Publications by authors named "Kristen Chevalier"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of amivantamab (JNJ-61186372), a bispecific antibody targeting EGFR and MET.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 8:100641. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Janssen Research & Development, Spring House, PA, USA. Electronic address:

A bispecific antibody (BsAb) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) pathways represents a novel approach to overcome resistance to targeted therapies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we sequentially screened a panel of BsAbs in a combinatorial approach to select the optimal bispecific molecule. The BsAbs were derived from different EGFR and MET parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Initially, molecules were screened for EGFR and MET binding on tumor cell lines and lack of agonistic activity towards MET. Hits were identified and further screened based on their potential to induce untoward cell proliferation and cross-phosphorylation of EGFR by MET via receptor colocalization in the absence of ligand. After the final step, we selected the EGFR and MET arms for the lead BsAb and added low fucose Fc engineering to generate amivantamab (JNJ-61186372). The crystal structure of the anti-MET Fab of amivantamab bound to MET was solved and elucidated the interaction between the two molecules in atomic details. Amivantamab antagonized the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced signaling by binding to MET Sema domain and thereby blocking HGF β-chain - Sema engagement. The amivantamab EGFR epitope was mapped to EGFR domain III and residues K443, K465, I467, and S468. Furthermore, amivantamab showed superior antitumor activity over small molecule EGFR and MET inhibitors in the HCC827-HGF in vivo model. Based on its unique mode of action, amivantamab may provide benefit to patients with malignancies associated with aberrant EGFR and MET signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100641DOI Listing
April 2021

Amivantamab (JNJ-61186372), an Fc Enhanced EGFR/cMet Bispecific Antibody, Induces Receptor Downmodulation and Antitumor Activity by Monocyte/Macrophage Trogocytosis.

Mol Cancer Ther 2020 10 3;19(10):2044-2056. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Janssen Research & Development, Spring House, Pennsylvania.

Small molecule inhibitors targeting mutant EGFR are standard of care in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but acquired resistance invariably develops through mutations in EGFR or through activation of compensatory pathways such as cMet. Amivantamab (JNJ-61186372) is an anti-EGFR and anti-cMet bispecific low fucose antibody with enhanced Fc function designed to treat tumors driven by activated EGFR and/or cMet signaling. Potent antitumor efficacy is observed upon amivantamab treatment of human tumor xenograft models driven by mutant activated EGFR, and this activity is associated with receptor downregulation. Despite these robust antitumor responses , limited antiproliferative effects and EGFR/cMet receptor downregulation by amivantamab were observed Interestingly, addition of isolated human immune cells notably enhanced amivantamab-mediated EGFR and cMet downregulation, leading to antibody dose-dependent cancer cell killing. Through a comprehensive assessment of the Fc-mediated effector functions, we demonstrate that monocytes and/or macrophages, through trogocytosis, are necessary and sufficient for Fc interaction-mediated EGFR/cMet downmodulation and are required for antitumor efficacy. Collectively, our findings represent a novel Fc-dependent macrophage-mediated antitumor mechanism of amivantamab and highlight trogocytosis as an important mechanism of action to exploit in designing new antibody-based cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0071DOI Listing
October 2020

The discovery of azetidine-piperazine di-amides as potent, selective and reversible monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 07 7;30(14):127243. Epub 2020 May 7.

Janssen Research & Development, L.L.C., Welsh & McKean Roads, Spring House, PA 19477, USA.

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the enzyme that is primarily responsible for hydrolyzing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidononylglycerol (2-AG) to arachidonic acid (AA). It has emerged in recent years as a potential drug target for a number of diseases. Herein, we report the discovery of compound 6g from a series of azetidine-piperazine di-amide compounds as a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of MAGL. Oral administration of compound 6g increased 2-AG levels in rat brain and produced full efficacy in the rat complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127243DOI Listing
July 2020

The discovery of diazetidinyl diamides as potent and reversible inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 06 18;30(12):127198. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Janssen Research & Development, L.L.C., Welsh & McKean Roads, Spring House, PA 19477, USA.

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has emerged as an attractive drug target because of its important role in regulating the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its hydrolysis product arachidonic acid (AA) in the brain. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel series of diazetidinyl diamide compounds 6 and 10 as potent reversible MAGL inhibitors. In addition to demonstrating potent MAGL inhibitory activity in the enzyme assay, the thiazole substituted diazetidinyl diamides 6d-l and compounds 10 were also effective at increasing 2-AG levels in a brain 2-AG accumulation assay in homogenized rat brain. Furthermore, selected compounds have been shown to achieve good brain penetration after oral administration in an animal study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127198DOI Listing
June 2020

Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

A Novel Bispecific Antibody Targeting EGFR and cMet Is Effective against EGFR Inhibitor-Resistant Lung Tumors.

Cancer Res 2016 07 23;76(13):3942-53. Epub 2016 May 23.

Janssen Research and Development, Spring House, Pennsylvania.

Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations become resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), often through second-site mutations in EGFR (T790M) and/or activation of the cMet pathway. We engineered a bispecific EGFR-cMet antibody (JNJ-61186372) with multiple mechanisms of action to inhibit primary/secondary EGFR mutations and the cMet pathway. JNJ-61186372 blocked ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and cMet and inhibited phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT more potently than the combination of single receptor-binding antibodies. In NSCLC tumor models driven by EGFR and/or cMet, JNJ-61186372 treatment resulted in tumor regression through inhibition of signaling/receptor downmodulation and Fc-driven effector interactions. Complete and durable regression of human lung xenograft tumors was observed with the combination of JNJ-61186372 and a third-generation EGFR TKI. Interestingly, treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with JNJ-61186372 resulted in no major toxicities, including absence of skin rash observed with other EGFR-directed agents. These results highlight the differentiated potential of JNJ-61186372 to inhibit the spectrum of mutations driving EGFR TKI resistance in NSCLC. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3942-53. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2833DOI Listing
July 2016

Global deletion of MGL in mice delays lipid absorption and alters energy homeostasis and diet-induced obesity.

