Publications by authors named "Krista Noonan"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognostic Association between Common Laboratory Tests and Overall Survival in Elderly Men with De Novo Metastatic Castration Sensitive Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Canada.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada.

De novo cases of metastatic prostate cancer (mCSPC) are associated with poorer prognosis. To assist in clinical decision-making, we aimed to determine the prognostic utility of commonly available laboratory-based markers with overall survival (OS). In a retrospective population-based study, a cohort of 3556 men aged ≥66 years diagnosed with de novo mCSPC between 2014 and 2019 was identified in Ontario (Canada) administrative database. OS was assessed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory markers and OS adjusting for patient and disease characteristics. Laboratory markers that were assessed include neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), albumin, hemoglobin, serum testosterone and PSA kinetics. Among the 3556 older men with de novo mCSPC, their median age was 77 years (IQR: 71-83). The median survival was 18 months (IQR: 10-31). In multivariate analysis, a statistically significant association with OS was observed with all the markers (NLR, PLR, albumin, hemoglobin, PSA decrease, reaching PSA nadir and a 50% PSA decline), except for testosterone levels. Our findings support the use of markers of systemic inflammation (NLR, PLR and albumin), hemoglobin and PSA metrics as prognostic indicators for OS in de novo mCSPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200983PMC
June 2021

Effectiveness of first-line abiraterone versus enzalutamide among patients ≥80 years of age with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A retrospective propensity score-weighted comparative cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 12;152:215-222. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, BC Cancer, Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) disproportionately affects the elderly. There is limited data assessing the efficacy and tolerability of abiraterone acetate (AA) versus enzalutamide in this population.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of AA versus enzalutamide in patients ≥ 80 years with mCRPC.

Design, Setting And Participants: A retrospective propensity-weighted comparative cohort study of first-line AA versus enzalutamide among patients with mCRPC aged ≥80 years.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Inverse probability treatment weights based on propensity scores were generated to assess the treatment effect of AA versus enzalutamide on time to PSA progression (TTPP), time to progression (TTP) (first of PSA/radiographic/clinical progression) and overall survival using a weighted Cox proportional hazards model. PSA response rate (PSA RR) was compared between groups using Χ.

Results And Limitations: One hundred fifty-three patients received AA, and 125 received enzalutamide. Enzalutamide was associated with higher PSA RR (61.6% vs 43.8%, P < 0.004), and TTP (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.88, P = 0.01) but not TTPP (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.01, P = 0.06). There were significantly more dose reductions with enzalutamide (22.9% vs 44.8%, P > 0.001) but there was no interaction between median proportion of full dose received and TTPP or TTP for either drug. Rates of treatment discontinuation (for reasons other than progression) were also significantly different between AA and enzalutamide (28.8% vs 40.8%, respectively, P = 0.04). The most common reason for dose reductions and discontinuation of enzalutamide was fatigue (30.4% and 5.6%, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite more dose reductions and a higher treatment discontinuation rate, enzalutamide was associated with a higher PSA RR and longer time to progression, than AA. Given that clinical outcomes were not adversely impacted by decreased treatment exposure, dose modification may be a useful treatment strategy to balance toxicity and tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Results from a Canadian consensus forum of key controversial areas in the management of advanced prostate cancer: Recommendations for Canadian healthcare providers.

Can Urol Assoc J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Medical Affairs, Janssen Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Rapid progress in diagnostics and therapeutics for the management of prostate cancer (PCa) have created areas where high-level evidence to guide practice is lacking. The Genitourinary Research Consortium (GURC) conducted its second Canadian consensus forum to address areas of controversy in the management of PCa and provide recommendations to guide treatment.

Methods: A panel of PCa specialists discussed topics related to the management of PCa. The core scientific committee finalized the design, questions and the analysis of the consensus results. Attendees then voted to indicate their management choice regarding each statement/topic. Questions for voting were adapted from the 2019 Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference. The thresholds for agreement were set at ≥ 75% for 'consensus agreement', > 50% for "near-consensus", and ≤ 50% for "no consensus".

