has been demonstrated in clinical trials. Effectiveness outside of research settings is less well understood.

Methods: HIV-discordant couples were enrolled in couples' testing and follow-up at 20 government clinics in Kigali from 2010 to 2014. We performed viral linkage analysis on seroconverting couples to determine infection sources (intracouple vs. extracouple). Antiretroviral therapy use in index partners was collected at baseline and during follow-up by self-report with verification of government medical records.

Results: A total of 3777 HIV-discordant couples were identified and followed up at government health clinics. Fifty-four incident HIV infections were identified, of which 36 were confirmed linked to the index partner, 4 were unlinked, and 14 were unknown. Among the 50 linked or unknown transmission pairs, 38% occurred among couples in which the index partner was on ART (HIV incidence rate of 0.63/100 person-years), whereas 62% occurred among couples in which the index partner was not on ART (HIV incidence rate of 5.51/100 person-years; adjusted rate ratio, 6.9). HIV acquisition was higher in women than in men with non-ART using index partners (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Couples in a government clinic couples' HIV testing and follow-up program in Rwanda had an 89% reduction in HIV incidence when index partners were using ART, slightly lower than efficacy estimates from randomized trials. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention should be prioritized for key populations including discordant couples identified via couples' voluntary counseling and testing, with increased efforts to improve uptake, adherence, and viral load monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001350DOI Listing
June 2021

Loss to follow-up among female sex workers in Zambia: findings from a five-year HIV-incidence cohort.

Afr J AIDS Res 2020 Dec;19(4):296-303

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA.

HIV-incidence studies are used to identify at-risk populations for HIV-prevention trials and interventions, but loss to follow-up (LTFU) can bias results if participants who remain differ from those who drop out. We investigated the incidence of and factors associated with LTFU among Zambian female sex workers (FSWs) in an HIV-incidence cohort from 2012 to 2017. Enrolled participants returned at month one, month three and quarterly thereafter. FSWs were considered LTFU if they missed six consecutive months, or if their last visit was six months before the study end date. Of 420 FSWs, 139 (33%) were LTFU at a rate of 15.7 per 100 person years. In multivariable analysis, LTFU was greater for FSWs who never used alcohol, began sex work above the age of consent, and had a lower volume of new clients. Our study appeared to retain FSWs in most need of HIV-prevention services offered at follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2020.1836005DOI Listing
December 2020

Postpartum long-acting contraception uptake and service delivery outcomes after a multilevel intervention in Kigali, Rwanda.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2020 Sep 16. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Introduction: Postpartum family planning (PPFP) is critical to reduce maternal-child mortality, abortion and unintended pregnancy. As in most countries, the majority of PP women in Rwanda have an unmet need for PPFP. In particular, increasing use of the highly effective PP long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (the intrauterine device (IUD) and implant) is a national priority. We developed a multilevel intervention to increase supply and demand for PPFP services in Kigali, Rwanda.

Methods: We implemented our intervention (which included PPFP promotional counselling for clients, training for providers, and Ministry of Health stakeholder involvement) in six government health facilities from August 2017 to October 2018. While increasing knowledge and uptake of the IUD was a primary objective, all contraceptive method options were discussed and made available. Here, we report a secondary analysis of PP implant uptake and present already published data on PPIUD uptake for reference.

Results: Over a 15-month implementation period, 12 068 women received PPFP educational counselling and delivered at a study facility. Of these women, 1252 chose a PP implant (10.4% uptake) and 3372 chose a PPIUD (27.9% uptake). On average providers at our intervention facilities inserted 83.5 PP implants/month and 224.8 PPIUDs/month. Prior to our intervention, 30 PP implants/month and 8 PPIUDs/month were inserted at our selected facilities. Providers reported high ease of LARC insertion, and clients reported minimal insertion anxiety and pain.

Conclusions: PP implant and PPIUD uptake significantly increased after implementation of our multilevel intervention. PPFP methods were well received by clients and providers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2020-200741DOI Listing
September 2020

Uptake of long acting reversible contraception following integrated couples HIV and fertility goal-based family planning counselling in Catholic and non-Catholic, urban and rural government health centers in Kigali, Rwanda.

Reprod Health 2020 Aug 17;17(1):126. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: When integrated with couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing (CVCT), family planning including long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) addresses prongs one and two of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).

Methods: In this observational study, we enrolled equal numbers of HIV concordant and discordant couples in four rural and four urban clinics, with two Catholic and two non-Catholic clinics in each area. Eligible couples were fertile, not already using a LARC method, and wished to limit or delay fertility for at least 2 years. We provided CVCT and fertility goal-based family planning counselling with the offer of LARC and conducted multivariate analysis of clinic, couple, and individual predictors of LARC uptake.

Results: Of 1290 couples enrolled, 960 (74%) selected LARC: Jadelle 5-year implant (37%), Implanon 3-year implant (26%), or copper intrauterine device (IUD) (11%). Uptake was higher in non-Catholic clinics (85% vs. 63% in Catholic clinics, p < 0.0001), in urban clinics (82% vs. 67% in rural clinics, p < 0.0001), and in HIV concordant couples (79% vs. 70% of discordant couples, p = .0005). Religion of the couple was unrelated to clinic religious affiliation, and uptake was highest among Catholics (80%) and lowest among Protestants (70%) who were predominantly Pentecostal. In multivariable analysis, urban location and non-Catholic clinic affiliation, Catholic religion of woman or couple, younger age of men, lower educational level of both partners, non-use of condoms or injectable contraception at enrollment, prior discussion of LARC by the couple, and women not having concerns about negative side effects of implant were associated with LARC uptake.

