Publications by authors named "Kristin Herman"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expanding the Phenotypic Spectrum of GPI Anchoring Deficiency Due to Biallelic Variants in .

Neurol Genet 2021 Dec 21;7(6):e631. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Genetics (A.M.R.C., D.A.D.), Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa; CHU Sainte Justine Research Centre (S.S., T.T.M.N., P.M.C.), Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada; Pediatric Neurology & Development Center (H.B.), Shamir (Assaf Harofeh) Medical Center, Zerifin, Tel Aviv University; Pediatric Genetics Clinic (E.S.-D.), Schneider Children's Medical Centre, Petach Tikya, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Unit of Neurophysiology, Department of Neurosciences, IRCCS, Bambino Gesù Research Hospital, Rome, Italy; Section of Medical Genomics (K.C.H.), Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, University of California, Davis, Sacramento; APHP (B.K.), Département de Génétique, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France; APHP Sorbonne-Université (D.H.), UF Génétique Médicale, Hôpitaux Pitié-Salpêtrière et Trousseau, Centre de Référence "déficiences intellectuelles de causes rares", Paris, France; Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute (D.L.J., W. M., D.A.D.), Ottawa, Canada; Department of Human Genetics (S.M., H.W.), Hannover Medical School, Germany; Biochemical Diseases (R.R.), BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Greenwood Genetic Center (E.S., J.R., W.B.B., J.R.J.), SC; Department of Molecular Medicine (V.S.), University of Pavia; Neurogenetics Research Center (V.S.), IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia; Unit of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders (G.Z.), Department of Neurosciences, IRCCS, Bambino Gesù Research Hospital, Rome, Italy; and Medical Genetics Division (P.M.C.), Department of Pediatrics, Sainte-Justine University Hospital Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background And Objectives: To expand the clinical knowledge of 1-related glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) deficiency.

Methods: An international case series of 7 patients with biallelic variants were identified. Clinical, biochemical, and neuroimaging data were collected for comparison. Where possible, GPI-anchored proteins were assessed using flow cytometry.

Results: Ten novel variants were identified in 7 patients. Flow cytometry samples of 3 available patients confirmed deficiency of several GPI-anchored proteins on leukocytes. Extensive phenotypic information was available for each patient. The majority experienced developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia. Neuroimaging revealed cerebellar anomalies in the majority of the patients. Alkaline phosphatase was within the normal range in 5 individuals and low in 1 individual, as has been noted in other transamidase defects. We notably describe individuals either less affected or older than the ones published previously.

Discussion: Clinical features of the cases reported broaden the spectrum of the known phenotype of -related GPI deficiency, while outlining the importance of using functional studies such as flow cytometry to aid in variant classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532669PMC
December 2021

D-DEMØ, a distinct phenotype caused by mutations.

Neurol Genet 2020 Oct 4;6(5):e466. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Duke University (L.P., M.P., M.M.M., N.W., V.S., A.H., M.A.M.), Durham, NC; UC Davis Health (K.H.), Sacramento; Baylor Scott & White Health (R.S.), Dallas, TX; Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science (D.M.M.), Chicago, IL; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (E.L.H.); Columbia University (D.G.), New York City, NY; and Glycan Therapeutics, LLC (V.P.), Chapel Hill, NC.

Objective: To describe a phenotype caused by mutations, which manifests as dystonia, dysmorphism of the face, encephalopathy with developmental delay, brain MRI abnormalities always including cerebellar hypoplasia, no hemiplegia (Ø) (D-DEMØ), and neonatal onset.

Methods: Review and analysis of clinical and genetic data.

Results: Patients shared the above traits and had whole-exome sequencing that showed de novo variants of the gene, predicted to be disease causing and occurring in regions of the protein critical for pump function. Patient 1 (c.1079C>G, p.Thr360Arg), an 8-year-old girl, presented on day 1 of life with episodic dystonia, complex partial seizures, and facial dysmorphism. MRI of the brain revealed cerebellar hypoplasia. Patient 2 (c.420G>T, p.Gln140His), an 18-year-old man, presented on day 1 of life with hypotonia, tremor, and facial dysmorphism. He later developed dystonia. MRI of the brain revealed cerebellar hypoplasia and, later, further cerebellar volume loss (atrophy). Patient 3 (c.974G>A, Gly325Asp), a 13-year-old girl, presented on day 1 of life with tremor, episodic dystonia, and facial dysmorphism. MRI of the brain showed severe cerebellar hypoplasia. Patient 4 (c.971A>G, p.Glu324Gly), a 14-year-old boy, presented on day 1 of life with tremor, hypotonia, dystonia, nystagmus, facial dysmorphism, and later seizures. MRI of the brain revealed moderate cerebellar hypoplasia.