Results: The panel was comprised of 29 PCa experts including urologists (n=12), medical oncologists (n= 12), and radiation oncologists (n= 5). Voting took place for 65 pre-determined questions and three ad hoc questions. Consensus was reached for 34 questions, spanning a variety of areas including biochemical recurrence, treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive PCa, management of non-metastatic and metastatic castration-resistant PCa, bone health, and molecular profiling.

Conclusion: The consensus forum identified areas of consensus or near-consensus in more than half of the questions discussed. Areas of consensus typically aligned with available evidence, and areas of variability may indicate a lack of high-quality evidence and point to future opportunities for further research and education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.7347DOI Listing
June 2021

Real-world management of advanced prostate cancer: A description of management practices of community-based physicians and prostate cancer specialists.

Can Urol Assoc J 2021 Feb;15(2):E90-E96

Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: The Canadian Genitourinary Research Consortium (GURC) conducted a consensus development conference leading to 31 recommendations. Using the GURC consensus development questionnaire, we conducted a survey to measure the corresponding community-based practices on the management of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC).

Methods: An 87-item online questionnaire was sent to 600 community urologists and oncologists involved in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Results: Seventy-two community physicians responded to the survey. Of note, 50% community physicians indicated they would treat nmCRPC with agents approved for this indication if advanced imaging showed metastases. Radiation to the prostate for low-volume mCSPC was identified as a treatment practice by 27% of community physicians, and 35% indicated docetaxel as the next line of treatment after use of apalutamide. Use of genetic testing was reported in 36% of community physicians for newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.

Conclusions: There are several areas of community-based management of advanced prostate cancer that could represent potential areas for education, practice tools, and future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864716PMC
February 2021

Optimal sequencing of enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2, crossover trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 12 11;20(12):1730-1739. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Division of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone and enzalutamide are both used for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to determine the best sequence in which to use both drugs, as well as their second-line efficacy.

Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2, crossover trial done in six cancer centres in British Columbia, Canada, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with newly-diagnosed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without neuroendocrine differentiation and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2 or less. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated random number table to receive either abiraterone acetate 1000 mg orally once daily plus prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily until PSA progression followed by crossover to enzalutamide 160 mg orally once daily (group A), or the opposite sequence (group B). Treatment was not masked to investigators or participants. Primary endpoints were time to second PSA progression and PSA response (≥30% decline from baseline) on second-line therapy, analysed by intention-to-treat in all randomly assigned patients and in patients who crossed over, respectively. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02125357.

Findings: Between Oct 21, 2014, and Dec 13, 2016, 202 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either group A (n=101) or group B (n=101). At the time of data cutoff, 73 (72%) patients in group A and 75 (74%) patients in group B had crossed over. Time to second PSA progression was longer in group A than in group B (median 19·3 months [95% CI 16·0-30·5] vs 15·2 months [95% CI 11·9-19·8] months; hazard ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·45-0·97, p=0·036), at a median follow-up of 22·8 months (IQR 10·3-33·4). PSA responses to second-line therapy were seen in 26 (36%) of 73 patients for enzalutamide and three (4%) of 75 for abiraterone (χ p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events throughout the trial were hypertension (27 [27%] of 101 patients in group A vs 18 [18%] of 101 patients in group B) and fatigue (six [10%] vs four [4%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 15 (15%) of 101 patients in group A and 20 (20%) of 101 patients in group B. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Enzalutamide showed activity as a second-line novel androgen receptor pathway inhibitor, whereas abiraterone acetate did not, leading to a longer time to second PSA progression for the sequence of abiraterone followed by enzalutamide than with the opposite treatment sequence. Our data suggest that using a sequencing strategy of abiraterone acetate followed by enzalutamide provides the greatest clinical benefit.