Conclusions: Fertility goal-based LARC recommendations combined with couples' HIV counselling and testing resulted in a high uptake of LARC methods, even among discordant couples using condoms for HIV prevention, in Catholic clinics, and in rural populations. This model successfully integrates prevention of HIV and unplanned pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-00981-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433361PMC
August 2020

Cost-effectiveness of integrated HIV prevention and family planning services for Zambian couples.

AIDS 2020 09;34(11):1633-1642

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health.

Objective: To present the incremental cost from the payer's perspective and effectiveness of couples' family planning counseling (CFPC) with long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) access integrated with couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) in Zambia. This integrated program is evaluated incremental to existing individual HIV counseling and testing and family planning services.

Design: Implementation and modelling.

Setting: Fifty-five government health facilities in Zambia.

Subjects: Patients in government health facilities.

Intervention: Community health workers and personnel promoted and delivered integrated CVCT+CFPC from March 2013 to September 2015.

Main Outcome Measures: We report financial costs of actual expenditures during integrated program implementation and outcomes of CVCT+CFPC uptake and LARC uptake. We model primary outcomes of cost-per-: adult HIV infections averted by CVCT, unintended pregnancies averted by LARC, couple-years of protection against unintended pregnancy by LARC, and perinatal HIV infections averted by LARC. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% per year.

Results: Integrated program costs were $3 582 186 (2015 USD), 82 231 couples received CVCT+CFPC, and 56 409 women received LARC insertions. The program averted an estimated 7165 adult HIV infections at $384 per adult HIV infection averted over a 5-year time horizon. The program also averted 62 265 unintended pregnancies and was cost-saving for measures of cost-per-unintended pregnancy averted, cost-per-couple-year of protection against unintended pregnancy, and cost-per-perinatal HIV infection averted assuming 3 years of LARC use.

Conclusion: Our intervention was cost-savings for CFPC outcomes and CVCT was effective and affordable in Zambia. Integrated couples-focused HIV and family planning was feasible, affordable, and leveraged HIV and unintended pregnancy prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002584DOI Listing
September 2020

Cost-effectiveness of couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing in six African countries: a modelling study guided by an HIV prevention cascade framework.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 06;23 Suppl 3:e25522

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: Couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing (CVCT) is a high-impact HIV prevention intervention in Rwanda and Zambia. Our objective was to model the cost-per-HIV infection averted by CVCT in six African countries guided by an HIV prevention cascade framework. The HIV prevention cascade as yet to be applied to evaluating CVCT effectiveness or cost-effectiveness.

Methods: We defined a priority population for CVCT in Africa as heterosexual adults in stable couples. Based on our previous experience nationalizing CVCT in Rwanda and scaling-up CVCT in 73 clinics in Zambia, we estimated HIV prevention cascade domains of motivation for use, access and effectiveness of CVCT as model parameters. Costs-per-couple tested were also estimated based on our previous studies. We used these parameters as well as country-specific inputs to model the impact of CVCT over a five-year time horizon in a previously developed and tested deterministic compartmental model. We consider six countries across Africa with varied HIV epidemics (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone). Outcomes of interest were the proportion of HIV infections averted by CVCT, nationwide CVCT implementation costs and costs-per-HIV infection averted by CVCT. We applied 3%/year discounting to costs and outcomes. Univariate and Monte Carlo multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted.

Results: We estimated that CVCT could avert between 54% (Sierra Leone) and 62% (South Africa) of adult HIV infections. Average costs-per-HIV infection averted were lowest in Zimbabwe ($550) and highest in South Africa ($1272). Nationwide implementations would cost between 7% (Kenya) and 21% (Ivory Coast) of a country's President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) budget over five years. In sensitivity analyses, model outputs were most sensitive to estimates of cost-per-couple tested; the proportion of adults in heterosexual couples and HIV prevention cascade domains of CVCT motivation and access.

Conclusions: Our model indicates that nationalized CVCT could prevent over half of adult HIV infections for 7% to 21% of the modelled countries' five-year PEPFAR budgets. While other studies have indicated that CVCT motivation is high given locally relevant promotional and educational efforts, without required indicators, targets and dedicated budgets, access remains low.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325504PMC
June 2020

A Population-Specific Optimized GeneXpert Pooling Algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae To Reduce Cost of Molecular Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening in Resource-Limited Settings.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 08 24;58(9). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The sexually transmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (NG) are often asymptomatic in women and undetected by syndromic management, leading to complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Molecular testing, such as the GeneXpert CT/NG assay, is highly sensitive, but cost restraints preclude implementation of these technologies in resource-limited settings. Pooled testing is one strategy to reduce the cost per sample, but the extent of savings depends on disease prevalence. The current study describes a pooling strategy based on identification of sociodemographic and laboratory factors associated with CT/NG prevalence in a high-risk cohort of Zambian female sex workers and single mothers conducted from 2016 to 2019. Factors associated with testing positive for CT/NG via logistic regression modeling included city, younger age, lower education, long-acting reversible contraception usage, infection, bacterial vaginosis, and incident syphilis infection. Based on these factors, the study population was stratified into high-, intermediate-, and low-prevalence subgroups and tested accordingly-individually, pools of 3, or pools of 4, respectively. The cost per sample was reduced from $18 to as low as $9.43 in the low-prevalence subgroup. The checklist tool and pooling approach described can be used in a variety of treatment algorithms to lower the cost per sample and increase access to molecular STI screening. This is particularly valuable in resource-limited settings to detect and treat asymptomatic CT/NG infections missed by traditional syndromic management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00176-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448664PMC
August 2020

Cost per insertion and couple year of protection for postpartum intrauterine devices and implants provided during service scale-up in Kigali, Rwanda.