Conclusions: D-DEMØ represents an -related phenotype, the observation of which should trigger investigation for mutations. Our findings, and the presence of multiple distinct -related phenotypes, support the possibility that there are differences in the underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413631PMC
October 2020

Disruptive mutations in TANC2 define a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with psychiatric disorders.

Nat Commun 2019 10 15;10(1):4679. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12435-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794285PMC
October 2019

Mutations in ACTL6B Cause Neurodevelopmental Deficits and Epilepsy and Lead to Loss of Dendrites in Human Neurons.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 05 25;104(5):815-834. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, WC1N 3BG London, UK.

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507050PMC
May 2019

Effects of a Mutation in the Gene Encoding the Mitochondrial Co-chaperonin HSP10 and Its Potential Association with a Neurological and Developmental Disorder.

Front Mol Biosci 2016 7;3:65. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital Aarhus, Denmark.

We here report molecular investigations of a missense mutation in the gene encoding the HSP10 subunit of the HSP60/ HSP10 chaperonin complex that assists protein folding in the mitochondrial matrix. The mutation was identified in an infant who came to clinical attention due to infantile spasms at 3 months of age. Clinical exome sequencing revealed heterozygosity for a NM_002157.2:c.217C>T mutation causing replacement of leucine with phenylalanine at position 73 of the HSP10 protein. This variation has never been observed in public exome sequencing databases or the literature. To evaluate whether the mutation may be disease-associated we investigated its effects by and studies. Our studies indicated that the purified mutant protein was functional, yet its thermal stability, spontaneous refolding propensity, and resistance to proteolytic treatment were profoundly impaired. Mass spectrometric analysis of patient fibroblasts revealed barely detectable levels of HSP10-p.Leu73Phe protein resulting in an almost 2-fold decrease of the ratio of HSP10 to HSP60 subunits. Amounts of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2, a protein whose folding is known to strongly depend on the HSP60/HSP10 complex, were decreased to approximately 20% in patient fibroblasts in spite of unchanged SOD2 transcript levels. As a likely consequence, mitochondrial superoxide levels were increased about 2-fold. Although, we cannot exclude other causative or contributing factors, our experimental data support the notion that the HSP10-p.Leu73Phe mutation could be the cause or a strong contributing factor for the disorder in the described patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2016.00065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5053987PMC
October 2016

Clinical intrafamilial variability in lethal familial neonatal seizure disorder caused by TBC1D24 mutations.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 12 19;170(12):3207-3214. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

TBC1D24-related disorders include a wide phenotypic ranging from mild to lethal seizure disorders, non-syndromic deafness, and composite syndromes such as DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). The TBC1D24 gene has a role in cerebral cortex development and in presynaptic neurotransmission. Here, we present a familial case of a lethal early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, associated with two novel compound heterozygous missense variants on the TBC1D24 gene, which were detected by exome sequencing. The detailed clinical data of the three siblings is summarized in order to support the variability of the phenotype, severity, and progression of this disorder among these family members. Functional studies demonstrated that the identified novel missense mutations result in a loss of expression of the protein, suggesting a correlation between residual expression, and the disease severity. This indicates that protein expression analysis is important for interpreting genetic results when novel variants are found, as well as for complementing clinical assessment by predicting the functional impact. Further analysis is necessary to delineate the clinical presentation of individuals with TBC1D24 pathogenic variants, as well as to develop markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and potential targeted treatments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37933DOI Listing
December 2016

Recurrent HERV-H-mediated 3q13.2-q13.31 deletions cause a syndrome of hypotonia and motor, language, and cognitive delays.

Hum Mutat 2013 Oct 13;34(10):1415-23. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Signature Genomic Laboratories, PerkinElmer, Inc, Spokane, Washington.

