Publications by authors named "Kris Ensrud"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Associations of Smoking, Moderate Alcohol Use, and Function: A 20-Year Cohort Study of Older Women.

Gerontol Geriatr Med 2018 Jan-Dec;4:2333721418766127. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Kaiser Permanente Northwest/Hawaii, Portland, OR, USA.

The objective of this study is to determine whether the health effects of smoking and moderate alcohol use persist with aging. Smoking status, alcohol use, and measures of function and health were obtained from 9,704 women aged ≥65 years at baseline and over 10- and 20-year follow-up periods. Adjusted multiple linear and logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations. Current versus never smokers had worse walking speed, self-reported health, difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and depression at 10 years and higher death rates at 10 and 20 years. Moderate versus never drinkers had better grip strength, walking speed, self-reported health, and less difficulty with IADLs and were less likely to live in nursing homes at 10 years and die at 10 and 20 years. Among aging women over 20 years, smoking is associated with worse physical function, including death, while moderate alcohol use is associated with better outcomes.
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March 2018

Obesity and Falls in a Prospective Study of Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

J Aging Health 2017 10 27;29(7):1235-1250. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

1 Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate fall rates across body mass index (BMI) categories by age group, considering physical performance and comorbidities.

Method: In the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, 5,834 men aged ≥65 reported falls every 4 months over 4.8 (±0.8) years. Adjusted associations between BMI and an incident fall were tested using mixed-effects models.

Results: The fall rate (0.66/man-year overall, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.65, 0.67]) was lowest in the youngest, normal weight men (0.44/man-year, 95% CI = [0.41, 0.47]) and greatest in the oldest, highest BMI men (1.47 falls/man-year, 95% CI = [1.22, 1.76]). Obesity was associated with a 24% to 92% increased fall risk in men below 80 ( p ≤ .0001, p for interaction by age = .03). Only adjustment for dynamic balance test altered the BMI-falls association substantially.

Discussion: Obesity was independently associated with higher fall rates in men 65 to 80 years old. Narrow walk time, a measure of gait stability, may mediate the association.
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October 2017

Effects of estrogen and venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life in healthy postmenopausal women with hot flashes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Menopause 2015 Jun;22(6):607-15

From the 1Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland, CA; 2University of California, San Diego, CA; 3Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 4Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; 5MsFLASH Coordinating Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 6School of Nursing, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN; 7Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; 8Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 9Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; 10Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA; 11University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; and 12VA Medical Center/University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (E2) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes.

Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of low-dose oral 17β-E2 0.5 mg/day and venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day, versus identical placebo, was conducted among 339 women (aged 40-62 y) experiencing two or more vasomotor symptoms (VMS) per day (mean [SD], 8.07 [5.29]) who were recruited at three clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, as reported previously, was frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and from measures of pain (Pain, Enjoyment in life, and General activity scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7), and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale).

Results: Treatment with both E2 and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores, compared with placebo (E2: mean difference at 8 wk, -0.4; 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2; P < 0.001; venlafaxine: mean difference at 8 wk, -0.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to 0.0; P = 0.04). Quality-of-life domain analyses revealed that E2 had beneficial treatment effects on all domains of the MENQOL except for the psychosocial domain, whereas venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither E2 nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety, or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine.

Conclusions: Both low-dose E2 and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with VMS.
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June 2015

Predictive value of FRAX for fracture in obese older women.

J Bone Miner Res 2013 Jan;28(1):188-95

Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.

