Publications by authors named "Koto Ishida"

45 Publications

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is Associated with Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 30;30(8):105870. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and hematoma expansion are independently associated with worse outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion remains unclear.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our hospital from 2013 to 2020 with primary spontaneous ICH with at least two head CTs within the first 24 hours. The relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion, defined as ≥6 mL or ≥33% growth between the first and second scan, was assessed using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. We assessed the relationship of hematoma expansion and SIRS on discharge mRS using mediation analysis.

Results: Of 149 patients with ICH, 83 (56%; mean age 67±16; 41% female) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 44 (53%) had SIRS. Admission systolic blood pressure (SBP), temperature, antiplatelet use, platelet count, initial hematoma volume and rates of infection did not differ between groups (all p>0.05). Hematoma expansion occurred in 15/83 (18%) patients, 12 (80%) of whom also had SIRS. SIRS was significantly associated with hematoma expansion (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.16 - 17.39, p= 0.02) on univariable analysis. The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for admission SBP and initial hematoma volume (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.40 - 23.41, p= 0.02). There was a significant indirect effect of SIRS on discharge mRS through hematoma expansion. A significantly greater percentage of patients with SIRS had mRS 4-6 at discharge (59 vs 33%, p=0.02).

Conclusion: SIRS is associated with hematoma expansion of ICH within the first 24 hours, and hematoma expansion mediates the effect of SIRS on poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105870DOI Listing
May 2021

New Focus on Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Jun;41(2):170-175

Department of Neurology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of large-scale clinical trials have helped expand the toolkit for emergency management of acute ischemic stroke. This article is intended to be an up-to-date resource to aid nonstroke specialist neurology providers and ophthalmologists in identifying situations and patient populations in which urgent stroke evaluation should be completed with options for emergent reperfusion therapy considered.

Evidence Acquisition: The literature forming the foundation of the guidelines for early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke was reviewed, annotated, and summarized.

Results: Data from both initial and follow-up trials investigating the benefits and indications for use of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular intervention for stroke are reviewed systematically, with an emphasis on new updates to qualifying patient populations and time periods for treatment.

Conclusions: Recent studies underscore the conclusion that timely reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke is the most effective available treatment and that there are a growing number of new scenarios and patients for which interventions maybe applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001279DOI Listing
June 2021

Acute Stroke.

Semin Neurol 2021 Feb 22;41(1). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1722922DOI Listing
February 2021

Resident and Fellow Training in a Pandemic.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 03;41(1):6-9

Departments of Neurology (SG) and Ophthalmology (SG, SLG), NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas; Departments of Neurology (AGL), Neurosurgery, and Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), Baylor College of Medicine and the Center for Space Medicine (AGL), Houston, Texas; Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (AGL), Iowa City, Iowa; and Department of Ophthalmology (AGL), University of Buffalo (AGL), Buffalo, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001215DOI Listing
March 2021

Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Cranial Bypass for Nonmoyamoya Steno-Occlusive Disease in Patients Who Failed Optimal Medical Treatment: A Case Series.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 04;20(5):444-455

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background: In the post-Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) era, multiple reviews suggested subset groups of patients as potential candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Among them are patients with recurrent strokes despite optimal medical therapy. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of bypass in these specific patients.

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of direct STA-MCA bypass in patients with nonmoyamoya, symptomatic steno-occlusive disease with impaired distal perfusion, who failed optimal medical management or endovascular treatment.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease who underwent bypass after symptomatic recurrent or rapidly progressive strokes, despite optimal conservative or endovascular treatment.

Results: A total of 8 patients (mean age 60 ± 6 yr) underwent direct or combined direct/indirect STA-MCA bypass between 2016 and 2019. All anastomoses were patent. One bypass carried slow flow. There were no procedure-related permanent deficits. One patient developed seizures which were controlled by medications. A total of 7 out of 8 patients were stable or improved clinically at last follow-up (mean 27.3 ± 13.8 mo) without recurrent strokes. One patient did not recover from their presenting stroke, experienced severe bilateral strokes 4 mo postoperatively, and subsequently expired. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) improved in 6 patients (75%), remained stable in 1 patient (12.5%), and deteriorated in 1 (12.5%). Good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 5 patients (63%, mRS ≤ 2).

Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic, hypoperfused steno-occlusive disease who fail optimal medical or endovascular treatment may benefit from cerebral revascularization. Direct or combined STA-MCA bypass was safe and provided favorable outcomes in this small series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa458DOI Listing
April 2021

Thrombosis at hospital presentation in patients with and without coronavirus disease 2019.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Vascular Surgery, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY.

Objective: In the present study, we sought to better characterize the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most at risk of severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. We found a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in ST-segment myocardial infarction (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%) and an increase in venous thromboembolism (from 29.4% to 52.7%). The patients with COVID-19-associated thrombosis were younger (age, 58 years vs 64 years; P = .043) and were less frequently women (31.3% vs 43.9%; P = .16). However, no differences were found in the body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19-associated thrombosis correlated with greater mortality (15.2% vs 4.3%; P = .016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-19-associated thrombosis compared with regular thrombosis showed significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function test results, D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels.

Conclusions: Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization had increased mortality compared with outpatients without COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory marker levels, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation could be a therapeutic target to reduce the risk, or aid in the treatment, of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role that immunothrombosis might be playing in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655032PMC
November 2020

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Neuroophthalmol 2020 12 28;40(4):457-462. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Neurology (CM, RAP, SY, KI, JT), New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York; and Department of Neurology (AdH), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Recent studies have noted concern for increased thromboembolic events in the setting of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a form of thromboembolism that has been observed as a neuro-ophthalmologic complication of COVID-19.

Methods: Review of the scientific literature.

Results: In this article, we report an overview of CVST epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, disease pathophysiology, and management in the setting of COVID-19.

Conclusion: CVST is an uncommon thromboembolic event with variable phenotypes and multiple etiologies. Neurologic complications can be severe, including significant visual deficits and death. Current observations suggest that the risk of CVST may be profoundly impacted by this novel COVID-19 pandemic, thus prompting increased attention to disease presentation, pathogenesis, and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001122DOI Listing
December 2020

Response by Ishida et al Regarding Article, "SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System".

Stroke 2020 11 26;51(11):e316-e317. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031606DOI Listing
November 2020

Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After Extracranial Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2020 12 8;51(12):3592-3599. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY (A.L., K.I., J.T., S.Y.).

Background And Purpose: Anticoagulation therapy not only reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) but also predisposes patients to hemorrhagic complications. There is limited knowledge on the risk of first-ever ischemic stroke in patients with AF after extracranial hemorrhage (ECH).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the California State Inpatient Database including all nonfederal hospital admissions in California from 2005 to 2011. The exposure variable was hospitalization with a diagnosis of ECH with a previous diagnosis of AF. The outcome variable was a subsequent hospitalization with acute ischemic stroke. We excluded patients with stroke before or at the time of ECH diagnosis. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios for ischemic stroke during follow-up and at 6-month intervals using Cox regression models adjusted for pertinent demographics and comorbidities. In subgroup analyses, subjects were stratified by primary ECH diagnosis, severity/type of ECH, age, CHADS-VASc score, or the presence/absence of a gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer.

Results: We identified 764 257 patients with AF (mean age 75 years, 49% women) without a documented history of stroke. Of these, 98 647 (13%) had an ECH-associated hospitalization, and 22 748 patients (3%) developed an ischemic stroke during the study period. Compared to patients without ECH, subjects with ECH had ≈15% higher rate of ischemic stroke (overall adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.11-1.19]). The risk appeared to remain elevated for at least 18 months after the index ECH. In subgroup analyses, the risk was highest in subjects with a primary admission diagnosis of ECH, severe ECH, gastrointestinal-type ECH, with gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer, and age ≥60 years.