We describe the molecular and clinical characterization of nine individuals with recurrent, 3.4-Mb, de novo deletions of 3q13.2-q13.31 detected by chromosomal microarray analysis. All individuals have hypotonia and language and motor delays; they variably express mild to moderate cognitive delays (8/9), abnormal behavior (7/9), and autism spectrum disorders (3/9). Common facial features include downslanting palpebral fissures with epicanthal folds, a slightly bulbous nose, and relative macrocephaly. Twenty-eight genes map to the deleted region, including four strong candidate genes, DRD3, ZBTB20, GAP43, and BOC, with important roles in neural and/or muscular development. Analysis of the breakpoint regions based on array data revealed directly oriented human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements of ~5 kb in size and of >95% DNA sequence identity flanking the deletion. Subsequent DNA sequencing revealed different deletion breakpoints and suggested nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between HERV-H elements as a mechanism of deletion formation, analogous to HERV-I-flanked and NAHR-mediated AZFa deletions. We propose that similar HERV elements may also mediate other recurrent deletion and duplication events on a genome-wide scale. Observation of rare recurrent chromosomal events such as these deletions helps to further the understanding of mechanisms behind naturally occurring variation in the human genome and its contribution to genetic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599348PMC
October 2013

Delineation of a deletion region critical for corpus callosal abnormalities in chromosome 1q43-q44.

Eur J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 21;20(2):176-9. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Submicroscopic deletions involving chromosome 1q43-q44 result in cognitive impairment, microcephaly, growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and variable involvement of other organ systems. A consistently observed feature in patients with this deletion are the corpus callosal abnormalities (CCAs), ranging from thinning and hypoplasia to complete agenesis. Previous studies attempting to delineate the critical region for CCAs have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 1q43-q44. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. Four patients had CCAs, and shared the smallest region of overlap that contains only three protein coding genes, CEP170, SDCCAG8, and ZNF238. One patient with a small deletion involving SDCCAG8 and AKT3, and another patient with an intragenic deletion of AKT3 did not have any CCA, implying that the loss of these two genes is unlikely to be the cause of CCA. CEP170 is expressed extensively in the brain, and encodes for a protein that is a component of the centrosomal complex. ZNF238 is involved in control of neuronal progenitor cells and survival of cortical neurons. Our results rule out the involvement of AKT3, and implicate CEP170 and/or ZNF238 as novel genes causative for CCA in patients with a terminal 1q deletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2011.171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3260920PMC
February 2012

Penetrance of the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome in a premutation carrier population.

JAMA 2004 Jan;291(4):460-9

MIND Institute, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, USA.

Context: Premutation expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are frequent in the general population, with estimated prevalences of 1 per 259 females and 1 per 813 males. Several articles have recently described the presence of late-onset neurological symptoms in male carriers of premutation (FMR1) alleles. The main clinical features described in this newly identified syndrome are cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor. Additional documented symptoms include short-term memory loss, executive functional deficits, cognitive decline, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, lower-limb proximal muscle weakness, and autonomic dysfunction.

Objective: To study the penetrance of the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) among premutation carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Family-based study of 192 individuals (premutation carriers and controls) whose families belong to the Northern or Southern California Fragile X Associations. Data were collected (March 2002-April 2003) through a survey and a standardized neurological examination, which was videotaped and subsequently scored in a blinded fashion.

Main Outcome Measures: Penetrance of intention tremor and ataxia among adult carriers (aged > or =50 years) of premutation expansions of the FMR1 gene.

Results: Data from the survey of 192 individuals demonstrated an age-related penetrance of the combination of reported intention tremor and gait ataxia in male carriers (17%, 38%, 47%, and 75% [lower-bound estimates] for participants aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and > or =80 years, respectively). The male carrier group had an age-adjusted 13-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval, 3.9-25.4; P =.003) of combined intention tremor and gait ataxia when compared with male controls. The clinical examination data from 93 individuals demonstrated that male carriers experienced more difficulties on each of 3 standardized neurological rating scales compared with controls (P<.05). Female carrier scores were also higher than those of female controls (P<.05) on 2 of the 3 neurological rating scales, but no participant was identified with probable or definite FXTAS.

Conclusions: The study demonstrates that older male carriers of premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene are at high risk of developing FXTAS. Since male premutation carriers are relatively common in the general population, older men with ataxia and intention tremor should be screened for the FMR1 mutation, especially if these signs are accompanied by parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, or cognitive decline, regardless of family history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.4.460DOI Listing
January 2004
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