Funding: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Prostate Cancer Canada, Movember Foundation, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Terry Fox New Frontiers Program, BC Cancer Foundation, Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Janssen, and Astellas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30688-6DOI Listing
December 2019

Controversial issues in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: Results from a Canadian consensus forum.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Apr 5;14(4):E137-E149. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

BC Cancer Agency, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: The management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) continues to evolve with the emergence of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. As a result, there are multiple areas in this landscape with a lack of high-level evidence to guide practice. Consensus initiatives are an approach to establishing practice guidance in areas where evidence is unclear. We conducted a Canadian-based consensus forum to address key controversial areas in the management of advanced PCa.

Methods: As part of a modified Delphi process, a core scientific group of PCa physicians (n=8) identified controversial areas for discussion and developed an initial set of questions, which were then reviewed and finalized with a larger group of 29 multidisciplinary PCa specialists. The main areas of focus were non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), oligometastatic prostate cancer, genetic testing in prostate cancer, and imaging in advanced prostate cancer. The predetermined threshold for consensus was set at 74% (agreement from 20 of 27 participating physicians).

Results: Consensus participants included uro-oncologists (n=13), medical oncologists (n=10), and radiation oncologists (n=4). Of the 64 questions, consensus was reached in 30 questions (n=5 unanimously). Consensus was more common for questions related to biochemical recurrence, sequencing of therapies, and mCRPC.

Conclusions: A Canadian consensus forum in PCa identified areas of agreement in nearly 50% of questions discussed. Areas of variability may represent opportunities for further research, education, and sharing of best practices. These findings reinforce the value of multidisciplinary consensus initiatives to optimize patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7124178PMC
April 2020

Clinical effectiveness of docetaxel for castration-sensitive prostate cancer in a real-world population-based analysis.

Prostate 2019 02 28;79(3):281-287. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of British Columbia, BC Cancer, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: Adding docetaxel to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) has known efficacy, with an overall survival benefit in Phase III clinical trials. The effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT in the general patient population remains undefined.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective review using the British Columbia Provincial Pharmacy Database. To be included, patients had to have castration-sensitive prostate cancer not previously treated (except in the adjuvant setting) and have received at least one cycle of docetaxel, with complete records available for review. Safety and clinical effectiveness were evaluated.

Results: From April 2015 to February 2017, we identified 183 cases; 156 met inclusion criteria. Most patients had high-volume disease (80%). All 6 planned docetaxel cycles were delivered in 126 cases (81%). Dose reductions and delays were required in 39% and 16% of cases. Grade 3-4 adverse events were noted in 40%, with no treatment-related deaths. The rate of febrile neutropenia was 18% and was significantly associated with the presence of high-volume disease (P = 0.038). PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/L was achieved in 27% of patients after 6 months of ADT and maintained in 16% after 12 months. Patients with over 20 bone metastases had worse time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and time to treatment for CRPC, and a trend toward worse overall survival. CRPC developed in 41% within 1 year, with a median time to CRPC of 14.4 months. Treatment for CRPC was given in 84 cases, with 90% receiving either abiraterone or enzalutamide in the first-line, with a PSA decline ≥50% occurring in 47%.

Conclusions: The effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT in a general population of patients with mCSPC was associated with poorer outcomes and high rates of toxicity compared to the published studies. Response rates to first-line treatment for mCRPC with abiraterone or enzalutamide appear similar to reported outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23733DOI Listing
February 2019

The Influence of the Evolution of First-Line Chemotherapy on Steadily Improving Survival in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Trials.

