Publications by authors named "Krishna Mohan Palipudi"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Youth access to cigarettes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

Prev Med 2016 10 2;91S:S23-S27. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objective: Tobacco smoking is initiated and established mostly during adolescence. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 16 outlines the obligation of parties to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors. This study examined where and how student smokers obtain cigarettes.

Methods: We examined Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 2009 to 2011 on cigarette access among students aged 13-15 in six sub-Saharan African countries.

Results: In all countries analyzed, over 20% of student smokers obtained their cigarettes in a store or shop (52.6% in South Africa, 37.7% in Republic of Congo, 28.2% in Swaziland, 27.4% in Cote d'Ivoire, 26.9% in Ghana, and 22.6% in Uganda). In Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa, 68.9% and 68.7% of student cigarette smokers, respectively, were not refused the sale of cigarettes because of age. The percentage of students who were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative ranged from 4.7% in Cote d'Ivoire to 12.1% in South Africa.

Conclusions: The method of obtaining cigarettes and access to cigarettes among students varies among sub-Saharan African countries. Adopting and enforcing interventions that prevent youth from accessing tobacco products could be an effective strategy for reducing smoking initiation among youth in sub-Saharan African countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.018DOI Listing
October 2016

Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Tob Control 2016 12 11;25(e2):e95-e100. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries).

Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home.

Results: The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries.

Conclusions: A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488799PMC
December 2016

Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

Nicotine Tob Res 2016 Apr 20;18(4):501-7. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA;

Introduction: Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries.

Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users.

Results: Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers.

Conclusions: E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100820PMC
April 2016

Tobacco use among youths--Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 Jul;63(27):588-90

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments, a comprehensive advertising ban (prohibiting advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of cigarettes or tobacco products through any media or communications outlets), pictorial health warnings, and a prohibition against the sale of tobacco products through any means to persons aged <18 years. To ascertain trends in tobacco use among youths in Argentina, the Argentina Ministry of Health and CDC analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for 2007 and 2012 (the next year that it was administered in Argentina). The findings indicated that the overall proportion of youths aged approximately 13-15 years who reported ever smoking a cigarette declined from 52.0% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2012 with significant decreases among both males and females. In 2012, 52.5% of youths in Argentina reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in their homes and 47.5% in enclosed public places in the 7 days preceding the survey. Increased public education and tobacco control efforts will be important to discouraging tobacco use and decreasing SHS exposure among youths in Argentina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584712PMC
July 2014

Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):3-23. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499800DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to secondhand smoke among adults - Philippines, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):48-57. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adults at home, in indoor workplaces, and in various public places in the Philippines across various socio-demographic groups.

Methods: Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in 2009 in the Philippines were used. The data consist of survey answers from 9705 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older. We considered that respondents were exposed to SHS if during the previous 30 days they reported that they lived in a home, worked in a building, or visited a public place where people smoked. The public places included in our analysis were indoor workplaces, public transportation vehicles, restaurants, government buildings or offices, and healthcare facilities. The differences in various socioeconomic and demographic groups' exposure to SHS in these places were also examined.

Results: Of respondents who reported working indoors, 36.8% were exposed to SHS. Men (43.3% [95% CI 39.7-46.9]) were more likely than women (28.8% [95% CI 25.4-32.4]) to be exposed to SHS (p < 0.001). Of those working in sites where smoking was not allowed, 13.9% were exposed to SHS, whereas 66.5% were exposed where smoking is allowed in some enclosed areas, and 90.7% were exposed where smoking is allowed everywhere. During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than 50% of those who took public transportation were exposed to SHS; exposure for those who visited public buildings was 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings or offices, and 7.6% in healthcare facilities.

Conclusion: Despite a national law passed and several local government ordinances that have promulgated smoke-free workplaces, schools, government offices, and healthcare facilities, our findings show that a large proportion of adults were exposed to SHS at work and in public places, which offers opportunities to strengthen and improve enforcement of the smoke-free initiatives and ordinances in the Philippines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501530DOI Listing
June 2016

Tracking MPOWER in 14 countries: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):24-37. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Headquarters, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators.

Methods: GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008-2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries.

Results: Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest 'smoking quit attempt' rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India.

Conclusions: Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501911DOI Listing
June 2016

Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in Egypt, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):38-47. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in overall use of tobacco and in the use of various tobacco products, by sex and by frequency of use across various demographic groups.

Methods: We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2009 in Egypt. The data consist of answers to GATS by 20,924 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older from all regions of Egypt. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco products, either daily or occasionally. We analyzed the differences in current cigarette, shisha, and smokeless tobacco use by sex and frequency of use (daily or occasional); and by demographic characteristics that included age, region, education level and employment status.

Results: Overall, 19.7% of the Egyptian population currently use some form of tobacco. Men (38.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.8-39.4]) are much more likely than women (0.6% [95% CI 0.4-0.9]) to use tobacco. Almost 96% of men who use tobacco, do so daily. Men are more likely to use manufactured cigarettes (31.8% [95% CI 30.6-33.1]) than shisha (6.2% [95% CI 5.6-6.9]) or smokeless tobacco (4.1% [95% CI 3.4-4.8]). Few women use tobacco (cigarettes (0.2%), shisha (0.3%) and smokeless tobacco (0.3%)); however, all women who currently smoke shisha, do so daily. Lower educational status, being between ages 25-64 and being employed predicted a higher use of tobacco.

Conclusion: Egypt has implemented several initiatives to reduce tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER technical package, which aims to reverse the tobacco epidemic, is implemented at various levels throughout the country. Our findings show that there is significant variation in the prevalence of tobacco use and types of tobacco used by adult men and women in Egypt. GATS data can be used to better understand comparative patterns of tobacco use by adults, which in turn can be used to develop interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499801DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

Indian J Public Health 2011 Jul-Sep;55(3):210-9

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh.

Materials And Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples.

Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups.

Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as reducing the social acceptance of smoking both at home and in public and workplaces. Ongoing surveillance in Bangladesh is necessary to measure progress towards monitoring SHS exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-557X.89942DOI Listing
February 2012

IPUMS-International High Precision Population Census Microdata Samples: Balancing the Privacy-Quality Tradeoff by Means of Restricted Access Extracts.

Priv Stat Databases 2006 12;4302:375-382

Minnesota Population Center, 50 Willey Hall, Minneapolis MN 55455 USA.

A breakthrough in the tradeoff between privacy and data quality has been achieved for restricted access to population census microdata samples. The IPUMS-International website, as of June 2006, offers integrated microdata for 47 censuses, totaling more than 140 million person records, with 13 countries represented. Over the next four years, the global collaboratory led by the Minnesota Population Center, with major funding by the United States National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, will disseminate samples for more than 100 additional censuses. The statistical authorities of more than 50 countries have already entrusted microdata to the project under a uniform memorandum of understanding which permits researchers to obtain custom extracts without charge and to analyze the microdata using their own hardware and software. This paper describes the disclosure control methods used by the IPUMS initiative to protect privacy and to provide access to high precision census microdata samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11930242_31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5382989PMC
December 2006