Publications by authors named "Kousho Wakae"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of natural compounds extracted from crude drugs as novel inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 12;567:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 162-8640, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Natural product-derived crude drugs are expected to yield an abundance of new drugs to treat infectious diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus that significantly impacts public health. In this study, we sought to identify anti-HCV compounds in extracts of natural products. A total of 110 natural compounds extracted from several herbal medicine plants were examined for antiviral activity against HCV. Using a Huh7-mCherry-NLS-IPS reporter system for HCV infection, we first performed a rapid screening for anti-HCV compounds extracted from crude drugs. The compounds threo-2,3-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-butoxypropan-1-ol (#106) and medioresinol (#110), which were extracted from Crataegus cuneate, exhibited anti-HCV activity and significantly inhibited HCV production in a dose-dependent manner. Analyses using HCV pseudoparticle and subgenomic replicon systems indicated that compounds #106 and #110 specifically inhibit HCV RNA replication but not viral entry or translation. Interestingly, compound #106 also inhibited the replication and production of hepatitis A virus. Our findings suggest that C. cuneate is a new source for novel anti-hepatitis virus drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.06.022DOI Listing
August 2021

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is a possible regulator of cross-talk between oocytes and granulosa cells through GDF-9 and SCF feedback system.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 15;11(1):3833. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Takara-machi 13-1, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, Aicda) is a master gene regulating class switching of immunoglobulin genes. In this study, we investigated the significance of AID expression in the ovary. Immunohistological study and RT-PCR showed that AID was expressed in murine granulosa cells and oocytes. However, using the Aicda-Cre/Rosa-tdRFP reporter mouse, its transcriptional history in oocytes was not detected, suggesting that AID mRNA in oocytes has an exogenous origin. Microarray and qPCR validation revealed that mRNA expressions of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in oocytes and stem cell factor (SCF) in granulosa cells were significantly decreased in AID-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. A 6-h incubation of primary granuloma cells markedly reduced AID expression, whereas it was maintained by recombinant GDF-9. In contrast, SCF expression was induced by more than threefold, whereas GDF-9 completely inhibited its increase. In the presence of GDF-9, knockdown of AID by siRNA further decreased SCF expression. However, in AID-suppressed granulosa cells and ovarian tissues of AID-knockout mice, there were no differences in the methylation of SCF and GDF-9. These findings suggest that AID is a novel candidate that regulates cross-talk between oocytes and granulosa cells through a GDF-9 and SCF feedback system, probably in a methylation-independent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83529-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884688PMC
February 2021

MCPIP1 reduces HBV-RNA by targeting its epsilon structure.

Sci Rep 2020 11 27;10(1):20763. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major causative factor of chronic viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated that a proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β reduced the level of HBV RNA. However, the mechanism underlying IL-1β-mediated viral RNA reduction remains incompletely understood. In this study, we report that immune regulator Monocyte chemotactic protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) can reduce HBV RNA in hepatocytes. MCPIP1 expression level was higher in the liver tissue of HBV-infected patients and mice. Overexpression of MCPIP1 decreased HBV RNA, whereas ablating MCPIP1 in vitro enhanced HBV production. The domains responsible for RNase activity or oligomerization, were required for MCPIP1-mediated viral RNA reduction. The epsilon structure of HBV RNA was important for its antiviral activity and cleaved by MCPIP1 in the cell-free system. Lastly, knocking out MCPIP1 attenuated the anti-HBV effect of IL-1β, suggesting that MCPIP1 is required for IL-1β-mediated HBV RNA reduction. Overall, these results suggest that MCPIP1 may be involved in the antiviral effect downstream of IL-1β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77166-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699622PMC
November 2020

EBV-LMP1 induces APOBEC3s and mitochondrial DNA hypermutation in nasopharyngeal cancer.

Cancer Med 2020 10 20;9(20):7663-7671. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a principal oncogene that plays a pivotal role in EBV-associated malignant tumors including nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Recent genomic landscape studies revealed that NPC also contained many genomic mutations, suggesting the role of LMP1 as a driver gene for the induction of these genomic mutations. Nonetheless, its exact mechanism has not been investigated. In this study, we report that LMP1 alters the expression profile of APOBEC3s(A3s), host deaminases that introduce consecutive C-to-U mutations (hypermutation). In vitro, LMP1 induces APOBEC3B (A3B) and 3F(A3F), in a nasopharyngeal cell line, AdAH. Overexpression of LMP1, A3B, or A3F induces mtDNA hypermutation, which is also detectable from NPC specimens. Expression of LMP1 and A3B in NPC was correlated with neck metastasis. These results provide evidence as to which LMP1 induces A3s and mtDNA hypermutation, and how LMP1 facilitates metastasis is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571841PMC
October 2020

Non-nucleoside hepatitis B virus polymerase inhibitors identified by an in vitro polymerase elongation assay.