Recent studies indicate that obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women and increases the risk of fracture at some sites. Risk factors for fracture in obese women may differ from those in the nonobese. We aimed to compare the ability of FRAX with and without bone mineral density (BMD) to predict fractures in obese and nonobese older postmenopausal women who were participants in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Data for FRAX clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD were available in 6049 women, of whom 18.5% were obese. Hip fractures, major osteoporotic fractures, and any clinical fractures were ascertained during a mean follow-up period of 9.03 years. Receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis, model calibration, and decision curve analysis were used to compare fracture prediction in obese and nonobese women. ROC analysis revealed no significant differences between obese and nonobese women in fracture prediction by FRAX, with or without BMD. Predicted hip fracture risk was lower than observed risk in both groups of women, particularly when FRAX + BMD was used, but there was good calibration for FRAX + BMD in prediction of major osteoporotic fracture in both groups. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that both FRAX models were useful for hip fracture prediction in obese and nonobese women for threshold 10-year fracture probabilities in the range of 4% to 10%, although in obese women FRAX + BMD was superior to FRAX alone. For major osteoporotic fracture, both FRAX models were useful in both groups of women for threshold probabilities in the range of 10% to 30%. For all clinical fractures, the FRAX models were not useful at threshold probabilities below 30%. We conclude that FRAX is of value in predicting hip and major osteoporotic fractures in obese postmenopausal women, particularly when used with BMD.
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January 2013

Increasing kyphosis predicts worsening mobility in older community-dwelling women: a prospective cohort study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2011 Jan 3;59(1):96-100. Epub 2011 Jan 3.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objectives: To determine whether increasing kyphosis angle was independently associated with poorer mobility as measured according to the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), after controlling for other established risk factors.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Eleven clinical centers in the United States.

Participants: Two thousand seven hundred seventy-seven women aged 55 to 80 randomized to the placebo arms of the Fracture Intervention Trial, a randomized controlled trial of the effect of alendronate on risk for osteoporotic fractures.

Measurements: The primary predictor was change in kyphosis angle, measured using the Debrunner Kyphometer; the outcome was change in mobility, measured as performance time on the TUG. Covariates were baseline age, kyphosis angle, body mass index (BMI), self-reported health status, grip strength, change in total hip bond mineral density (BMD), and number of vertebral fractures over a mean of 4.4 years.

Results: Greater kyphosis angle predicted longer mobility performance times (P<.001), independent of other significant predictors of worsening mobility including age, baseline kyphosis, health status, grip strength, BMI, change in hip BMD, and new vertebral fractures. TUG performance times increased by 0.02 seconds (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.01-0.03) for every 5° increase in kyphosis angle, more than the increase in mobility time of 0.01 seconds (95% CI=0.005-0.03) over 1 year observed in this cohort.

Conclusion: Increasing kyphosis angle is independently associated with worsening mobility. Interventions are needed to prevent or reduce increasing kyphosis and mobility decline.
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January 2011

Biochemical markers of bone turnover, hip bone loss, and fracture in older men: the MrOS study.

J Bone Miner Res 2009 Dec;24(12):2032-8

University of California, San Francisco, California 94107, USA.

We used data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study to test the hypothesis that men with higher levels of bone turnover would have accelerated bone loss and an elevated risk of fracture. MrOS enrolled 5995 subjects >65 yr; hip BMD was measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.6 yr. Nonspine fractures were documented during a mean follow-up of 5.0 yr. Using fasting serum collected at baseline and stored at -190 degrees C, bone turnover measurements (type I collagen N-propeptide [PINP]; beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [betaCTX]; and TRACP5b) were obtained on 384 men with nonspine fracture (including 72 hip fractures) and 947 men selected at random. Among randomly selected men, total hip bone loss was 0.5%/yr among those in the highest quartile of PINP (>44.3 ng/ml) and 0.3%/yr among those in the lower three quartiles (p = 0.01). Fracture risk was elevated among men in the highest quartile of PINP (hip fracture relative hazard = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.68; nonspine relative hazard = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.05) or betaCTX (hip fracture relative hazard = 1.76, 95 CI: 1.04, 2.98; nonspine relative hazard = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.69) but not TRACP5b. Further adjustment for baseline hip BMD eliminated all associations between bone turnover and fracture. We conclude that higher levels of bone turnover are associated with greater hip bone loss in older men, but increased turnover is not independently associated with the risk of hip or nonspine fracture.
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December 2009

Glaucoma risk and the consumption of fruits and vegetables among older women in the study of osteoporotic fractures.

Am J Ophthalmol 2008 Jun 20;145(6):1081-9. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

Department of Ophthalmology and Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California-Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Purpose: To explore the association between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the presence of glaucoma.