Gates Open Res 2018 28;2:39. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Kigali, Rwanda.

In two high-volume government hospitals, their two affiliated health facilities, and two additional health facilities, we developed and implemented postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) and postpartum (PP) implant promotional counseling and service delivery procedures between May-July 2017 in Kigali, Rwanda. Between August 2017 and July 2018, 9,073 pregnant women received PPIUD/PP implant promotions who later delivered in one of our selected facilities. Of those, 2,633 had PPIUDs inserted, and 955 had PP implants inserted. The goal of the present analysis is to detail implementation expenditures and estimate incremental costs per insertion and couple years of protection (CYP) for PPIUD and PP implant users. We detail the incremental costs during the implementation from the health system perspective (including both the implementation costs and the cost of contraceptive methods) and use of standard methods to estimate the cost per insertion and CYP for PPIUD and PP implant users. In addition to the incremental costs of labor and supplies, the costs of promotional activities are included. Research costs for formative work were excluded. A total of $74,147 USD was spent on the implementation between August 2017 and July 2018. The largest expense (34% of total expenses) went toward personnel, including doctoral-level, administrative, data management and nurse counseling staff. Training for PPIUD and implant providers and promoters comprised 8% of total expenses. Recruitment and reimbursements comprised 6% of expenses. Costs of implants to the government comprised 12% of the expenses, much higher than the cost of IUDs (1%). Costs per insertion were $25/PPIUDs and $77/PP implant. Costs per CYP were $6/PPIUDs and $21/PP implant.  Understanding the cost per PPIUD/PP implant inserted and CYP can help to inform the cost of scaling up PPIUD/PP implant service implementation activities and resource allocation decision-making by the Rwandan Ministry of Health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.12858.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163922PMC
February 2020

Meeting the mark by 2020: country progress toward FP2020 and UNAIDS HIV targets.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2020 Apr 5;46(2):85-87. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

The Center for Sexuality and Health Disparities, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2019-200545DOI Listing
April 2020

Fertility intentions and long-acting reversible contraceptive use among HIV-negative single mothers in Zambia.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 04 14;222(4S):S917.e1-S917.e15. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Rwanda Zambia Emory HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Integrating family planning interventions with HIV studies in developing countries has been shown to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and simultaneously reduce HIV and unintended pregnancy in high-risk populations. As part of a prospective cohort study on HIV incidence and risk factors in Zambian women having unprotected sex, we also offered family planning counseling and immediate access to long-acting reversible contraceptives. Although long-acting reversible contraceptives are the most effective form of contraception, many Zambian women are limited to oral or injectable methods because of a lack of knowledge or method availability. This project offers to single mothers who are enrolled in a cohort study information about and access to long-acting reversible contraceptives at enrollment and at each follow-up visit.

Objective: This study evaluates how fertility intentions affect long-acting reversible contraceptive use in HIV-negative single mothers in Zambia. Our primary outcome was long-acting reversible contraceptive use throughout the study participation. We also estimated rates of long-acting reversible contraceptive uptake and discontinuation. We specifically studied single mothers because they are at high risk for unintended pregnancy, which can have significant negative ramifications on their financial, social, and psychologic circumstances.

Study Design: From 2012-2017, Zambia Emory HIV Research Project recruited 521 HIV-negative single mothers ages 18-45 years from government clinics in Lusaka and Ndola, Zambia's 2 largest cities. Participants were followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. At each visit, we discussed fertility goals and contraceptive options and offered a long-acting reversible method to any woman who was not pregnant or who already was using a long-acting reversible or permanent contraceptive method. Data were collected on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and reproductive history. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model baseline fertility intentions with long-acting reversible contraceptive use.

Results: We enrolled 518 women; 57 women did not return for any follow-up visits. There was a significant increase in long-acting reversible contraceptive use during the study. At baseline, 93 of 518 women (18%) were using a long-acting reversible method, and 151 of 461 women (33%) used a long-acting reversible method at the end of follow-up period (P<.0001). Four women chose an intrauterine device, and 91 women chose an implant for their first uptake event. After we adjusted the data for other confounders, we found that women in Ndola who did not desire any more children were more likely to use a long-acting reversible contraceptive (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-3.42). During follow up, 37 of 183 long-acting reversible contraceptive users (20%) discontinued their method; women who desired future children at baseline were more likely to discontinue earlier (P=.016).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that integrated family planning services can increase long-acting reversible contraceptive use successfully among Zambian single mothers, who are a vulnerable population that disproportionately is affected by unintended pregnancy. A steady increase in use over time confirms the importance of repeated messaging about these unfamiliar methods. Thus, it is imperative that family planning interventions target single mothers in developing countries to promote effective contraceptive use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.12.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138749PMC
April 2020

A couple-focused, integrated unplanned pregnancy and HIV prevention program in urban and rural Zambia.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 04 13;222(4S):S915.e1-S915.e10. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Zambia's total fertility rate (5 births per woman) and adult HIV prevalence (11.5%) are among the highest in the world, with heterosexual couples being the most affected group. Jointly counseling and testing couples for HIV has reduced up to 58% of new HIV infections in Zambian clinics. Married women using contraceptives in Zambia have a high (20%) unmet need for family planning and low (8.6%) uptake of cost-effective long-acting reversible contraceptives. We present an integrated counseling, testing, and family-planning program to prevent HIV and unplanned pregnancy in Zambia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to integrate effective HIV prevention and family-planning services for Zambian couples.