J Gastroenterol 2020 Apr 25;55(4):441-452. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Choju Medical Institute, Fukushimura Hospital, 19-14 Azayamanaka, Noyori-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8124, Japan.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase is the only virus-encoded enzyme essential for producing the HBV genome and is regarded as an attractive drug target. However, the difficulty of synthesizing and purifying recombinant HBV polymerase protein has hampered the development of new drugs targeting this enzyme, especially compounds unrelated to the nucleoside structure. We recently have developed a technique for the synthesis and purification of recombinant HBV polymerase containing the reverse transcriptase (RT) domain that carried DNA elongation activity in vitro.

Methods: We used the overproduced protein to establish an in vitro high-throughput screening system to identify compounds that inhibit the elongation activity of HBV polymerase.

Results: We screened 1120 compounds and identified a stilbene derivative, piceatannol, as a potential anti-HBV agent. Derivative analysis identified another stilbene derivative, PDM2, that was able to inhibit HBV replication with an IC of 14.4 ± 7.7 μM. An infection experiment suggested that the compounds inhibit the replication of HBV rather than the entry process, as expected. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a specific interaction between PDM2 and the RT domain. Importantly, PDM2 showed similar inhibitory activity against the replication of both wild-type HBV and a lamivudine/entecavir-resistant HBV variant. Furthermore, PDM2 showed an additive effect in combination with clinically used nucleos(t)ide analogs.

Conclusions: We report the development of a screening system that is useful for identifying non-nucleos(t)ide RT inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-019-01643-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Different antiviral activities of natural APOBEC3C, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H variants against hepatitis B virus.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 10 7;518(1):26-31. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Some APOBEC3 family members have antiviral activity against retroviruses and DNA viruses. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that is the major causative factor of severe liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To determine whether APOBEC3 variants in humans have different anti-HBV activities, we evaluated natural variants of APOBEC3C, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H using an HBV-replicating cell culture model. Our data demonstrate that the APOBEC3C variant S188I had increased restriction activity and hypermutation frequency against HBV DNA. In contrast, the APOBEC3G variant H186R did not alter the anti-HBV and hypermutation activities. Among APOBEC3H polymorphisms (hap I-VII) and splicing variants (SV-200, SV-183, SV-182, and SV-154), hap II SV-183 showed the strongest restriction activity. These data suggest that the genetic variations in APOBEC3 genes may affect the efficiency of HBV elimination in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.08.003DOI Listing
October 2019

APOBEC3 regulates keratinocyte differentiation and expression of Notch3.

Exp Dermatol 2019 11 4;28(11):1341-1347. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) family consists of deaminases. Some isozymes of APOBEC3 are induced upon human papillomavirus infection or development of psoriasis skin lesions. However, the involvement of APOBEC3 in keratinocyte differentiation has not been addressed. We herein sought to evaluate the roles of APOBECs in mouse primary keratinocyte differentiation. We found that expression levels of APOBEC1 and APOBEC3 were increased during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. Unexpectedly, however, the expression levels of keratinocyte differentiation markers keratin 1/10, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin were higher in keratinocytes treated with APOBEC3 siRNAs than in those treated with control RNAs. In addition, the treatment of keratinocytes with APOBEC3 siRNAs increased the gene expression levels of Notch3, a master regulator of keratinocyte differentiation. Moreover, calcium-induced increase in Notch3 expression and keratinocyte differentiation were impaired by transfection with an APOBEC3 expression plasmid. Furthermore, co-treatment with Notch3 siRNAs reduced the APOBEC3 siRNA-mediated upregulation of Notch3 expression and in part attenuated the increased expression levels of keratinocyte differentiation markers. These results suggest that APOBEC3 is induced upon keratinocyte differentiation and negatively regulates the keratinocyte differentiation in part by its inhibitory role for Notch3 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14019DOI Listing
November 2019

Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication by enhancing microRNA-122 processing.