Conclusions: Patients with AF hospitalized with ECH may have a slightly elevated risk for future ischemic stroke. Particular consideration should be given to the optimal balance between the benefits and risks of anticoagulation therapy and the use of nonanticoagulant alternatives, such as left atrial appendage closure in this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751804PMC
December 2020

A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in New York City.

Neurology 2021 01 5;96(4):e575-e586. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

From the New York University Grossman School of Medicine (J.A.F., S.S., R.L., T.F., B.F., P.M.-V., T.S., S.B., D.Y., A.G., N.M., P.P., J.G., K.M., S.A., M.B., A.A., E.V., M.O., A.K., K.L., Daniel Friedman, David Friedman, M.H., J.H., S.T., J.H., N.A.-F., P.K., A.L., A.S.L., T.Z., D.E.K., B.M.C., J.T., S.Y., K.I., E.S., D.P., M.L., T.W., A.B.T., L.B., S.G.), New YorkUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (S.H.-Y.C., E.L.F.), PAThe Ohio State University (M.M., S.M.), ColumbusMedical University of Innsbruck (R.H.), AustriaThe Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (C.R., J.I.S., W.Z.), Baltimore, MDUniversity of Utah School of Medicine (M.S., A.d.H.), Salt Lake CityUniversity of Cambridge (D.M.), UK.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders.

Results: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905791PMC
January 2021

Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

J Neurosurg 2020 Aug 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

3Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics.

Results: A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up.

Conclusions: CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.JNS201107DOI Listing
August 2020

Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System.

Neurocrit Care 2021 06 24;34(3):748-759. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background And Purpose: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (p ≤ .001) and 10.0% in historical controls (p ≤ .001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results.

Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01077-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444897PMC
June 2021

Acute stroke care in a New York City comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 20;29(9):105068. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused unprecedented demand and burden on emergency health care services in New York City. We aim to describe our experience providing acute stroke care at a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and the impact of the pandemic on the quality of care for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from a quality improvement registry of consecutive AIS patients at New York University Langone Health's CSC between 06/01/2019-05/15/2020. During the early stages of the pandemic, the acute stroke process was modified to incorporate COVID-19 screening, testing, and other precautionary measures. We compared stroke quality metrics including treatment times and discharge outcomes of AIS patients during the pandemic (03/012020-05/152020) compared with a historical pre-pandemic group (6/1/2019-2/29/2020).

Results: A total of 754 patients (pandemic-120; pre-pandemic-634) were admitted with a principal diagnosis of AIS; 198 (26.3%) received alteplase and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Despite longer median door to head CT times (16 vs 12 minutes; p = 0.05) and a trend towards longer door to groin puncture times (79.5 vs. 71 min, p = 0.06), the time to alteplase administration (36 vs 35 min; p = 0.83), door to reperfusion times (103 vs 97 min, p = 0.18) and defect-free care (95.2% vs 94.7%; p = 0.84) were similar in the pandemic and pre-pandemic groups. Successful recanalization rates (TICI≥2b) were also similar (82.6% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.48). After adjusting for stroke severity, age and a prior history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, pandemic patients had increased discharge mortality (adjusted OR 2.90 95% CI 1.77 - 7.17, p = 0.021) CONCLUSION: Despite unprecedented demands on emergency healthcare services, early multidisciplinary efforts to adapt the acute stroke treatment process resulted in keeping the stroke quality time metrics close to pre-pandemic levels. Future studies will be needed with a larger cohort comparing discharge and long-term outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305900PMC
September 2020

Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS.

J Neuroimaging 2020 09 27;30(5):625-630. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge.

Results: Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37).

Conclusion: Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12729DOI Listing
September 2020

Factors Associated With DNR Status After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Jul 22;10(3):168-175. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: We explored factors associated with admission and discharge code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Methods: We extracted data from patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 2013, and March 1, 2016 with nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage who had a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 4 to 6. We reviewed data based on admission and discharge code status.