Study Design: A 3 year program (2013-2016) progressively integrated the promotion and provision of couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing and long-acting reversible contraceptives. The program was based in 55 urban and 215 rural government clinics across 33 districts. In the first year, a couples' family-planning counseling training program was developed and combined with existing couples HIV counseling training materials. To avoid congestion during routine clinic hours, joint counseling services were initially provided on weekends, while nurses were trained in intrauterine device and hormonal implant insertion and removal during weekday family-planning services. Demand was created through mutual referral between weekend and weekday programs and by clinic staff, community health workers, and satisfied family-planning clients. When the bulk of integrated service training was completed, the program transitioned services to routine weekday clinic hours, ensuring access to same-day services. Performance indicators included number of staff trained, clients served, integrated service referrals, HIV infections averted, and unplanned pregnancies averted.

Results: A stepwise approach trained high-performing service providers to be trainers and used high-volume clinics for practicum training of the next generation. In total, 1201 (391 urban, 810 rural) counselors were trained and served 120,535 urban and 87,676 rural couples. In urban clinics, 236 nurses inserted 65,619 long-acting reversible contraceptives, while in rural clinics, 243 nurses inserted 35,703 implants and intrauterine devices. The program prevented an estimated 12,869 urban and 8279 rural adult HIV infections, and 98,626 unintended urban pregnancies. In the final year, the proportion of clients receiving joint counseling services on weekdays rose from 11% to 89%, with many referred from within clinics including HIV testing and treatment services (32%), outpatient department (31%), family planning (16%), and infant vaccination (15%). The largest group of clients requesting long-acting reversible contraceptives (45%) did so after joint fertility goal-based counseling, confirming the high impact of this couple-focused demand creation approach. Remaining family-planning clients responded to referrals from clinic nurses (34%), satisfied implant/intrauterine device users (13%), or community health workers (8%).

Conclusion: Integrated HIV and unplanned pregnancy prevention can be implemented in low-resource public sector facilities. Combination services offered to couples mutually leverage HIV prevention and unplanned pregnancy prevention. The addition of long-acting reversible contraceptives is an important complement to the method mix available in government clinics. Demand creation in the clinic and in the community must be coordinated with a growing supply of well-trained providers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.007DOI Listing
April 2020

An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Associated With Interest in Postpartum Intrauterine Device Uptake Among Pregnant Women and Couples in Kigali, Rwanda.

Clin Med Insights Reprod Health 2019 3;13:1179558119886843. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The desire to space or prevent future pregnancies is high among postpartum women in Rwanda. However, the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), especially the highly effective and cost-effective copper intrauterine device (IUD), is very low, whereas the rates of unintended pregnancy are high. This study aims to identify factors associated with pregnant women's and couple's interest in receiving a postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) within 6 weeks after delivery.

Methods: A total of 150 pregnant women or couples attending antenatal care (ANC) in Kigali, Rwanda participated in this cross-sectional study. After participating in a postpartum LARC counseling session, surveys assessed participants' demographics, pregnancy experiences and desires, and PPIUD knowledge, attitudes, practices, and interest. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model factors associated PPIUD interest within 6 weeks postpartum.

Results: Although only 3% of women had ever used an IUD previously, 124 (83%) women were interested in receiving a PPIUD after counseling. Self-reporting physical side effects (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.75) and infection (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.85) as disadvantages to the IUD were significantly associated with no interest in receiving a PPIUD. Interest did not differ by male involvement.

Conclusion: Recommendations to increase PPIUD uptake include educating pregnant women and couples about the method during ANC and addressing client myths and misconceptions about the IUD. This strategy allows pregnant women and couples to make informed decisions about their future contraception use, reduce unmet need for family planning, and reduce unintended pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179558119886843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893932PMC
December 2019

Motivational interviewing to promote long-acting reversible contraception among Rwandan couples wishing to prevent or delay pregnancy.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 04 12;222(4S):S919.e1-S919.e12. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: Few family-planning programs in Africa base demand creation and service delivery on theoretical models. Motivational interviewing is a counseling modality that facilitates reflection on the benefits and disadvantages of a health outcome to encourage behavior change.

Objectives: We evaluate a couples-focused joint family-planning and HIV counseling intervention using motivational interviewing to enhance uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (Paragard copper intrauterine device or Jadelle hormonal implant) among Rwandan couples.

Study Design: In this experimental study, couples receiving care at 8 government health clinics in Kigali, the capital city, were referred from a parent study of couples who did not want more children or wanted to wait at least 2 years for their next pregnancy. Long-acting reversible contraception methods were offered on site following joint HIV testing and family-planning counseling. At the first follow-up visit 1 month after enrollment in the parent study, couples who had not yet chosen a long-acting reversible contraception method were interviewed separately using motivational interviewing and then brought together and again offered long-acting reversible contraception.