J Biol Chem 2019 09 30;294(38):14043-14054. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510060, China

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) involves adenosine to inosine RNA editing and microRNA processing. ADAR1 is known to be involved in the replication of various viruses, including hepatitis C and D. However, the role of ADAR1 in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has not yet been elucidated. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated ADAR1 antiviral activity against HBV. ADAR1 has two splicing isoforms in human hepatocytes: constitutive p110 protein and interferon-α (IFN-α)-responsive p150 protein. We found that overexpression of ADAR1 decreased HBV RNA in an HBV culture model. A catalytic-site mutant ADAR1 also decreased HBV RNA levels, whereas another adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) family protein, ADAR2, did not. Moreover, the induction of ADAR1 by stimulation with IFN-α also reduced HBV RNA levels. Decreases in endogenous ADAR1 expression by knock-down or knock-out increased HBV RNA levels. A major hepatocyte-specific microRNA, miRNA-122, was found to be positively correlated with ADAR1 expression, and exogenous miRNA-122 decreased both HBV RNA and DNA, whereas, conversely, transfection with a miRNA-122 inhibitor increased them. The reduction of HBV RNA by ADAR1 expression was abrogated by p53 knock-down, suggesting the involvement of p53 in the ADAR1-mediated reduction of HBV RNA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that ADAR1 plays an antiviral role against HBV infection by increasing the level of miRNA-122 in hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.007970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755794PMC
September 2019

Keratinocyte differentiation induces APOBEC3A, 3B, and mitochondrial DNA hypermutation.

Sci Rep 2018 06 27;8(1):9745. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are found in many types of cancers and suspected to be involved in carcinogenesis, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we report that consecutive C-to-T mutations (hypermutations), a unique feature of mutations induced by APOBECs, are found in mtDNA from cervical dysplasia and oropharyngeal cancers. In vitro, we found that APOBEC3A (A3A) and 3B (A3B) expression, as well as mtDNA hypermutation, were induced in a cervical dysplastic cell line W12 when cultured in a differentiating condition. The ectopic expression of A3A or A3B was sufficient to hypermutate mtDNA. Fractionation of W12 cell lysates and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that A3A and A3B could be contained in mitochondrion. These results suggest that mtDNA hypermutation is induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, and shed light on its molecular mechanism, which involves A3s. The possible involvement of mtDNA hypermutations in carcinogenesis is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27930-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021414PMC
June 2018

Flap endonuclease 1 is involved in cccDNA formation in the hepatitis B virus.

PLoS Pathog 2018 06 21;14(6):e1007124. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major etiological pathogens for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic HBV infection is a key factor in these severe liver diseases. During infection, HBV forms a nuclear viral episome in the form of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Current therapies are not able to efficiently eliminate cccDNA from infected hepatocytes. cccDNA is a master template for viral replication that is formed by the conversion of its precursor, relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA). However, the host factors critical for cccDNA formation remain to be determined. Here, we assessed whether one potential host factor, flap structure-specific endonuclease 1 (FEN1), is involved in cleavage of the flap-like structure in rcDNA. In a cell culture HBV model (Hep38.7-Tet), expression and activity of FEN1 were reduced by siRNA, shRNA, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, and a FEN1 inhibitor. These reductions in FEN1 expression and activity did not affect nucleocapsid DNA (NC-DNA) production, but did reduce cccDNA levels in Hep38.7-Tet cells. Exogenous overexpression of wild-type FEN1 rescued the reduced cccDNA production in FEN1-depleted Hep38.7-Tet cells. Anti-FEN1 immunoprecipitation revealed the binding of FEN1 to HBV DNA. An in vitro FEN activity assay demonstrated cleavage of 5'-flap from a synthesized HBV DNA substrate. Furthermore, cccDNA was generated in vitro when purified rcDNA was incubated with recombinant FEN1, DNA polymerase, and DNA ligase. Importantly, FEN1 was required for the in vitro cccDNA formation assay. These results demonstrate that FEN1 is involved in HBV cccDNA formation in cell culture system, and that FEN1, DNA polymerase, and ligase activities are sufficient to convert rcDNA into cccDNA in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6013022PMC
June 2018

Expression and subcellular localisation of AID and APOBEC3 in adenoid and palatine tonsils.