Design: Cross-sectional cohort study.

Methods: In a sample of 1,155 women located in multiple centers in the United States, glaucoma specialists diagnosed glaucoma in at least one eye by assessing optic nerve head photographs and 76-point suprathreshold screening visual fields. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The relationship between selected fruit and vegetable consumption and glaucoma was investigated using adjusted logistic regression models.

Results: Among 1,155 women, 95 (8.2%) were diagnosed with glaucoma. In adjusted analysis, the odds of glaucoma risk were decreased by 69% (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.91) in women who consumed at least one serving per month of green collards and kale compared with those who consumed fewer than one serving per month, by 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.77) in women who consumed more than two servings per week of carrots compared with those who consumed fewer than one serving per week, and by 47% (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.97) in women who consumed at least one serving per week of canned or dried peaches compared with those who consumed fewer than one serving per month.

Conclusions: A higher intake of certain fruits and vegetables may be associated with a decreased risk of glaucoma. More studies are needed to investigate this relationship.
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June 2008

Identification of vertebral fracture and non-osteoporotic short vertebral height in men: the MrOS study.

J Bone Miner Res 2007 Sep;22(9):1434-41

Academic Unit of Bone Metabolism, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: Non-osteoporotic SVH may mimic VF but is excluded in ABQ. In men, this led to discordance between ABQ and other methods, but SVH was not linked to low bone density. Exclusion of SVH could reduce false positives.

Introduction: Non-osteoporotic short vertebral height (SVH) may mimic vertebral fracture (VF). The aims were to (1) compare the prevalence of VF in elderly men using the algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ), semiquantitative (SQ), and triage-quantitative morphometric (triage-QM) methods; (2) identify reasons for discordance between methods; and (3) determine whether SVH identified by ABQ is linked to low BMD.

Materials And Methods: We studied a subset of 732 men ages > or =65 yr participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Criteria for VF were (1) ABQ: endplate depression; (2) SQ: estimated vertebral height reduction > or =20%; (3) triage-QM: vertebral height ratio >3 SD below the reference mean, on radiographs showing evidence of VF. Criteria for SVH (ABQ) were apparent "reduction" in vertebral height > or = approximately 15%, without evidence of endplate depression.

Results: The prevalence of at least one VF was 10% (ABQ); 13% (SQ) and 11% (QM-triage) and of at least one SVH (ABQ) was >50%. Agreement between methods was moderate (kappa = 0.42-0.62). Discordance between methods related mainly to classification of mild thoracic wedging or possible traumatic VF by ABQ. Mean BMD was lower in men with VF (any diagnostic method) than in those without (two-sample t-test, p < 0.05). For ABQ, BMD was similar in men with SVH (no VF) and men with normal vertebrae (ANOVA, p > 0.05). Mean BMD was significantly lower than expected in 40 men with VF identified by all three methods and average or more than average in those identified by a single method.

Conclusions: Among elderly men (1) the prevalence of VF ranges from 10% to 13%: (2) agreement between diagnostic methods is moderate: discordance relates mainly to differential classification of mild thoracic deformities or ABQ definition of VF as traumatic; and (3) SVH identified by ABQ is common and not linked to low BMD.
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September 2007

Endogenous testosterone levels, physical performance, and fall risk in older men.

Arch Intern Med 2006 Oct;166(19):2124-31

Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.

Background: Gonadal steroid levels decline with age in men. Whether low testosterone levels affect the development of common age-related disorders, including physical functioning and falling, is unclear.

Methods: This longitudinal, observational follow-up study sought to determine whether low testosterone levels are associated with physical performance and fall risk in older men. A total of 2587 community-based men aged 65 to 99 years were selected using a stratified random sampling scheme from a study cohort of 5995 volunteers. Bioavailable testosterone and estradiol levels and physical performance measures were determined from baseline. Incident falls were ascertained every 4 months during 4 years of follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk ratios for the relation of sex steroids to falls.