Results: Following motivational interviewing, 78 of 229 couples (34%) requested a long-acting reversible contraception method (68 implant and 10 intrauterine device). Long-acting reversible contraception uptake after motivational interviewing was associated with the woman being Catholic (vs Protestant/Muslim/other, adjusted odds ratio, 2.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.96, P = .019) or having an income (vs no income, adjusted odds ratio, 2.54, 95% confidence interval, 1.12-5.73, P = .025); the couple having previously discussed long-acting reversible contraception (adjusted odds ratio, 8.38, 95% confidence interval, 2.54-27.59, P = .0005); either partner believing that unplanned pregnancy was likely with their current method (adjusted odds ratio, 6.67, 95% confidence interval, 2.77-16.11, P < .0001); or that they might forget to take or make an appointment for their current method (adjusted odds ratio, 4.04, 95% confidence interval, 1.32-12.34, P = .014). Neither partner mentioning that condoms also prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infection was associated with long-acting reversible contraception uptake (adjusted odds ratio, 2.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.03, P = .022), as was the woman citing long-term duration of action of the implant as an advantage (adjusted odds ratio, 5.41, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-15.76, P = .002). The woman not listing any side effects or disadvantages of implants was associated with long-acting reversible contraception uptake (adjusted odds ratio, 5.42, 95% confidence interval, 2.33-12.59, P < .0001). Clinic location (rural vs urban), couple HIV status, and concerns about negative economic effects of an unplanned pregnancy were significant in bivariate but not multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Encouraging couples to reflect on the benefits and disadvantages of long-acting reversible contraception methods, the likelihood of unplanned pregnancy with their current contraception, and the impact of an unplanned pregnancy is an effective motivational interviewing technique in family-planning counseling. One third of couples who did not want a pregnancy for at least 2 years but had not chosen a long-acting reversible contraception method when provided with standard family-planning counseling did so after motivational interviewing. Involving the male partner in family-planning discussions facilitates joint decision making about fertility goals and contraceptive choice. Combining family planning and joint HIV testing for couples allows targeted focus on dual-method use with discordant couples, who are advised to use condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention along with a more effective contraceptive for added protection against unplanned pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.11.1280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138747PMC
April 2020

Factors associated with condom use among HIV-positive women living in Atlanta, Georgia.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(12):e0225406. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Objectives: Consistent condom use is essential to reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States despite comprising a small percentage of the population. Our objectives were to evaluate factors associated with self-reported condom use in a cohort of predominantly African American women receiving HIV care in Atlanta, Georgia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of reproductive knowledge, attitudes, and practices among adult, sexually-active, HIV-positive women attending the Grady Infectious Disease Clinic in Atlanta, Georgia was conducted from July, 2013 to November, 2014 to evaluate factors associated with self-reported condom use. Primary outcomes included: condom use at last vaginal intercourse and consistent condom use with vaginal intercourse over the last six months. Descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: Of 187 women enrolled, 170 reported having vaginal intercourse in the last six months. Seventy-four percent used condoms at last vaginal intercourse, whereas 53% reported consistent condom use over the last six months. In adjusted analyses, factors associated with condom use at last intercourse included decreased frequency of sex, no history of drug use, and confidence to discuss condom use with sexual partners (p<0.05). Factors associated with consistent condom use in the past six months were older age, being single/dating, and confidence to discuss condom use with sexual partners. History of drug use, having HIV-positive partners, and unprotected anal intercourse were associated with inconsistent use (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Improved strategies are needed to educate women on the importance of safe sexual practices and condom negotiation. Healthcare providers should strive to have an open dialogue with patients about condom use, whether they engage in anal sex, and its risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225406PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910822PMC
March 2020

Evaluation of a multi-level intervention to improve postpartum intrauterine device services in Rwanda.

Gates Open Res 2018 4;2:38. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

The copper intrauterine device is one of the most safe, effective, and cost-effective methods for preventing unintended pregnancy. It can be used postpartum irrespective of breastfeeding to improve birth spacing and reduce unintended pregnancy and maternal-child mortality. However, this method remains highly underutilized. We developed a multi-level intervention to increase uptake of the postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD, defined as insertion up to six weeks post-delivery) in Kigali, Rwanda. High-volume hospitals and health centers were selected for implementation of PPIUD counseling and service delivery. Formative work informed development of a PPIUD counseling flipchart to be delivered during antenatal care, labor and delivery, infant vaccination visits, or in the community. Two-day didactic counseling, insertion/removal, and follow-up trainings were provided to labor and delivery and family planning nurses followed by a mentored practicum certification process. Counseling data were collected in government clinic logbooks. Insertions and follow-up data were collected in logbooks created for the implementation. Data were collected by trained government clinic staff and abstracted/managed by study staff. Stakeholders were involved from intervention development through dissemination of results. Two hospitals (and their two associated health centers) and two additional health centers were selected. In 6-months prior to our intervention, 7.7 PPIUDs/month were inserted on average at the selected facilities. From August 2017-July 2018, we trained 83 counselors and 39 providers to provide PPIUD services. N=9,020 women received one-on-one PPIUD counseling after expressing interest in family planning who later delivered at a selected health facility. Of those, n=2,575 had PPIUDs inserted (average of 214.6 insertions/month), a 29% uptake. Most PPIUDs (62%) were inserted within 10 minutes of delivery of the placenta. This successful, comprehensive intervention has the potential to make a significant impact on PPIUD uptake in Rwanda. The intervention is scalable and adaptable to other sub-Saharan African countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/gatesopenres.12854.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266741PMC
February 2019

Hormonal Contraception and Vaginal Infections Among Couples Who Are Human Immunodeficiency Virus Serodiscordant in Lusaka, Zambia.

