Publications by authors named "Kota Nakajima"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Disruption of postnatal neurogenesis and adult-stage suppression of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after developmental exposure to sterigmatocystin in rats.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Oct 11;349:69-83. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Cooperative Division of Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Exposure to sterigmatocystin (STC) raises concerns on developmental neurological disorders. The present study investigated the effects of maternal oral STC exposure on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis of offspring in rats. Dams were exposed to STC (1.7, 5.0, and 15.0 ppm in diet) from gestational day 6 until day 21 post-delivery (weaning), and offspring were maintained without STC exposure until adulthood on postnatal day (PND) 77, in accordance with OECD chemical testing guideline Test No. 426. On PND 21, 15.0-ppm STC decreased type-3 neural progenitor cell numbers in the subgranular zone (SGZ) due to suppressed proliferation. Increased γ-H2AX-immunoreactive () cell numbers in the SGZ and Ercc1 upregulation and Brip1 downregulation in the dentate gyrus suggested induction of DNA double-strand breaks in SGZ cells. Upregulation of Apex1 and Ogg1 and downregulation of antioxidant genes downstream of NRF2-Keap1 signaling suggested induction of oxidative DNA damage. Increased p21 SGZ cell numbers and suppressed cholinergic signaling through CHRNB2-containing receptors in GABAergic interneurons suggested potential neurogenesis suppression mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic signaling and various GABAergic interneuron subpopulations, including CHRNA7-expressing somatostatin interneurons activated by BDNF-TrkB signaling, may be involved in ameliorating the neurogenesis. Upregulation of Arc, Ptgs2, and genes encoding NMDA receptors and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors suggested synaptic plasticity facilitation. On PND 77, ARC granule cells decreased, and Nos2 was upregulated following 15.0 ppm STC exposure, suggesting oxidative stress-mediated synaptic plasticity suppression. Inverse pattern in gene expression changes in vesicular glutamate transporter isoforms, Slc17a7 and Slc17a6, from weaning might also be responsible for the synaptic plasticity suppression. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of maternal oral STC exposure for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 5.0 ppm, translating to 0.34-0.85 mg/kg body weight/day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.06.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Monodisperse Liposomes with Femtoliter Volume Enable Quantitative Digital Bioassays of Membrane Transporters and Cell-Free Gene Expression.

ACS Nano 2020 09 30;14(9):11700-11711. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.

Digital bioassays have emerged as a new category of bioanalysis. However, digital bioassays for membrane transporter proteins have not been well established yet despite high demands in molecular physiology and molecular pharmacology due to the lack of biologically functional monodisperse liposomes with femtoliter volumes. Here, we established a simple and robust method to produce femtoliter-sized liposomes (femto-liposomes). We prepared 10 monodispersed water-in-oil droplets stabilized by a lipid monolayer using a polyethylene glycol-coated femtoliter reactor array device. Droplets were subjected to the optimized emulsion transfer process for femto-liposome production. Liposomes were monodispersed (coefficient of variation = 5-15%) and had suitable diameter (0.6-5.3 μm) and uniform volumes of subfemtoliter or a few femtoliters; thus, they were termed uniform femto-liposomes. The unilamellarity of uniform femto-liposomes allowed quantitative single-molecule analysis of passive and active transporter proteins: α-hemolysin and FF-ATPase. Digital gene expression in uniform femto-liposomes (cell-free transcription and translation from single DNA molecules) was also demonstrated, showing the versatility of digital assays for membrane transporter proteins and cell-free synthetic biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c04354DOI Listing
September 2020

Downregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain-containing protein 4 (Ldlrad4) in the liver of rats treated with nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen to induce transforming growth factor β signaling promoting cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in early hepatocarcinogenesis.