Results: Of 88 patients who met inclusion criteria, 6 (7%) were do not resuscitate (DNR) on admission (aDNR). Do not resuscitate on admission patients were significantly older than those who were full code on admission ( 0.04). There was no significant difference between admission code status and sex, marital status, active cancer, premorbid mRS, admission Glasgow Coma scale (GCS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, or bleed severity. At discharge, 66 (75%) patients were full code (dFULL), 11 (13%) were DNR (dDNR), and 11 (13%) were comfort care. African American and Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to be dFULL than Asian or white patients ( .01) and less likely to be seen by palliative care ( .004). Patients with less aggressive code status had higher median APACHE II scores ( .008) and were more likely to have active cancer ( .06). There was no significant difference between discharge code status and sex, age, marital status, premorbid mRS, discharge GCS, or bleed severity.

Conclusions: Limitation of code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage appears to be associated with older age, white race, worse APACHE II score, and active cancer. The role of palliative care after intracranial hemorrhage and the racial disparity in limitation and de-escalation of treatment deserves further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419873812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271616PMC
July 2020

COVID-19-associated delayed posthypoxic necrotizing leukoencephalopathy.

J Neurol Sci 2020 08 27;415:116945. Epub 2020 May 27.

New York University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251359PMC
August 2020

SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System.

Stroke 2020 07 20;51(7):2002-2011. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Neurology (S.Y., K.I., J.T., K.H., T.T., K.L., S.A., M.S., S.K., E.S., A.L., J.F.), NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current worldwide pandemic, there is mounting evidence that patients affected by the illness may develop clinically significant coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications including ischemic stroke. However, there is limited data on the clinical characteristics, stroke mechanism, and outcomes of patients who have a stroke and COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and April 19, 2020, within a major health system in New York, the current global epicenter of the pandemic. We compared the clinical characteristics of stroke patients with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19 to stroke patients without COVID-19 (contemporary controls). In addition, we compared patients to a historical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke discharged from our hospital system between March 15, 2019, and April 15, 2019 (historical controls).

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 3556 hospitalized patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, 32 patients (0.9%) had imaging proven ischemic stroke. Cryptogenic stroke was more common in patients with COVID-19 (65.6%) as compared to contemporary controls (30.4%, =0.003) and historical controls (25.0%, <0.001). When compared with contemporary controls, COVID-19 positive patients had higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and higher peak D-dimer levels. When compared with historical controls, COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to be younger men with elevated troponin, higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients with COVID-19 and stroke had significantly higher mortality than historical and contemporary controls.

Conclusions: We observed a low rate of imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Most strokes were cryptogenic, possibly related to an acquired hypercoagulability, and mortality was increased. Studies are needed to determine the utility of therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke and other thrombotic event prevention in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258764PMC
July 2020

Factors associated with therapeutic anticoagulation status in patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Jul 13;29(7):104888. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background And Purpose: Understanding factors associated with ischemic stroke despite therapeutic anticoagulation is an important goal to improve stroke prevention strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to determine factors associated with therapeutic or supratherapeutic anticoagulation status at the time of ischemic stroke in patients with AF.

Methods: The Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic stroke (IAC) study is a multicenter study pooling data from stroke registries of eight comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. Consecutive patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke in the setting of AF were included in the IAC cohort. For this study, we only included patients who reported taking warfarin at the time of the ischemic stroke. Patients not on anticoagulation and patients who reported use of a direct oral anticoagulant were excluded. Analyses were stratified based on therapeutic (INR ≥2) versus subtherapeutic (INR <2) anticoagulation status. We used binary logistic regression models to determine factors independently associated with anticoagulation status after adjustment for pertinent confounders. In particular, we sought to determine whether atherosclerosis with 50% or more luminal narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (a marker for a competing atherosclerotic mechanism) and small stroke size (≤ 10 mL; implying a competing small vessel disease mechanism) related to anticoagulant status.

