Publications by authors named "Krishnakali Dasgupta"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sensitive detection of Cre-mediated recombination using droplet digital PCR reveals Tg(BGLAP-Cre) and Tg(DMP1-Cre) are active in multiple non-skeletal tissues.

Bone 2021 01 6;142:115674. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Orthopedic Research Laboratories, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

In humans, somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA are associated with skeletal overgrowth. In order to determine if activated PI3K signaling in bone cells causes overgrowth, we used Tg(BGLAP-Cre) and Tg(DMP1-Cre) mouse strains to somatically activate a disease-causing conditional Pik3ca allele (Pik3ca) in osteoblasts and osteocytes. We observed Tg(BGLAP-Cre);Pik3ca offspring were born at the expected Mendelian frequency. However, these mice developed cutaneous lymphatic malformations and died before 7 weeks of age. In contrast, Tg(DMP1-Cre);Pik3ca offspring survived and had no cutaneous lymphatic malformations. Assuming that Cre-activity outside of the skeletal system accounted for the difference in phenotype between Tg(BGLAP-Cre);Pik3ca and Tg(DMP1-Cre);Pik3ca mice, we developed sensitive and specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays to search for and quantify rates of Tg(BGLAP-Cre)- and Tg(DMP1-Cre)-mediated recombination in non-skeletal tissues. We observed Tg(BGLAP-Cre)-mediated recombination in several tissues including skin, muscle, artery, and brain; two CNS locations, hippocampus and cerebellum, exhibited Cre-mediated recombination in >5% of cells. Tg(DMP1-Cre)-mediated recombination was also observed in muscle, artery, and brain. Although we cannot preclude that differences in phenotype between mice with Tg(BGLAP-Cre)- and Tg(DMP1-Cre)-mediated PIK3CA activation are due to Cre-recombination being induced at different stages of osteoblast differentiation, differences in recombination at non-skeletal sites are the more likely explanation. Since unanticipated sites of recombination can affect the interpretation of data from experiments involving conditional alleles, we recommend ddPCR as a good first step for assessing efficiency, leakiness, and off-targeting in experiments that employ Cre-mediated or Flp-mediated recombination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115674DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular patterning of the embryonic cranial mesenchyme revealed by genome-wide transcriptional profiling.

Dev Biol 2019 11 24;455(2):434-448. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, 10010, USA. Electronic address:

In the head of an embryo, a layer of mesenchyme surrounds the brain underneath the surface ectoderm. This cranial mesenchyme gives rise to the meninges, the calvaria (top part of the skull), and the dermis of the scalp. Abnormal development of these structures, especially the meninges and the calvaria, is linked to significant congenital defects in humans. It has been known that different areas of the cranial mesenchyme have different fates. For example, the calvarial bone develops from the cranial mesenchyme on the baso-lateral side of the head just above the eye (supraorbital mesenchyme, SOM), but not from the mesenchyme apical to SOM (early migrating mesenchyme, EMM). However, the molecular basis of this difference is not fully understood. To answer this question, we compared the transcriptomes of EMM and SOM using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq). This experiment identified a large number of genes that were differentially expressed in EMM and SOM, and gene ontology analyses found very different terms enriched in each region. We verified the expression of about 40 genes in the head by RNA in situ hybridization, and the expression patterns were annotated to make a map of molecular markers for 6 subdivisions of the cranial mesenchyme. Our data also provided insights into potential novel regulators of cranial mesenchyme development, including several axon guidance pathways, lectin complement pathway, cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, and ZIC family transcription factors. Together, information in this paper will serve as a unique resource to guide future research on cranial mesenchyme development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842427PMC
November 2019

Developmental biology of the meninges.

Genesis 2019 05 13;57(5):e23288. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

New York University College of Dentistry, Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York, New York.