Sci Rep 2018 01 17;8(1):918. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (A3) family are cytidine deaminases that play critical roles in B-cell maturation, antiviral immunity and carcinogenesis. Adenoids and palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid immune organs, in which AID and A3s are thought to have several physiological or pathological roles. However, the expression of AID or A3s in these organs has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of AID and A3s, using 67 samples of adenoids and palatine tonsils from patients, with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical analyses. AID and A3s expression levels in the adenoids and the palatine tonsils of the same individual significantly correlated with each other. Of note, AID expression level in the adenoids negatively correlated with the age (r = -0.373, P = 0.003). The younger group with adenoid vegetation and tonsillar hypertrophy showed more abundant AID expression than the older group with recurrent tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscesses (P = 0.026). Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the distribution of AID and A3s in the epithelial cells as well as germinal centres. The localisation of AID expression and its relation to age may contribute to adenoid vegetation and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18732-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772672PMC
January 2018

Molecular characterization of AID-mediated reduction of hepatitis B virus transcripts.

Virology 2017 10 2;510:281-288. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. After entering a hepatocyte, HBV forms a nuclear viral episome and produces pregenomic (pg) RNA with a stem-loop structure called an epsilon, which acts to signal encapsidation. We previously demonstrated that TGF-β upregulates activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression in hepatocytes, which in turn downregulates HBV transcripts by recruiting the RNA exosome complex. The molecular mechanism underlying AID-mediated HBV RNA reduction remains largely unclear. Here we used a pgRNA reporter system having a reporter gene within pgRNA to identify sis- and trans-acting elements in AID-mediated HBV RNA reduction. We found that the epsilon RNA and C-terminus of AID are required for AID-mediated HBV RNA reduction. Importantly, this reduction was reproduced in a hydrodynamic HBV transfection mouse model. The molecular mechanism of AID-mediated HBV RNA reduction is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.07.035DOI Listing
October 2017

APOBEC3G is increasingly expressed on the human uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia along with disease progression.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2017 Oct 7;78(4). Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Problem: APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that exhibits antiviral activity by introducing C-to-T hypermutation in viral DNA. We recently observed the distinct presence of C-to-T hypermutation of human papillomavirus DNA in uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), suggesting the possible involvement of A3G in the mutation-inducing process. Consequently, we investigated the association of A3G expression with CIN progression in this study.

Method Of Study: Patients who had undergone cervical conization due to CIN1 (n=11), CIN2 (n=9), CIN3 (n=12), and micro-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (n=2) were included. The expression profiles of A3G and p16 proteins in cervical lesions and A3G-positive immune cells around the lesions were examined by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Immunoreactive A3G protein was detected in the CIN and squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Its expression intensity and positive areas were increased and spread in accordance with the progression of CIN, respectively. The co-expression of p16 was observed on the A3G-positive atypical cells. The numbers of A3G-positive immune cells in CIN3 lesions were significantly higher than those of CIN1-2 lesions.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that A3G is associated with CIN, suggesting its important roles in human papillomavirus-induced pathophysiological processes such as CIN progression and viral elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.12703DOI Listing
October 2017

[Hepatitis B virus and APOBEC family].

Seikagaku 2016 Oct;88(5):557-62

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October 2016

Detection of hypermutated human papillomavirus type 16 genome by Next-Generation Sequencing.

Virology 2015 Nov 7;485:460-6. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan. Electronic address:

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a major cause of cervical cancer. We previously demonstrated that C-to-T and G-to-A hypermutations accumulated in the HPV16 genome by APOBEC3 expression in vitro. To investigate in vivo characteristics of hypermutation, differential DNA denaturation-PCR (3D-PCR) was performed using three clinical specimens obtained from HPV16-positive cervical dysplasia, and detected hypermutation from two out of three specimens. One sample accumulating hypermutations in both E2 and the long control region (LCR) was further subjected to Next-Generation Sequencing, revealing that hypermutations spread across the LCR and all early genes. Notably, hypermutation was more frequently observed in the LCR, which contains a viral replication origin and the early promoter. APOBEC3 expressed abundantly in an HPV16-positive cervix, suggesting that single-stranded DNA exposed during viral replication and transcription may be efficient targets for deamination. The results further strengthen a role of APOBEC3 in introducing HPV16 hypermutation in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.017DOI Listing
November 2015