Obstet Gynecol 2019 09;134(3):573-580

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University, School of Medicine, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, and the Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; the Department of Epidemiology, Ryals School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, and the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health, Lusaka, Zambia.

Objective: To examine the relationship between hormonal contraception and vaginal infections with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, or trichomoniasis.

Methods: Couples who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serodiscordant in Zambia were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. From 1994 to 2002, both partners were seen quarterly and received physical exams including genital examinations. Separate rates for three outcome infections of interest (bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis) were calculated. Bivariate associations between baseline and time-varying covariates and outcome infections of interest were evaluated using unadjusted Anderson-Gill survival models. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were generated using multivariable Anderson-Gill survival models that included demographic and clinical factors associated with both hormonal contraceptive use and each infection of interest.

Results: There were 1,558 cases of bacterial vaginosis, 1,529 cases of vaginal candidiasis, and 574 cases of trichomoniasis over 2,143 person-years of observation. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users had significantly lower rates of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis. In adjusted models, DMPA was protective for bacterial vaginosis (aHR=0.72; 95% CI 0.54-0.95), candidiasis (aHR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-1.00) and trichomoniasis (aHR=0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.74). Oral contraceptive pills were protective for candidiasis (aHR=0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97).

Conclusion: We confirm that DMPA use was associated with reduced rates of the three most common causes of vaginitis, and oral contraceptive pill use was associated with reduced rates of candidiasis among women in couples who were HIV discordant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003404DOI Listing
September 2019

Development and Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Services in Rwanda, 2009-2016.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2019 12 5;28(12):1640-1649. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Projet San Francisco, Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Kigali, Rwanda.

Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is highly effective at preventing pregnancy. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, LARC education for clients is relatively limited and providers are often not skilled in their insertion. Before 2009, only 1% of family planning clients in Rwanda received an LARC. We trained Rwandan government clinic nurses to promote, insert, and remove copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) and hormonal implants. Training started in two large urban clinics, and those nurses trained three successive waves of clinic nurses. Initial LARC promotions were clinic based, but in 2015 included community-based promotions in eight clinics. We compare IUD and implant insertions by year and clinic and discuss implementation successes/obstacles. From 2009 to 2016, 222 nurses from 21 government clinics were LARC trained. The nurses performed 36,588 LARC insertions (19% IUD, 81% implant). LARC insertions increased over time, peaking at 8,897 in 2013. However, in 2014, the number dropped to 4,018 after closure of one large clinic, funding discontinuation, and supply stock-outs. With new funding in 2015, insertions increased reaching 8,218 in 2016. Catholic and non-Catholic and rural and urban clinics performed similarly, whereas clinics affiliated with community-based promotions performed better ( > 0.05). Between 2012 and 2014, 13% of family planning initiators chose the implant and 4% the IUD. LARC supply-demand services increased the proportion of family planning initiators choosing LARC to 17%. Challenges included inconsistent funding, irregular supplies, and staff turnover. Rural and Catholic clinics performed as well as urban and non-Catholic clinics. Concerted efforts to improve IUD uptake are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2018.7423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919255PMC
December 2019

Nutrition indicators as potential predictors of AIDS-defining illnesses among ARV-naïve HIV-positive adults in Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia 2008-2009.

PLoS One 2019 2;14(7):e0219111. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Division of Global Disease Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Early changes in nutritional status may be predictive of subsequent HIV disease progression in people living with HIV (PLHIV). In addition to conventional anthropometric assessment using body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumferences (MUAC), measures of strength and fatigability may detect earlier changes in nutrition status which predict HIV disease progression. This study aims to examine the association between various nutritional metrics relevant in resource-scarce setting and HIV disease progression. The HIV disease progression outcome was defined as any occurrence of an incident AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve PLHIV. From 2008-2009, HIV+ Zambian adult men and non-pregnant women were followed for 9 months at a Doctors without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontiers, MSF) HIV clinic in Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia. Since the study was conducted in the time period when former WHO recommendations on ART (i.e., ≤200 CD4 cell count as opposed to treating all individuals regardless of CD4 cell count or disease stage) were followed, caution should be applied when considering the implications from this study's results to improve HIV case management under current clinical guidelines, or when comparing findings from this study with studies conducted in recent years. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between baseline nutritional measurements and the outcome of incident ADI. Self-reported loss of appetite study (AOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.04, 3.45, P = 0.036) and moderate wasting based on MUAC classification (AOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.13, 5.10, P = 0.022) were independently associated with increased odds of developing incident ADI within 9 months, while continuous increments (in psi) of median handgrip strength (AOR 0.74, 95%CI 0.60, 0.91, P = 0.004) was independently associated with decreased odds of incident ADI only among women. The association between low BMI and the short-term outcome of ADI was attenuated after controlling for these nutritional indicators. These findings warrant further research to validate the consistency of these observed associations among larger ART-naïve HIV-infected populations, as well as to develop nutritional assessment tools for identifying disease progression risk among ART-naïve PLHIV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219111PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6605674PMC
February 2020