J Thorac Oncol 2015 Nov;10(11):1523-31

Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Over the past three decades, survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinical trials has doubled with an increase in 1-year survival from 25% to 50 to 55%. This has been mainly attributed to improvements in systemic therapy. Although modern first-line chemotherapy regimens have more favorable toxicity profiles, a statistically significant improvement in overall survival has not been demonstrated in existing meta-analyses of second-generation versus third-generation combinations. Moreover, pivotal trials demonstrating statistically significant survival superiority of third-generation regimens are consistently not reproducible even for nonsquamous populations using pemetrexed-platinum combinations. As enhancement in the efficacy of first-line systemic therapy in patients without identifiable driver mutations is questionable, other factors are discussed that explain the doubling of 1-year survival reported in clinical trials. These factors include second-line or third-line therapy, maintenance chemotherapy, performance status selection, stage migration, sex migration, improved treatment of brain metastases, and better palliative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0000000000000667DOI Listing
November 2015

Referral patterns in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: impact on delivery of treatment and survival in a contemporary population based cohort.

Lung Cancer 2014 Dec 2;86(3):344-9. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Chemotherapy improves overall survival (OS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet low rates of chemotherapy utilization have been observed. We sought to characterize the clinical effectiveness of chemotherapy in the general population by evaluating referral patterns, predictors of chemotherapy receipt and outcomes.

Methods: All referred cases of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC in British Columbia from January 1 to December 31, 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and treatments were extracted. OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox Proportional Hazards modeling was used to control for confounding variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors that predicted for chemotherapy treatment.

Results: 1373 patients were identified. Median age 70 years, 53% male, 37% ECOG ≥ 3.

Histology: 34% non-squamous, 21% squamous and 46% NOS. 748 (54%) patients were assessed by medical oncology and 417 (30%) received chemotherapy. Predictors of chemotherapy treatment were younger age, ECOG 0-2, living in a rural area and not receiving radiotherapy. There was an improvement in OS in patients who received chemotherapy at 13.1 months versus best supportive care 5.4 months (p<0.0001). This remained statistically significant when controlling for ECOG, sex, age, histology (HR 0.68, CI 0.59-0.78).

Conclusions: In this population-based setting, 37% of patients had an ECOG ≥ 3 at the time of referral, 54% were assessed by a medical oncologist and only 30% received chemotherapy. This is despite the awareness that chemotherapy significantly improves survival. Strategies to optimize appropriate referral such that patients do not miss out on life-prolonging therapy should be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.09.016DOI Listing
December 2014

Outcomes of patients treated with capecitabine and temozolamide for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and non-PNETs.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2014 Aug;5(4):247-52

Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Retrospective studies have demonstrated high response rates among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) treated with capecitabine and temozolamide (CapTem), while responses are infrequently seen among non-PNETs. The objective of the study was to describe progression free survival (PFS) among neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients treated with CapTem, and to identify factors associated with better activity.

Methods: Patients who were referred to one of five provincial cancer treatment centers between 2009 and 2013 for advanced NETs and initiated CapTem were included. Patients received Cap 1,500 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 and TMZ 200 mg/m(2) on days 10-14 every 28 days. Their characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: In our cohort, 29 patients (16 males) with a median age of 59 (range 26-76) received palliative CapTem, 15 of them as first-line chemotherapy. Primary tumors included pancreas (48.3%), small bowel (20.7%), lung (10.3%), unknown (10.3%), rectum (6.9%) and appendix (3.4%). Median number of cycles was three. Fifteen patients (51.7%) received CapTem as first-line chemotherapy and 14 (48.3%) as subsequent lines. Median PFS for the entire cohort was 4.7 months. PNETs had a median PFS of 4.9 months compared to 2.8 months for non-PNETs (P=0.178). Patients with PNETs who received CapTem in the first-line setting had a median PFS of 15.9 months as compared to only 3.1 months for the remainder [P=0.047, hazard ratios (HR) 0.342]. Patients with Ki67 above 5% and ≤5% had median PFS of 4.0 and 4.7 months, respectively (P=0.260).

Conclusions: CapTem showed good activity among PNETs, but its broader role in the treatment of carcinoid tumors remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2014.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110496PMC
August 2014
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