Hypermutation in the E2 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

J Med Virol 2015 Oct 24;87(10):1754-60. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer. However, viral genetic changes during cervical carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed the presence of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the long control region of the HPV16 genome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, and suggested that apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins, which play a key role in innate immunity against retroviral infection, potentially introduce such hypermutation. This study reports for the first time the detection of adenine/thymine-clustered hypermutation in the E2 gene of HPV16 isolated from clinical specimens with low- and high-grade CIN lesions (CIN1/3). Differential DNA denaturation PCR, which utilizes lower denaturation temperatures to selectively amplify adenine/thymine-rich DNA, identified clusters of adenine/thymine mutations in the E2 gene in 4 of 11 CIN1 (36.4%), and 6 of 27 CIN3 (22.2%) samples. Interestingly, the number of mutations per sample was higher in CIN3 than in CIN1. Although the relevance of E2 hypermutation in cervical carcinogenesis remains unclear, the observed hypermutation patterns strongly imply involvement of APOBEC3 proteins in editing the HPV16 genome during natural viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24215DOI Listing
October 2015

TGF-β suppression of HBV RNA through AID-dependent recruitment of an RNA exosome complex.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Apr 2;11(4):e1004780. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan.

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-β is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. Immunoprecipitation reveals that AID physically associates with viral P protein that binds to specific virus RNA sequence called epsilon. AID also binds to an RNA degradation complex (RNA exosome proteins), indicating that AID, RNA exosome, and P protein form an RNP complex. Suppression of HBV transcripts by TGF-β was abrogated by depletion of either AID or RNA exosome components, suggesting that AID and the RNA exosome involve in TGF-β mediated suppression of HBV RNA. Moreover, AID-mediated HBV reduction does not occur when P protein is disrupted or when viral transcription is inhibited. These results suggest that induced expression of AID by TGF-β causes recruitment of the RNA exosome to viral RNP complex and the RNA exosome degrades HBV RNA in a transcription-coupled manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383551PMC
April 2015

APOBEC3A and 3C decrease human papillomavirus 16 pseudovirion infectivity.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Feb 7;457(3):295-9. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan. Electronic address:

Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins are cellular DNA/RNA-editing enzymes that play pivotal roles in the innate immune response to viral infection. APOBEC3 (A3) proteins were reported to hypermutate the genome of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the causative agent of cervical cancer. However, hypermutation did not affect viral DNA maintenance, leaving the exact role of A3 against HPV infection elusive. Here we examine whether A3 proteins affect the virion assembly using an HPV16 pseudovirion (PsV) production system, in which PsVs are assembled from its capsid proteins L1/L2 encapsidating a reporter plasmid in 293FT cells. We found that co-expression of A3A or A3C in 293FT cells greatly reduced the infectivity of PsV. The reduced infectivity of PsV assembled in the presence of A3A, but not A3C, was attributed to the decreased copy number of the encapsidated reporter plasmid. On the other hand, A3C, but not A3A, efficiently bound to L1 in co-immunoprecipitation assays, which suggests that this physical interaction may lead to reduced infectivity of PsV assembled in the presence of A3C. These results provide mechanistic insights into A3s' inhibitory effects on the assembly phase of the HPV16 virion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.103DOI Listing
February 2015

APOBEC3 deaminases induce hypermutation in human papillomavirus 16 DNA upon beta interferon stimulation.

J Virol 2014 Jan 13;88(2):1308-17. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.

Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral factors that counteract various viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by inducing cytidine (C)-to-uracil (U) mutations in viral DNA and inhibiting reverse transcription. However, whether APOBEC3 proteins (A3s) can hypermutate human papillomavirus (HPV) viral DNA and exhibit antiviral activity in human keratinocyte remains unknown. Here we examined the involvement of A3s in the HPV life cycle using cervical keratinocyte W12 cells, which are derived from low-grade lesions and retain episomal HPV16 genomes in their nuclei. We focused on the viral E2 gene as a potential target for A3-mediated hypermutation because this gene is frequently found as a boundary sequence in integrated viral DNA. Treatment of W12 cells with beta interferon (IFN-β) increased expression levels of A3s such as A3A, A3F, and A3G and induced C-to-U conversions in the E2 gene in a manner depending on inhibition of uracil DNA glycosylase. Exogenous expression of A3A and A3G also induced E2 hypermutation in W12 cells. IFN-β-induced hypermutation was blocked by transfection of small interfering RNAs against A3G (and modestly by those against A3A). However, the HPV16 episome level was not affected by overexpression of A3A and A3G in W12 cells. This study demonstrates that endogenous A3s upregulated by IFN-β induce E2 hypermutation of HPV16 in cervical keratinocytes, and a pathogenic consequence of E2 hypermutation is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03091-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3911654PMC
January 2014