Single Mothers and Female Sex Workers in Zambia Have Similar Risk Profiles.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 09 30;35(9):814-825. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

The aim of the study was to compare reproductive health and high-risk behaviors in female sex workers (FSWs) and single mothers (SMs) in Zambia's two largest cities, Lusaka and Ndola. FSWs were invited from known community hot spots, and sexually active HIV- SMs were referred from infant vaccination services for free and anonymous screening and treatment for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and long acting reversible contraception. A subset completed an interviewer-administered survey. From 2012 to 2016, 1,893 women (1,377 FSWs and 516 HIV- SMs) responded to referrals. HIV prevalence was 50% in Lusaka and 33% in Ndola FSWs. Positive syphilis serology (rapid plasmin reagin) was found in 29%-31% of HIV+ FSWs and 9%-12% of HIV- FSWs and SMs. Trichomonas was more common in Ndola (11%-12%), compared with Lusaka (3%-7%). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use among HIV+ FSWs was 9%-15%. In all groups, consistent condom use (8%-11%) and modern contraceptive use (35%-65%) were low. Low literacy and reported coercion at first sexual intercourse were common in both FSWs and SMs, as was alcohol use during sex among FSWs. Zambian FSWs and SMs have low condom use and high HIV/STI and unplanned pregnancy risk. Many FSWs and half of SMs are ≥25 years of age, and thus too old for HIV prevention services targeting "adolescent girls and young women" (aged 15-24). Tailored and targeted reproductive health services are needed to reduce HIV, STI, and unplanned pregnancy in these vulnerable women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6735314PMC
September 2019

Community health worker promotions increase uptake of long-acting reversible contraception in Rwanda.

Reprod Health 2019 Jun 4;16(1):75. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Background: We coordinated community health worker (CHW) promotions with training and support of government clinic nurses to increase uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), specifically the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and the hormonal implant, in Kigali, Rwanda.

Methods: From August 2015 to September 2016, CHW provided fertility goal-based family planning counseling focused on LARC methods, engaged couples in family planning counseling, and provided written referrals to clients expressing interest in LARC methods. Simultaneously, we provided didactic and practical training to clinic nurses on LARC insertion and removal. We evaluated: 1) aggregate pre- versus post-implementation LARC uptake as a function of CHW promotions, and 2) demographic factors associated with LARC uptake among women responding to CHW referrals.

Results: 7712 referrals were delivered by 184 CHW affiliated with eight government clinics resulting in 6072 family planning clinic visits (79% referral uptake). 95% of clinic visits resulted in LARC uptake (16% copper IUD, 79% hormonal implant). The monthly average for IUD insertions doubled from 29 prior to service implementation to 61 after (p < 0.0001), and the monthly average for implant insertions increased from 109 to 309 (p < 0.0001). In adjusted analyses, LARC uptake was associated (p < 0.05) with the CHW referral being issued to the couple (versus the woman alone, adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.6), having more children (aOR = 1.3), desiring more children (aOR = 0.8), and having a religious affiliation (aOR = 2.9 Protestant, aOR = 3.1 Catholic, aOR = 2.5 Muslim each versus none/other). Implant versus non-LARC uptake was associated with having little or no education; meanwhile, having higher education was associated with IUD versus implant uptake.

Conclusions: Fertility goal-based and couple-focused family planning counseling delivered by CHW, coupled with LARC training and support of nursing staff, substantially increased uptake of LARC methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0739-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549304PMC
June 2019

Miscarriage among women in the United States Women's Interagency HIV Study, 1994-2017.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 10 25;221(4):347.e1-347.e13. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Relatively little is known about the frequency and factors associated with miscarriage among women living with HIV.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate factors associated with miscarriage among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

Study Design: We conducted an analysis of longitudinal data collected from Oct. 1, 1994, to Sept. 30, 2017. Women who attended at least 2 Women's Interagency HIV Study visits and reported pregnancy during follow-up were included. Miscarriage was defined as spontaneous loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation based on self-report assessed at biannual visits. We modeled the association between demographic, behavioral, and clinical covariates and miscarriage (vs live birth) for women overall and stratified by HIV status using mixed-model logistic regression.

Results: Similar proportions of women living with and without HIV experienced miscarriage (37% and 39%, respectively, P = .638). In adjusted analyses, smoking tobacco (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0), alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0), and marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0) were associated with miscarriage. Among women living with HIV, low HIV viral load (<4 log10 copies/mL) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5) and protease inhibitor (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4) vs the nonuse of combination antiretroviral therapy use were protective against miscarriage.

Conclusion: We did not find an increased odds of miscarriage among women living with HIV compared with uninfected women; however, poorly controlled HIV infection was associated with increased miscarriage risk. Higher miscarriage risk among women exposed to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana highlight potentially modifiable behaviors. Given previous concern about antiretroviral therapy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the novel protective association between protease inhibitors compared with non-combination antiretroviral therapy and miscarriage in this study is reassuring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.05.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878114PMC
October 2019

The Impacts of Residential Location on the Risk of HIV Virologic Failure Among ART Users in Durban, South Africa.