Results: Of the 2084 patients enrolled in the IAC study, 382 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 77.4 ± 10.9 years and 52.4% (200/382) were women. A total of 222 (58.1%) subjects presented with subtherapeutic INR. In adjusted models, small stroke size (OR 1.74 95% CI 1.10-2.76, p = 0.019) and atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (OR 1.96 95% CI 1.06-3.63, p = 0.031) were independently associated with INR ≥2 at the time of their index stroke.

Conclusion: Small stroke size (≤ 10 ml) and ipsilateral atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing may indicate a competing stroke mechanism. There may be important opportunities to improve stroke prevention strategies for patients with AF by targeting additional ischemic stroke mechanisms to improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207529PMC
July 2020

Mechanical Thrombectomy in Nonagenarians: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Jul 13;29(7):104870. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Little data exists on outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in nonagenarians. We aimed to compare the procedural and discharge outcomes of MT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in nonagenarians versus younger patients.

Methods: Procedural outcomes and discharge disposition were compared in propensity score-matched groups of nonagenarians versus patients aged≤69 with AIS who underwent MT. Patients aged 70-89 were excluded in order to compare nonagenarians to a younger cohort that most closely approximates the age of patients in the seminal MT trials. Good discharge disposition was defined as a discharge to home or acute rehabilitation.

Results: Of 3010 AIS patients, 46/297(16%) nonagenarians underwent MT compared to 159/1337(12%) aged≤69 (P = 0.091). Of 78 propensity score-matched patients (N = 39 ≥90, N = 39 ≤69), the median admission NIHSS was 22 versus 20, median ASPECTS was 9 versus 9, pre-stroke mRS<4 was 82% versus 87%, 18% versus 8% received IV tPA, and mTICI≥2b was 90% versus 90%, respectively (all P>0.05). Revascularization time (569 versus 372 min), door to groin puncture time (82 versus 71 min) and groin puncture to revascularization times (39 versus 24 min) were similar in between nonagenarians and ≤69, respectively (both P>0.05). Symptomatic ICH (2.6% versus 10.3%; p = 0.165) and in-hospital death rates (10% vs 26%; p = 0.077) trended lower among nonagenarians versus aged≤69. Good discharge disposition occurred in 44% of nonagenarians versus 51% aged≤69 years (p = 0.496).

Conclusions: In propensity score analysis, 90% of nonagenarians achieved successful recanalization and almost half (44%) were discharged to home/acute rehabilitation, which was similar to a younger (aged≤69 years) cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104870DOI Listing
July 2020

Practice advisory update summary: Patent foramen ovale and secondary stroke prevention: Report of the Guideline Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

Neurology 2020 05 29;94(20):876-885. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

From the Department of Neurology (S.R.M., S.E.K.), University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (G.S.G., L.R.), University of Kansas Medical Center, MO; Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies (D.M.K.), Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; Cardiology Section (J.R.K.), San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System, and Departments of Medicine, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (J.R.K.), University of California San Francisco; Division of Cardiology (S.H.), Columbia University Medical Center, New York; Department of Medicine (Cardiology) (J.D.C.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora; Department of Neurology (K.I.), New York University; and Department of Neurology (N.S.), Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: To update the 2016 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice advisory for patients with stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO).

Methods: The guideline panel followed the AAN 2017 guideline development process to systematically review studies published through December 2017 and formulate recommendations.