RNA editing of hepatitis B virus transcripts by activation-induced cytidine deaminase.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Feb 22;110(6):2246-51. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Department of Immunology and Genomic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models. In the DNA deamination model, AID converts cytidine bases in DNA into uridine. The uridine is recognized by the DNA repair system, which produces DNA strand breakages and point mutations. In the alternative model, RNA edited by AID is responsible for triggering CSR and SHM. However, RNA deamination by AID has not been demonstrated. Here we found that C-to-T and G-to-A mutations accumulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleocapsid DNA when AID was expressed in HBV-replicating hepatic cell lines. AID expression caused C-to-T mutations in the nucleocapsid DNA of RNase H-defective HBV, which does not produce plus-strand viral DNA. Furthermore, the RT-PCR products of nucleocapsid viral RNA from AID-expressing cells exhibited significant C-to-T mutations, whereas viral RNAs outside the nucleocapsid did not accumulate C-to-U mutations. Moreover, AID was packaged within the nucleocapsid by forming a ribonucleoprotein complex with HBV RNA and the HBV polymerase protein. The encapsidation of the AID protein with viral RNA and DNA provides an efficient environment for evaluating AID's RNA and DNA deamination activities. A bona fide RNA-editing enzyme, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1, induced a similar level of C-to-U mutations in nucleocapsid RNA as AID. Taken together, the results indicate that AID can deaminate the nucleocapsid RNA of HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1221921110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3568302PMC
February 2013

E2A and CBP/p300 act in synergy to promote chromatin accessibility of the immunoglobulin κ locus.

J Immunol 2012 Jun 27;188(11):5547-60. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

V(D)J recombination of Ig and TCR genes is strictly regulated in a lineage- and stage-specific manner by the accessibility of target gene chromatin to the recombinases RAG1 and RAG2. It has been shown that enforced expression of the basic helix-loop-helix protein, E2A, together with RAG1/2 in a nonlymphoid cell line BOSC23 can induce V(D)J recombination in endogenous Igκ and TCR loci by increasing chromatin accessibility of target gene segments. In this study, we demonstrate that ectopically expressed E2A proteins in BOSC23 cells have the ability to bind directly to the promoter and recombination signal sequence of Vκ genes and to recruit histone acetyltransferase CBP/p300. Overexpression of CBP/p300 in conjunction with E2A results in enhancement of E2A-induced histone acetylation, germline transcription, and Igκ rearrangement. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous CBP/p300 expression by small interfering RNA leads to a decrease in histone acetylation, germline transcription and Igκ rearrangement. Furthermore, analyses using a mouse pre-B cell line revealed that endogenous E2A proteins also bind to a distinct set of Vκ genes and regulatory regions in the mouse Igκ locus and act to increase histone acetylation by recruiting p300, confirming the similar findings observed with BOSC23 cells. These observations indicate that E2A plays critical roles in inducing Igκ rearrangement by directly binding to and increasing chromatin accessibility at target gene segments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1002346DOI Listing
June 2012

Regulation of TCR Vγ2 gene rearrangement by the helix-loop-helix protein, E2A.

Int Immunol 2011 May 18;23(5):297-305. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Department of Developmental Medicine, Research Institute, Osaka Medical Center for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka 594-1101, Japan.

V(D)J recombination of Ig and TCR genes is strictly regulated by the accessibility of target gene chromatin in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. In the mouse TCRγ locus, rearrangement of the Vγ2 gene predominates over Vγ3 rearrangement in the adult thymus. This preferential rearrangement is likely due to the differential accessibility of the individual Vγ genes, because the levels of germ line transcription and histone acetylation of the Vγ genes are well correlated with the rearrangement frequency in adult thymocytes. However, factors responsible for the differential regulation of the Vγ gene rearrangement have been largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Vγ2 rearrangement in the adult thymus was substantially reduced in mice deficient for the basic helix-loop-helix protein, E2A. The decreased rearrangement is likely caused by the reduced accessibility of Vγ2 chromatin, since germ line transcription and histone acetylation of the Vγ2 gene were reduced in an E2A dosage-dependent manner. We further showed that E2A bound around the Vγ2 gene in vivo and we identified two canonical E-box sites downstream of Vγ2, to which E2A can bind in vitro. Furthermore, these two E-box sites had the ability to activate transcription upon E2A over-expression. These data suggest that E2A directly binds to and increases accessibility of Vγ2 chromatin, thereby facilitating Vγ2 rearrangement in the adult thymus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxr005DOI Listing
May 2011
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