Publications by authors named "Kou-Jen Wu"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Human Milk Oligosaccharide 2'-Fucosyllactose Reduces Neurodegeneration in Stroke Brain.

Transl Stroke Res 2020 10 2;11(5):1001-1011. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli, Taiwan.

2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is a major oligosaccharide in human milk and is present at trace levels in cow milk. 2'-FL reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Its action in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to determine 2'-FL-mediated neural protection and repair in culture and stroke brain. In rat primary cortical neuronal cultures, 2'-FL significantly antagonized N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or glutamate-mediated changes in ATP production, MAP2 immunoreactivity, and TUNEL. The influx of Ca (Cai) was examined in primary cortical neurons expressing GCaMP5, an endogenous calcium probe. NMDA increased Cai; 2'-FL significantly attenuated this reaction. In a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke, we found that intracerebroventricular pretreatment or oral posttreatment with 2'-FL significantly reduced brain infarction, mitigated microglial activation, improved locomotor activity, and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Post-stroke delivery of 2'-FL increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling in the perilesioned area. These BrdU cells co-expressed NeuN, or nestin, or GFAP. Using subventricular Matrigel cultures, we demonstrated that 2'-FL increased cell migration from subventricular zone explant. This response was reduced by anti-BDNF blocking antibody. In conclusion, our data suggest that 2'-FL has neuroprotective action through inhibition of Cai, inflammation, and apoptosis. Posttreatment with 2'-FL facilitates neural repair in stroke brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-019-00774-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of oxyntomodulin in neuronal cells and a rat model of stroke.

Exp Neurol 2017 Feb 14;288:104-113. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Proglucagon-derived peptides, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long-acting mimetics, have exhibited neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke. Several of these peptides are in clinical trials for stroke. Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a proglucagon-derived peptide that co-activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). The neuroprotective action of OXM, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of OXM was first examined in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and rat primary cortical neurons. GLP-1R and GCGR antagonists, and inhibitors of various signaling pathways were used in cell culture to characterize the mechanisms of action of OXM. To evaluate translation in vivo, OXM-mediated neuroprotection was assessed in a 60-min, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rat model of stroke. We found that OXM dose- and time-dependently increased cell viability and protected cells from glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress. These neuroprotective actions of OXM were mainly mediated through the GLP-1R. OXM induced intracellular cAMP production and activated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, inhibition of the PKA and MAPK pathways, but not inhibition of the PI3K pathway, significantly attenuated the OXM neuroprotective actions. Intracerebroventricular administration of OXM significantly reduced cerebral infarct size and improved locomotor activities in MCAo stroke rats. Therefore, we conclude that OXM is neuroprotective against ischemic brain injury. The mechanisms of action involve induction of intracellular cAMP, activation of PKA and MAPK pathways and phosphorylation of CREB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5203805PMC
February 2017

Time-Dependent Protection of CB2 Receptor Agonist in Stroke.

PLoS One 2015 17;10(7):e0132487. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan; Neural Protective and Regeneration Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Recent studies have indicated that type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) agonists reduce neurodegeneration after brain injury through anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the time-dependent interaction of CB2R and inflammation in stroke brain. Adult male rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). CB2R mRNA expression was significantly elevated >20 fold on day 2, peaked >40-fold on day 5, and normalized on day 10 post-stroke. Inflammatory markers IBA1 and TLR4 were significantly upregulated 15 fold until day 5 after MCAo. Because of the delayed upregulation of CB2R and IBA1, we next treated animals daily with CB2R agonist AM1241 or anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone from 2 to 5 days after MCAo. Delayed treatment with pioglitazone significantly reduced abnormal neurological scores and body asymmetry as well as brain infarction in stroke animals. No behavioral improvement or reduction in brain infarction was found in animals receiving AM1241. Pioglitazone, but not AM1241, significantly reduced IBA1 expression in the stroke cortex, suggesting that delayed treatment with AM1241 failed to alter ischemia-mediated IBA-1 upregulation. In contrast, pretreatment with AM1241 significantly reduced brain infarction and neurological deficits. In conclusion, our data support a time-dependent neuroprotection of CB2 agonist in an animal model of stroke. Delayed post- treatment with PPAR-γ agonist induced behavioral recovery and microglial suppression; early treatment with CB2R agonist suppressed neurodegeneration in stroke animals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0132487PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505877PMC
May 2016

Transplantation of human placenta-derived multipotent stem cells reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats.

Cell Transplant 2015 9;24(3):459-70. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Miaoli, Taiwan.

After the onset of stroke, a series of progressive and degenerative reactions, including inflammation, is activated, which leads to cell death. We recently reported that human placenta-derived multipotent stem cells (hPDMCs) process potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the protective effect of hPDMC transplants in a rodent model of stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized. hPDMCs labeled with a vital dye of fluorescing microparticles, DiI, or vehicle were transplanted into three cortical areas adjacent to the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Five minutes after grafting, the right MCA was transiently occluded for 60 min. Stroke animals receiving hPDMCs showed a significant behavioral improvement and reduction in lesion volume examined by T2-weighted images 4 days poststroke. Brain tissues were collected 1 day later. Human-specific marker HuNu immunoreactivity and DiI fluorescence were found at the hPDMC graft sites, suggesting the survival of hPDMCs in host brain. Grafting of hPDMCs suppressed IBA1 immunoreactivity and deramification of IBA1(+) cells in the perilesioned area, suggesting activation of microglia was attenuated by the transplants. Taken together, our data indicate that hPDMC transplantation reduced cortical lesions and behavioral deficits in adult stroke rats, and these cells could serve as a unique anti-inflammatory reservoir for the treatment of ischemic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368915X686922DOI Listing
December 2015

Methamphetamine induces a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(++) levels in neurons overexpressing GCaMP5.

Addict Biol 2016 Mar 6;21(2):255-66. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan.

In this study, methamphetamine (Meth)- and glutamate (Glu)-mediated intracellular Ca(++) (Ca(++) i) signals were examined in real time in primary cortical neurons overexpressing an intracellular Ca(++) probe, GCaMP5, by adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 1. Binding of Ca(++) to GCaMP increased green fluorescence intensity in cells. Both Meth and Glu induced a rapid increase in Ca(++) i, which was blocked by MK801, suggesting that Meth enhanced Ca(++) i through Glu receptor in neurons. The Meth-mediated Ca(++) signal was also blocked by Mg(++) , low Ca(++) or the L-type Ca(++) channel inhibitor nifedipine. The ryanodine receptor inhibitor dantrolene did not alter the initial Ca(++) influx but partially reduced the peak of Ca(++) i. These data suggest that Meth enhanced Ca(++) influx through membrane Ca(++) channels, which then triggered the release of Ca(++) from the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosol. AAV-GCaMP5 was also injected to the parietal cortex of adult rats. Administration of Meth enhanced fluorescence in the ipsilateral cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, Meth-induced green fluorescence was found in the NeuN-containing cells in the cortex, suggesting that Meth increased Ca(++) in neurons in vivo. In conclusion, we have used in vitro and in vivo techniques to demonstrate a rapid increase of Ca(++) i by Meth in cortical neurons through overexpression of GCaMP5. As Meth induces behavioral responses and neurotoxicity through Ca(++) i, modulation of Ca(++) i may be useful to reduce Meth-related reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12193DOI Listing
March 2016