Major Recommendations: In patients being considered for PFO closure, clinicians should ensure that an appropriately thorough evaluation has been performed to rule out alternative mechanisms of stroke (level B). In patients with a higher risk alternative mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians should not routinely recommend PFO closure (level B). Clinicians should counsel patients that having a PFO is common; that it occurs in about 1 in 4 adults in the general population; that it is difficult to determine with certainty whether their PFO caused their stroke; and that PFO closure probably reduces recurrent stroke risk in select patients (level B). In patients younger than 60 years with a PFO and embolic-appearing infarct and no other mechanism of stroke identified, clinicians may recommend closure following a discussion of potential benefits (absolute recurrent stroke risk reduction of 3.4% at 5 years) and risks (periprocedural complication rate of 3.9% and increased absolute rate of non-periprocedural atrial fibrillation of 0.33% per year) (level C). In patients who opt to receive medical therapy alone without PFO closure, clinicians may recommend an antiplatelet medication such as aspirin or anticoagulation (level C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526671PMC
May 2020

Modafinil in Recovery after Stroke (MIRAS): A Retrospective Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Apr;29(4):104645

NYU Langone Health, Department of Neurology, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Acute rehabilitation is known to enhance stroke recovery. However, poststroke lethargy and fatigue can hinder participation in rehabilitation therapies. We hypothesized that in patients with moderate to severe stroke complicated by poststroke fatigue and lethargy early stimulant therapy with modafinil increases favorable discharge disposition defined as transfer to acute inpatient rehabilitation or home.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients with acute stroke admitted to the stroke service over a 3-year period. All patients 18 years or older with confirmed ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, an NIHSS greater than or equal to 5 and documentation of fatigue/lethargy in clinical documentation were included. We compared patients that were treated with modafinil 50-200 mg to those managed with standard care. The primary outcome measure was discharge disposition. Secondary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin score (mRS). Statistical significance was determined using chi-square test for association and logistic regression models. Logistic regression models were derived in 2 ways with both raw data and an adjusted model that accounted for age, sex, and NIHSS score to account for the lack of randomization.

Results: This study included 199 stroke patients (145 ischemic, 54 hemorrhagic). Seventy-two (36.2%) were treated with modafinil and 129 (64.8%) were discharged to acute inpatient rehabilitation, while none were recommended for discharge home. Median NIHSS for modafinil patients was 13.5 versus 11 for standard care patients (P = .059). In adjusted models, modafinil was associated with higher odds of favorable discharge disposition (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.01-3.95). Favorable outcome at 90 days defined as mRS less than or equal to 2 occurred more frequently with modafinil (5.6% versus 3.3%) but this did not achieve statistical significance (P > .1). These results occurred despite the modafinil group requiring longer ICU stays and having more in-hospital complications such as infections and need for percutaneous gastrostomy tubes. The benefit of modafinil was seen across all subgroups except those with severe stroke (NIHSS ≥ 15). There were no significant adverse events associated with modafinil administration.

Conclusions: Modafinil use in acute in-hospital stroke patients with moderate stroke complicated by lethargy and fatigue was associated with improved discharge disposition. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further study the safety, efficacy, and long-term effects of modafinil in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104645DOI Listing
April 2020

Neuroanatomy of the middle cerebral artery: implications for thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Aug 27;12(8):768-773. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Radiology and Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Our perspective on anatomy frequently depends on how this anatomy is utilized in clinical practice, and by which methods knowledge is acquired. The thrombectomy revolution, of which the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common target, is an example of a clinical paradigm shift with a unique perspective on cerebrovascular anatomy. This article reviews important features of MCA anatomy in the context of thrombectomy. Recognizing that variation, frequently explained by evolutionary concepts, is the rule when it comes to branching pattern, vessel morphology, territory, or collateral potential is key to successful thrombectomy strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015782DOI Listing
August 2020

Redefined Measure of Early Neurological Improvement Shows Treatment Benefit of Alteplase Over Placebo.

Stroke 2020 04 27;51(4):1226-1230. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

From the Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health (S.A., E.S., A.L., J.F., K.I., J.T., S.R., S.Y.).