Results: Fifty-six percent of the men reported at least 1 fall; many fell frequently. Lower bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with increased fall risk. Men with testosterone levels in the lowest quartile had a 40% higher fall risk than those in the highest quartile. The effect of low testosterone levels was most apparent in younger men (65-69 years) (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.7); testosterone level was not associated with falls in the oldest men (>/=80 years). Lower testosterone concentrations were associated with reduced physical performance. However, the association between low testosterone levels and fall risk persisted despite adjustment for performance.

Conclusions: Falls were common among older men. Fall risk was higher in men with lower bioavailable testosterone levels. The effect of testosterone level was independent of poorer physical performance, suggesting that the effect of testosterone on fall risk may be mediated by other androgen actions.
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October 2006

Testosterone and estradiol among older men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Apr 20;91(4):1336-44. Epub 2005 Dec 20.

CR113, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.

Context: Testosterone and estradiol levels decline with age in men. This change may affect multiple clinical outcomes, but there have been few reports of the distribution and correlates of testosterone and estradiol concentrations in elderly men.

Objective: The purpose of these studies was to assess sex steroid levels in a large cohort of older men.

Design: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort evaluation.

Setting: Community-dwelling men were studied at six academic medical centers in the United States.

Participants: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study is a prospective cohort of men aged at least 65 yr. In these studies, a randomly selected stratified subsample of 2623 participants was analyzed.

Main Outcome Measures: We assessed levels of total and free testosterone and estradiol and SHBG.

Results: Age was inversely associated with free testosterone and free estradiol levels (P for trend = 0.001 for both). Notably, at any age, there was substantial variation in levels of each hormone. Free testosterone levels were lower in men with greater body mass index, lower SHBG, and poorer self-reported health status and in those of Asian race. Free estradiol concentrations were lower in men with lower body mass index and higher SHBG levels. Free estradiol and free testosterone were modestly correlated (r = 0.20; P < 0.001), but at any level of free testosterone, there was considerable variation in free estradiol levels.

Conclusions: This is the largest cohort of older men in which sex steroid levels are available, and it demonstrates that testosterone and estradiol, and their free fractions, tend to decline with age even among older men. However, substantial variation is also present. The relationships between sex steroid levels and their consequences in aging are likely to be complex.
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April 2006

Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: a randomized controlled trial.

JAMA 2003 Jul;290(2):207-14

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA.

Context: Clinical trials demonstrating increased risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer among women randomized to hormone replacement therapy have increased interest in other therapies for menopausal symptoms. Dietary supplements containing isoflavones are widely used as alternatives to hormonal therapies for hot flashes, but there is a paucity of data supporting their efficacy.

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 dietary supplements derived from red clover with placebo in symptomatic menopausal women.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of menopausal women, aged 45 to 60 years, who were experiencing at least 35 hot flashes per week. The study was conducted between November 1999 and March 2001 at 3 US medical centers and included women who were recently postmenopausal (mean [SD], 3.3 [4.5] years since menopause) experiencing 8.1 hot flashes per day. Women were excluded if they were vegetarians, consumed soy products more than once per week, or took medications affecting isoflavone absorption.

Intervention: After a 2-week placebo run-in, 252 participants were randomly assigned to Promensil (82 mg of total isoflavones per day), Rimostil (57 mg of total isoflavones per day), or an identical placebo, and followed-up for 12 weeks.

Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was the change in frequency of hot flashes measured by participant daily diaries. Secondary outcome measures included changes in quality of life and adverse events.

Results: Of 252 participants, 246 (98%) completed the 12-week protocol. The reductions in mean daily hot flash count at 12 weeks were similar for the Promensil (5.1), Rimostil (5.4), and placebo (5.0) groups. In comparison with the placebo group, participants in the Promensil group (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-51%; P =.03), but not in the Rimostil group (34%; 95% CI, 22%-46%; P =.74) reduced hot flashes more rapidly. Quality-of-life improvements and adverse events were comparable in the 3 groups.

Conclusion: Although the study provides some evidence for a biological effect of Promensil, neither supplement had a clinically important effect on hot flashes or other symptoms of menopause.
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July 2003