Publications by authors named "Kristen Sanoshy"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research & Innovation Center, Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0841, Japan.

Background: Supplementation of citicoline (CDP-choline), a naturally occurring mononucleotide, has shown beneficial effects on memory function and behavior in populations with a wide range of impairments. However, few studies have investigated its effect in healthy older populations.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline (Cognizin®), on memory in healthy elderly populations with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI).

Methods: A total of 100 healthy men and women aged between 50 and 85 y with AAMI participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive placebo (n = 51) or citicoline (n = 49; 500 mg/d) for 12 wk. Memory function was assessed at baseline and end of the intervention (12 wk) using computerized tests (Cambridge Brain Sciences, Ontario, Canada). Safety measurements included adverse events query, body weight, blood pressure, and hematology and metabolic panel. Intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using ANCOVA for the primary and secondary outcome variables with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Results: A total of 99 out of 100 participants completed the study in its entirety. After the 12-wk intervention, participants supplemented with citicoline showed significantly greater improvements in secondary outcomes of episodic memory (assessed by the Paired Associate test), compared with those on placebo (mean: 0.15 vs. 0.06, respectively, P = 0.0025). Composite memory (secondary outcome), calculated using the scores of 4 memory tests, also significantly improved to a greater extent following citicoline supplementation (mean: 3.78) compared with placebo (mean: 0.72, P = 0.0052).

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation of citicoline for 12 wk improved overall memory performance, especially episodic memory, in healthy older males and females with AAMI. The findings suggest that regular consumption of citicoline may be safe and potentially beneficial against memory loss due to aging. This trial was registered at as NCT03369925.
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May 2021

Addition of Orange Pomace Attenuates the Acute Glycemic Response to Orange Juice in Healthy Adults.

J Nutr 2021 Jun;151(6):1436-1442

Center for Nutrition Research, Department of Food Sceince and Nutrition, Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet and is known to attenuate postprandial glycemia. Orange pomace (OP) is a by-product of orange juice (OJ) production and is a rich source of fiber.

Objective: Two separate studies determined the impact of added OP to 100% OJ on postprandial glycemic response compared with sugar-matched OJ or whole orange fruit (WOF).

Methods: Study 1 included 17 adults [65% female, age 39.3 ± 3.1 y, and BMI (in kg/m2) 24.6 ± 0.7], and study 2 included 45 different adults (47% female, age 25.1 ± 4.3 y, and BMI 22.5 ± 1.6). Studies were conducted at separate locations using a randomized, 3-arm, crossover design to test the glycemic response to sugar-matched OJ, OJ with 5 g fiber from OP (OPF), or WOF. The primary outcomes were 2-h glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) in study 1, analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, and maximum glucose concentration (Cmax) in study 2, analyzed using PROC MIXED (ANCOVA). Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at fasting and multiple time points over 2 h after test product consumption (study 1, serum; study 2, plasma).

Results: In study 1, glucose iAUC was not significantly lower in OPF compared to the OJ or WOF (825 ± 132 compared with 920 ± 132 and 760 ± 132 mg · min · dL-1, respectively, P = 0.57 for both). In study 2, glucose iAUC was significantly lower in WOF compared with OPF and OJ (689 ± 70.7 compared with 892 ± 70.7 and 974 ± 70.7 mg · min · dL-1, P = 0.02 and 0.001, respectively). Data from both studies indicated OPF reduced Cmax compared with OJ and that the reductions were comparable to WOF (study 1: OPF, 115 ± 4.06 compared with OJ, 124 ± 4.06 and WOF, 114 ± 4.06 mg · dL-¹, P = 0.002 and 0.75, respectively; study 2: OPF, 128 ± 1.92 compared with OJ, 136 ± 1.92 and WOF, 125 ± 1.92 mg · dL-¹, P = 0.001 and 0.28, respectively).

Conclusion: Data from both studies demonstrated no significant effect of OPF on postprandial iAUC compared with OJ. However, adding OP into OJ attenuates the postprandial glucose Cmax, and the responses were comparable to WOF in healthy adults.
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June 2021

Spearmint Extract Improves Working Memory in Men and Women with Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

J Altern Complement Med 2018 Jan 9;24(1):37-47. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

1 Kemin Foods, LC , Des Moines, IA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) extract, high in polyphenols including rosmarinic acid, on cognitive performance, sleep, and mood in individuals with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI).

Design: Subjects with AAMI (N = 90; 67% female; age = 59.4 ± 0.6 years) were randomly assigned (n = 30/group) to consume 900, 600, or 0 mg/day (two capsules, once daily) spearmint extract for 90 days, in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Assessments were completed for cognition (days 0, 45, and 90), sleep (days 0 and 90), and mood (days 0 and 90) by using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively.