The meninges are membranous layers surrounding the central nervous system. In the head, the meninges lie between the brain and the skull, and interact closely with both during development. The cranial meninges originate from a mesenchymal sheath on the surface of the developing brain, called primary meninx, and undergo differentiation into three layers with distinct histological characteristics: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. While genetic regulation of meningeal development is still poorly understood, mouse mutants and other models with meningeal defects have demonstrated the importance of the meninges to normal development of the calvaria and the brain. For the calvaria, the interactions with the meninges are necessary for the progression of calvarial osteogenesis during early development. In later stages, the meninges control the patterning of the skull and the fate of the sutures. For the brain, the meninges regulate diverse processes including cell survival, cell migration, generation of neurons from progenitors, and vascularization. Also, the meninges serve as a stem cell niche for the brain in the postnatal life. Given these important roles of the meninges, further investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying meningeal development can provide novel insights into the coordinated development of the head.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.23288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520190PMC
May 2019

Anti-osteogenic function of a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LMX1B is essential to early patterning of the calvaria.

Dev Biol 2018 11 28;443(2):103-116. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

The calvaria (upper part of the skull) is made of plates of bone and fibrous joints (sutures and fontanelles), and the proper balance and organization of these components are crucial to normal development of the calvaria. In a mouse embryo, the calvaria develops from a layer of head mesenchyme that surrounds the brain from shortly after mid-gestation. The mesenchyme just above the eye (supra-orbital mesenchyme, SOM) generates ossification centers for the bones, which then grow toward the apex gradually. In contrast, the mesenchyme apical to SOM (early migrating mesenchyme, EMM), including the area at the vertex, does not generate an ossification center. As a result, the dorsal midline of the head is occupied by sutures and fontanelles at birth. To date, the molecular basis for this regional difference in developmental programs is unknown. The current study provides vital insights into the genetic regulation of calvarial patterning. First, we showed that osteogenic signals were active in both EMM and SOM during normal development, which suggested the presence of an anti-osteogenic factor in EMM to counter the effect of these signals. Subsequently, we identified Lmx1b as an anti-osteogenic gene that was expressed in EMM but not in SOM. Furthermore, head mesenchyme-specific deletion of Lmx1b resulted in heterotopic ossification from EMM at the vertex, and craniosynostosis affecting multiple sutures. Conversely, forced expression of Lmx1b in SOM was sufficient to inhibit osteogenic specification. Therefore, we conclude that Lmx1b plays a key role as an anti-osteogenic factor in patterning the head mesenchyme into areas with different osteogenic competence. In turn, this patterning event is crucial to generating the proper organization of the bones and soft tissue joints of the calvaria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197925PMC
November 2018

Neuropeptide secreted from a pacemaker activates neurons to control a rhythmic behavior.

Curr Biol 2013 May 11;23(9):746-54. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Graduate Program in Genetic, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Background: Rhythmic behaviors are driven by endogenous biological clocks in pacemakers, which must reliably transmit timing information to target tissues that execute rhythmic outputs. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, calcium oscillations in the pacemaker (intestine), which occur about every 50 s, trigger rhythmic enteric muscle contractions through downstream GABAergic neurons that innervate enteric muscles. However, the identity of the timing signal released by the pacemaker and the mechanism underlying the delivery of timing information to the GABAergic neurons are unknown.

Results: Here, we show that a neuropeptide-like protein (NLP-40) released by the pacemaker triggers a single rapid calcium transient in the GABAergic neurons during each defecation cycle. We find that mutants lacking nlp-40 have normal pacemaker function, but lack enteric muscle contractions. NLP-40 undergoes calcium-dependent release that is mediated by the calcium sensor, SNT-2/synaptotagmin. We identify AEX-2, the G-protein-coupled receptor on the GABAergic neurons, as the receptor for NLP-40. Functional calcium imaging reveals that NLP-40 and AEX-2/GPCR are both necessary for rhythmic activation of these neurons. Furthermore, acute application of synthetic NLP-40-derived peptide depolarizes the GABAergic neurons in vivo.

Conclusions: Our results show that NLP-40 carries the timing information from the pacemaker via calcium-dependent release and delivers it to the GABAergic neurons by instructing their activation. Thus, we propose that rhythmic release of neuropeptides can deliver temporal information from pacemakers to downstream neurons to execute rhythmic behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.03.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651789PMC
May 2013
-->