J Lipid Res 2015 06 4;56(6):1153-71. Epub 2015 Apr 4.

Department of Nutritional Sciences Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901.

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerols (MGs) to yield FFAs and glycerol. MGL contributes to energy homeostasis through the mobilization of fat stores and also via the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. To further examine the role of MG metabolism in energy homeostasis, MGL(-/-) mice were fed either a 10% (kilocalories) low-fat diet (LFD) or a 45% (kilocalories) high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Profound increases of MG species in the MGL(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice were found. Weight gain over the 12 weeks was blunted in both diet groups. MGL(-/-) mice were leaner than WT mice at both baseline and after 12 weeks of LFD feeding. Circulating lipids were decreased in HFD-fed MGL(-/-) mice, as were the levels of several plasma peptides involved in glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Interestingly, MGL(-/-) mice had markedly reduced intestinal TG secretion following an oral fat challenge, suggesting delayed lipid absorption. Overall, the results indicate that global MGL deletion leads to systemic changes that produce a leaner phenotype and an improved serum metabolic profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M058586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442873PMC
June 2015

Diabetogenic effect of a series of tricyclic delta opioid agonists structurally related to cyproheptadine.

Toxicol Sci 2010 Oct 8;117(2):493-504. Epub 2010 Jul 8.

Drug Discovery, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Spring House, Pennsylvania 19477, USA.

The unexpected observation of a hyperglycemic effect of some tricycle-based delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists led to a series of studies to better understand the finding. Single administration of two novel tricyclic DOR agonists dose dependently elevated rat plasma glucose levels; 4-week toxicology studies confirmed the hyperglycemic finding and further revealed pancreatic β-cell hypertrophy, including vacuole formation, as well as bone dysplasia and Harderian gland degeneration with regeneration. Similar diabetogenic effects were observed in dog. A review of the literature on the antiserotonergic and antihistaminergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) and its metabolites revealed shared structural features as well as similar hyperglycemic effects to the present series of DOR agonists. To further evaluate these effects, we established an assay measuring insulin levels in the rat pancreatic β-cell-derived RINm5F cell line, extensively used to study CPH and its metabolites. Like CPH, the initial DOR agonists studied reduced RINm5F cell insulin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, compound DOR potency did not correlate with the insulin-reducing potency. Furthermore, the RINm5F cell insulin results correlated with the diabetogenic effect of the compounds in a 5-day mouse study. The RINm5F cell insulin assay enabled the identification of aryl-aryl-amine DOR agonists that lacked an insulin-reducing effect and did not elevate blood glucose in repeated dosing studies conducted over a suprapharmacologic dose range. Thus, not only did the RINm5F cell assay open a path for the further discovery of DOR agonists lacking diabetogenic potential but also it established a reliable, economical, and high-throughput screen for such potential, regardless of chemotype or target pharmacology. The present findings also suggest a mechanistic link between the toxicity observed here and that underlying Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq200DOI Listing
October 2010

Ex vivo delta opioid receptor autoradiography: CNS receptor occupancy of two novel compounds over their antihyperalgesic dose range.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2010 Aug 12;96(2):130-5. Epub 2010 May 12.

Drug Discovery, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Spring House, PA 19477, USA.

Discovered as part of an effort to identify delta opioid (DOPr or DOR) agonist analgesics, JNJ-20788560 and JNJ-39204880 exhibited high DOR affinity, with K(i) values of 1.7 and 2.0nM, respectively, and were selective for DOR over the mu opioid receptor (MOPr or MOR), with 596- and 122-fold selectivity, respectively. Both compounds stimulated DOR but not MOR induced GTPgammaS binding and were effective antihyperalgesic agents in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of thermal hyperalgesia in the rat, with oral ED(50) values of 13.5 and 35mg/kg, corresponding to plasma levels of 1 and 9microM, respectively. Autoradiographic analysis of DOR and MOR occupancy in sections of brain (striatum) and lumbar spinal cord (L4-L6) was determined ex vivo, using radiolabeled naltrindole or DAMGO. Quantitative image analysis resulted in striatal DOR ED(50) values of 6.9 and 10.7mg/kg, for JNJ-20788560 and JNJ-39204880 respectively, and spinal cord values of 6.4 and 3.2mg/kg, respectively. Neither compound dose-dependently occupied MOR within the dose range studied. Thus, this study confirmed the DOR selectively over MOR of both compounds following their oral administration, and further demonstrated dose-dependent DOR occupancy by each compound across its antihyperalgesic dose range. Importantly, these in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo data revealed that the greater in vitro potency of JNJ-20788560 was paralleled by its greater in vivo potency, although JNJ-39204880 achieved higher plasma levels following its oral administration. The receptor occupancy levels observed at the pharmacologic ED(50) doses of these compounds suggest the need for greater target engagement by JNJ-39204880 than by JNJ-20788560 to elicit a similar therapeutic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2010.04.020DOI Listing
August 2010

Triazinediones as prokineticin 1 receptor antagonists. Part 1: SAR, synthesis and biological evaluation.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 May 5;19(10):2661-3. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

Drug Discovery, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L. L. C., Spring House, PA 19477, United States.

A series of guanidine triazinediones were identified as potent PK1 receptor antagonists. A compound in this series inhibited the PK1 invoked prosecretory response in rat ileum tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.03.157DOI Listing
May 2009