Results: Quality of working memory and spatial working memory accuracy improved after supplementation with 900 mg/day spearmint extract by 15% (p = 0.0469) and 9% (p = 0.0456), respectively, versus placebo. Subjects consuming 900 mg/day spearmint extract reported improvement in their ability to fall asleep, relative to subjects consuming placebo (p = 0.0046). Overall treatment effects were evident for vigor-activity (p = 0.0399), total mood disturbance (p = 0.0374), and alertness and behavior following wakefulness (p = 0.0415), with trends observed for improvements after spearmint supplementation relative to placebo.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the distinct spearmint extract may be a beneficial nutritional intervention for cognitive health in older subjects with AAMI.
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January 2018

Safety and tolerability of a dried aqueous spearmint extract.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jun 7;86:167-176. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Kemin Foods, L.C., 2100 Maury St., Des Moines, IA 50317, USA.

Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and spearmint extracts are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as flavoring in beverages, pharmaceuticals, and confectionaries. Studies of spearmint extracts in humans and animals have reported conflicting results with respect to toxicity. Since the chemical composition of these extracts was not reported and the spearmint source material was different, the relevance of these existing data to evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of a dried aqueous spearmint extract standardized to rosmarinic acid is not clear. Hence, the safety and tolerability of the dried aqueous spearmint extract was evaluated as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults with age-associated memory impairment. Ingestion of both 600 and 900 mg/day for 90 days had no effect on plasma levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or thyroid stimulating hormone, or other safety parameters including vital signs, plasma chemistry or whole blood hematology values. Additionally, there were no reported severe adverse events, no significant between-group differences in the number of subjects reporting adverse effects and the adverse events reported could not be attributed to ingestion of the extract. These results therefore show that ingestion of the aqueous dried spearmint extract is safe and well-tolerated.
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June 2017

Bioavailability of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from phospholipid-rich herring roe oil in men and women with mildly elevated triacylglycerols.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2016 08 4;111:17-24. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, United States.

This randomized, single-blind, crossover trial assessed the bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) from two different sources, each examined over a 12h period following consumption of a single serving and after 2-weeks of daily supplementation. Thirty-two adults with fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations between 100 and 399mg/dL were randomly assigned, with stratification by sex and age, to receive 12 capsules/day containing either phospholipid (PL)-rich herring roe oil (Romega® 30, 628mg/day EPA; 1810mg/day DHA; 137mg/day DPA) or TAG-rich fish oil (575mg/day EPA; 1843mg/day DHA; 259mg/day DPA) each for a 2-week period separated by a 4 week washout. The net incremental area under the curve from 0 to 12h for EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) were significantly higher (p<0.01 for all) after Romega 30 supplementation compared to fish oil. Similar results were observed when the data for the Romega 30 condition were normalized to fish oil EPA and DHA intakes (p<0.001 for all). After the 2-week supplementation period, fasting plasma PC EPA+ DHA was elevated by ~2.8 to 3.0-fold relative to baseline in both conditions (p<0.0001 for each), but there was no significant difference in the change from baseline (p=0.422) between Romega 30 (baseline=62.2±3.8µg/mL vs. end of study=172.9±11.7µg/mL) and fish oil (baseline=62.0±3.4µg/mL vs. end of study=185.4±11.2µg/mL) conditions. Similar results were observed for each individual LC n-3 PUFA in plasma PC after 2 weeks of supplementation. These data demonstrate that PL-rich herring roe is a well-tolerated and bioavailable source of LC n-3 PUFA.
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August 2016

A randomized, controlled, crossover trial to assess the acute appetitive and metabolic effects of sausage and egg-based convenience breakfast meals in overweight premenopausal women.

Nutr J 2015 Feb 10;14:17. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Biofortis Clinical Research, 211 E. Lake St, Addison, IL, 60101, USA.

Background: Dietary protein at breakfast has been shown to enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake more so than carbohydrate or fat. However, relatively few studies have assessed substitution of protein for carbohydrate on indicators of appetite and glucose homeostasis simultaneously.

Methods: The acute appetitive and metabolic effects of commercially-prepared sausage and egg-based breakfast meals at two different protein levels (30 g and 39 g/serving), vs. a low-protein pancake breakfast (3 g protein) and no breakfast (water), were examined in premenopausal women (N = 35; age 32.5 ± 1.6 yr; BMI 24.8 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)). Test products provided ~280 kcal/serving and similar fat (12-14 g) and fiber contents (0-1 g). Visual Analog Scale ratings for appetite (hunger, fullness, prospective consumption, desire to eat) and repeated blood sampling for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were assessed throughout each test day. Energy intake was recorded at an ad libitum lunch meal at 240 min.

Results: Results showed increased satiety ratings for both the 30 and 39 g protein meals vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Postprandial glucose and insulin excursions were lower following the 30 g and 39 g protein conditions vs. the low-protein condition, with smaller responses following the 39 g vs. 30 g protein condition (p < 0.05 for all). Energy intake at lunch was significantly less (p < 0.001) following the 39 g protein meal (692 kcal) vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (789 and 810 kcal, respectively). Total energy intake from the test condition + lunch was higher (p < 0.01) for the 30 and 39 g meals (982 and 983 kcal, respectively) vs. no breakfast (810 kcal), and less than the low protein breakfast (1064 kcal; p < 0.01 vs. 39 g condition only).

Conclusions: Results suggest that convenience meals providing 30 or 39 g protein/serving produce greater appetite control, lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and reduced subsequent intake at lunch relative to a low-protein control, or no breakfast.

Trial Registration: NCT01713114.
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February 2015