AIDS Behav 2019 Sep;23(9):2558-2575

Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Using a case-control study of patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2010-2012 at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa, we sought to understand how residential locations impact patients' risk of virologic failure (VF). Using generalized estimating equations to fit logistic regression models, we estimated the associations of VF with socioeconomic status (SES) and geographic access to care. We then determined whether neighborhood-level poverty modifies the association between individual-level SES and VF. Automobile ownership for men and having non-spouse family members pay medical care for women remained independently associated with increased odds of VF for patients dwelling in moderately and severely poor neighborhoods. Closer geographic proximity to medical care was positively associated with VF among men, while higher neighborhood-level poverty was positively associated with VF among women. The programmatic implications of our findings include developing ART adherence interventions that address the role of gender in both the socioeconomic and geographical contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02523-7DOI Listing
September 2019

HIV Positivity and Referral to Treatment Following Testing of Partners and Children of PLHIV Index Patients in Public Sector Facilities in South Africa.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 08;81(4):365-370

Department of Epidemiology, BroadReach Healthcare, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There is an imperative need for innovative interventions to identify people living with HIV and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing index partner/child testing of people living with HIV.

Methods: We trained 86 nurses and counsellors in 56 public health facilities in 6 high HIV burden Districts in South Africa 2017 to provide index partner/child testing (tracing and testing of partners/children of people living with HIV). We collected programmatic data including index partner/child HIV positivity by age, gender, and location of testing. In subanalyses, we evaluated factors associated with identifying HIV-positive partners and children in separate models using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: We tested 16,033 partners and children of index patients between October 2017 and June 2018. Most of those tested were women (61%) and 20-39 years old (39%). Overall, 6.4% were 10-14 years old, 9.5% were 15-19 years, and 8% were ≥50 years. HIV positivity was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 36% to 40%]. In children ages 10-14 years, 13% were HIV-infected (95% CI = 11% to 14%). In subanalyses, HIV positivity in partners was associated with their increased age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for increase in 5-year age category = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.42], female gender (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.82), and index partner bringing the partner in for HIV testing vs. referring the partner through the provider or recommending testing to the partner (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.43 to 2.63), adjusting for location of testing. Almost all patients diagnosed (97%) were referred to antiretroviral therapy.

Conclusions: Providing index partner/child testing was feasible and we identified a very high yield when testing partners and children of index patients. Index partner and children testing should be offered to all patients living with HIV to improve case finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637406PMC
August 2019

Control of the HIV-1 Load Varies by Viral Subtype in a Large Cohort of African Adults With Incident HIV-1 Infection.

J Infect Dis 2019 07;220(3):432-441

International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Human Immunology Laboratory, London, United Kingdom.

Few human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons can maintain low viral levels without therapeutic intervention. We evaluate predictors of spontaneous control of the viral load (hereafter, "viral control") in a prospective cohort of African adults shortly after HIV infection. Viral control was defined as ≥2 consecutively measured viral loads (VLs) of ≤10 000 copies/mL after the estimated date of infection, followed by at least 4 subsequent measurements for which the VL in at least 75% was ≤10 000 copies/mL in the absence of ART. Multivariable logistic regression characterized predictors of viral control. Of 590 eligible volunteers, 107 (18.1%) experienced viral control, of whom 25 (4.2%) maintained a VL of 51-2000 copies/mL, and 5 (0.8%) sustained a VL of ≤50 copies/mL. The median ART-free follow-up time was 3.3 years (range, 0.3-9.7 years). Factors independently associated with control were HIV-1 subtype A (reference, subtype C; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.1 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-3.5]), female sex (reference, male sex; aOR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1-2.8]), and having HLA class I variant allele B*57 (reference, not having this allele; aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.0-3.6]) in a multivariable model that also controlled for age at the time of infection and baseline CD4+ T-cell count. We observed strong associations between infecting HIV-1 subtype, HLA type, and sex on viral control in this cohort. HIV-1 subtype is important to consider when testing and designing new therapeutic and prevention technologies, including vaccines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603968PMC
July 2019

Predictors of More Effective Contraceptive Method Use at 12 Weeks Post-Abortion: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2019 05 11;28(5):591-599. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Understanding factors associated with contraceptive use post-abortion can inform clinical practices to improve contraception uptake. This prospective cohort study included adult women who completed the survey before surgical abortion at an Atlanta, Georgia clinic, with an online survey 12 weeks later. Poisson regression models assessed associations between demographic and reproductive factors and use of more effective (contraceptive pill, ring, patch, injectables, intrauterine device [IUD], implant, sterilization) versus less effective (none, condoms, withdrawal, rhythm methods) contraception at follow-up. Three hundred ninety three women completed the initial survey; 180 (46%) completed follow-up. Of those completing follow-up, 109 (61%) expressed interest in initiating more effective methods in-clinic, yet only 85 (47%) reported using these methods at follow-up. Sixty-one women (34%) were not using their preferred contraceptive at follow-up; 34 (56%) of whom preferred to use IUD, implant, or sterilization. More effective contraception use was significantly associated with age over 30 (adjusted risk ratio, aRR 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.57); nulliparity (aRR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.20-2.42); use of more effective methods at most recent conception (aRR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73-3.79); interest in more effective methods at the time of the abortion (aRR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.11-2.18); and receiving a contraceptive/prescription at the time of abortion (aRR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.37-2.81). Over half of women use less effective contraception 3 months post-abortion, despite a high interest in more effective contraception. Additional research is needed to understand contraceptive decision making in the context of abortion care to inform interventions to increase contraceptive uptake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2018.7210DOI Listing
May 2019