Background and Purpose- The first of the 2 NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Study trials did not show a significant increase in early neurological improvement, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement by ≥4, with alteplase treatment. We hypothesized that early neurological improvement defined as a percentage change in NIHSS (percent change NIHSS) at 24 hours is superior to other definitions in predicting 3-month functional outcomes and using this definition there would be treatment benefit of alteplase over placebo at 24 hours. Methods- We analyzed the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study (Parts 1 and 2) trial data. Percent change NIHSS was defined as ([admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score]×100/admission NIHSS score] and delta NIHSS as (admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score). We compared early neurological improvement using these definitions between alteplase versus placebo patients. We also used receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the predictive association of early neurological improvement with excellent 3-month functional outcomes (Barthel Index score of 95-100 and modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1), good 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2), and 3-month infarct volume. Results- There was a significantly greater improvement in the 24-hour median percent change NIHSS among patients treated with alteplase compared with the placebo group (28% versus 15%; =0.045) but not median delta NIHSS (3 versus 2; =0.471). Receiver operating characteristic curve comparison showed that percent change NIHSS (ROC) was better than delta NIHSS (ROC) and admission NIHSS (ROC) with regards to excellent 3-month Barthel Index (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.76; ROC, 0.75), excellent 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.74; ROC, 0.78), and good 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.76; ROC, 0.78). Conclusions- In the NINDS rt-PA trial, alteplase was associated with a significant percent change improvement in NIHSS at 24 hours. Percent change in NIHSS may be a better surrogate marker of thrombolytic activity and 3-month outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101071PMC
April 2020

Disease of the Year: Cerebrovascular Disorders.

J Neuroophthalmol 2020 03;40(1):1-2

Department of Neurology (KI), New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; and Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology (VB), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000905DOI Listing
March 2020

Education Research: Teaching and assessing communication and professionalism in neurology residency with simulation.

Neurology 2020 02 20;94(5):229-232. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

From the Departments of Neurology (A.M.K., A.L., P.P., S.K.R., A.N., C.Z., K.I., L.J.B.), Neurosurgery (A.L.), Medicine (S.Z.), Ophthalmology (L.J.B., S.L.G.), and Population Health (L.J.B.), New York University School of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008895DOI Listing
February 2020

Redefining Early Neurological Improvement After Reperfusion Therapy in Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Feb 11;29(2):104526. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, New York; Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Early neurologic improvement (ENI) in patients treated with alteplase has been shown to correlate with functional outcome. However, the definition of ENI remains controversial and has varied across studies. We hypothesized that ENI defined as a percentage change in the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (percent change NIHSS score) at 24-hours would better correlate with favorable outcomes at 3 months than ENI defined as the change in NIHSS score (delta NIHSS score) at 24 hours.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected single-center quality improvement data was performed of all acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with alteplase. We examined delta NIHSS score and percent change NIHSS score in unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models as predictors of a favorable outcome at 3 months (defined as mRS 0-1).

Results: Among 586 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 194 (33.1%) had a favorable outcome at 3 months. In fully adjusted models, both delta NIHSS score (OR per point decrease 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.36) and percent change NIHSS score (OR per 10 percent decrease 1.17; 95% CI 1.12-1.22) were associated with favorable functional outcome at 3 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve comparison showed that the area under the ROC curve for percent change NIHSS score (.755) was greater than delta NIHSS score (.613) or admission NIHSS (.694).

Conclusions: Percentage change in NIHSS score may be a better surrogate marker of ENI and functional outcome in AIS patients after receiving acute thrombolytic therapy. More studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.104526DOI Listing
February 2020

Possible Empirical Evidence of Glymphatic System on Computed Tomography After Endovascular Perforations.

World Neurosurg 2020 Feb 23;134:e400-e404. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The glial-lymphatic pathway is a fluid-clearance pathway consisting of a para-arterial route for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid along perivascular spaces and subsequently toward the brain interstitium. In this case series, we aim to investigate an empirical demonstration of glymphatic clearance of extravasated iodine following perforation incurred during endovascular therapy on serial computed tomography.

Methods: Six consecutive cases of endovascular perforation during thrombectomy performed between 2005 and 2018 were retrospectively collected by searching our internal database of total 446 thrombectomies. Two cases were excluded because care was withdrawn shortly following the procedure and no follow-up imaging was available. One case was excluded because a ventricular drain was placed. Three cases were hence included in this analysis.

Results: All 3 cases demonstrated progressive absorption of contrast by the brain parenchyma with eventual contrast disappearance.

Conclusions: We described a likely in vivo computed tomography correlate of the glymphatic system in a cohort of patients who sustained intraprocedural extravasation during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.089DOI Listing
February 2020

Predicting symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage after mechanical thrombectomy: the TAG score.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 12 19;90(12):1370-1374. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, New York, USA

Background: There is limited data on predictors of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) in patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. In this study, we aim to determine those predictors with external validation.

Methods: We evaluated mechanical thrombectomy in a derivation cohort of patients at a comprehensive stroke centre over a 30-month period. Clinical and radiographic data on these patients were obtained from the prospective quality improvement database. sICH was defined using the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III. We compared clinical and radiographic characteristics between patients with and without sICH using χ and t tests to identify independent predictors of sICH with p<0.1. Significant variables were then combined in a multivariate logistic regression model to derive an sICH prediction score. This score was then validated using data from the Blood Pressure After Endovascular Treatment multicentre prospective registry.

Results: We identified 578 patients with acute ischaemic stroke who received thrombectomy, 19 had sICH (3.3%). Predictive factors of sICH were: thrombolysis in cerebral ischaemia (TICI) score, Alberta stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS), and glucose level, and from these predictors, we derived the weighted TICI-ASPECTS-glucose (TAG) score, which was associated with sICH in the derivation (OR per unit increase 1.98, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.66, p<0.001, area under curve ((AUC)=0.79) and validation (OR per unit increase 1.48, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.79, p<0.001, AUC=0.69) cohorts.

Conclusion: High TAG scores are associated with sICH in patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy. Larger studies are needed to validate this scoring system and test strategies to reduce sICH risk and make thrombectomy safer in patients with elevated TAG scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-321184DOI Listing
December 2019

How Does Preexisting Hypertension Affect Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Mar 13;28(3):782-788. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background And Purpose: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) frequently present with hypertension, but it is unclear if this is due to pre-existing hypertension (prHTN) or to the bleed itself or associated pain. We sought to assess the relationship between prHTN and admission systolic blood pressure (aBP) and bleed severity.

Methods: We retrospectively assessed the relationship between prHTN and aBP and NIHSS in patients with ICH at 3 institutions.

Results: Of 251 patients, 170 (68%) had prHTN based on history of hypertension/antihypertensive use. Median aBP was significantly higher in those with prHTN (155 mm Hg (IQR 135-181) versus 139 mm Hg (IQR 124-158), P < .001). Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on electrocardiogram (ECG) or transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) had significantly higher aBP than those without LVH (median aBP 195 mm Hg (IQR 155-216) for patients with LVH on ECG versus 147 mm Hg (IQR 129-163) for patients with no LVH on ECG, P < .001; median aBP 181 mm Hg (IQR 153-214) for patients with LVH on TTE versus 152 mm Hg (IQR 137-169) for patients with no LVH on TTE, P = .01). prHTN was associated with a higher median NIHSS (11 (IQR 3-20) for patients with history of hypertension/antihypertensive use versus 6 (IQR 1-14) for patients without this history (P = .02); 9 (IQR 3-19) versus 5 (IQR 2-13) for patients with/without LVH on ECG (P = .085); and 10 (IQR 5-18) versus 5 (IQR 1-13) for patients with/without LVH on TTE (P = .046).

Conclusions: Patients with ICH who have prHTN have higher aBP and NIHSS, suggesting that prHTN may worsen reactive hypertension in the setting of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.11.023DOI Listing
March 2019