J Appl Toxicol 2020 11 28;40(11):1467-1479. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

We previously found downregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain-containing protein 4 (LDLRAD4), a negative regulator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, in glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) expressing ( ) pre-neoplastic lesions produced by treatment with nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens for up to 90 days in rats. Here, we investigated the relationship between LDLRAD4 downregulation and TGFβ signaling in nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis. The transcripts of Tgfb and Hb-egf increased after ≥28 days of treatment. After 84 or 90 days, Snai1 increased transcripts and the subpopulation of GST-P foci downregulating LDLRAD4 co-expressed TGFβ1, phosphorylated EGFR, or phosphorylated AKT2, and downregulated PTEN, showing higher incidences than those in GST-P foci expressing LDLRAD4. The subpopulation of GST-P foci downregulating LDLRAD4 also co-expressed caveolin-1 or TACE/ADAM17, suggesting that disruptive activation of TGFβ signaling through a loss of LDLRAD4 enhances EGFR and PTEN/AKT-dependent pathways via caveolin-1-dependent activation of TACE/ADAM17 during nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis. The numbers of c-MYC cells and PCNA cells were higher in LDLRAD4-downregulated GST-P foci than in LDLRAD4-expressing GST-P foci, suggesting a preferential proliferation of pre-neoplastic cells by LDLRAD4 downregulation. Nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens markedly downregulated Nox4 after 28 days and later decreased cleaved caspase 3 cells in LDLRAD4-downregulated GST-P foci, suggesting an attenuation of apoptosis by LDLRAD4 downregulation through activation of the EGFR pathway. At the late hepatocarcinogenesis stage in a two-stage model, LDLRAD4 downregulation was higher in adenoma and carcinoma than in pre-neoplastic cell foci, suggesting a role of LDLRAD4 downregulation in tumor development. Our results suggest that nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens cause disruptive activation of TGFβ signaling through downregulating LDLRAD4 toward carcinogenesis in the rat liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3998DOI Listing
November 2020

Developmental exposure to diacetoxyscirpenol reversibly disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis by inducing oxidative cellular injury and suppressed differentiation of granule cell lineages in mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Feb 10;136:111046. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Cooperative Division of Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

To investigate the developmental exposure effect of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were provided a diet containing DAS at 0, 0.6, 2.0, or 6.0 ppm from gestational day 6 to day 21 on weaning after delivery. Offspring were maintained through postnatal day (PND) 77 without DAS exposure. On PND 21, neural stem cells (NSCs) and all subpopulations of proliferating progenitor cells were suggested to decrease in number in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at ≥ 2.0 ppm. At 6.0 ppm, increases of SGZ cells showing TUNEL, metallothionein-I/II, γ-H2AX or malondialdehyde, and transcript downregulation of Ogg1, Parp1 and Kit without changing the level of double-stranded DNA break-related genes were observed in the dentate gyrus. This suggested induction of oxidative DNA damage of NSCs and early-stage progenitor cells, which led to their apoptosis. Cdkn2a, Rb1 and Trp53 downregulated transcripts, which suggested an increased vulnerability to DNA damage. Hilar PVALB GABAergic interneurons decreased and Grin2a and Chrna7 were downregulated, which suggested suppression of type-2-progenitor cell differentiation. On PND 77, hilar RELN interneurons increased at ≥ 2.0 ppm; at 6.0 ppm, RELN-related Itsn1 transcripts were upregulated and ARC granule cells decreased. Increased RELN signals may ameliorate the response to the decreases of NSCs and ARC-mediated synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that DAS reversibly disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis by inducing oxidative cellular injury and suppressed differentiation of granule cell lineages. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of DAS for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 0.6 ppm (0.09-0.29 mg/kg body weight/day).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.111046DOI Listing
February 2020

Differential responses on energy metabolic pathway reprogramming between genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens in rat liver cells.

J Toxicol Pathol 2019 Oct 28;32(4):261-274. Epub 2019 Jul 28.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

To clarify difference in the responses on the reprogramming of metabolism toward carcinogenesis between genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens in the liver, rats were repeatedly administered genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (-nitrosodiethylamine, aflatoxin B, -nitrosopyrrolidine, or carbadox) or non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (carbon tetrachloride, thioacetamide, or methapyrilene hydrochloride) for 28, 84, or 90 days. Non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens revealed transcript expression changes suggestive of suppressed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) after 28 days and increased glutathione -transferase placental form-positive (GST-P) foci downregulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor (ATPB), compared with genotoxic hepatocarcinogens after 84 or 90 days, suggesting that non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens are prone to suppress OXPHOS from the early stage of treatment, which is in contrast to genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. Both genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens upregulated glycolytic enzyme genes and increased cellular membrane solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (GLUT1) expression in GST-P foci for up to 90 days, suggesting induction of a metabolic shift from OXPHOS to glycolysis at early hepatocarcinogenesis by hepatocarcinogens unrelated to genotoxic potential. Non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens increased c-MYC cells after 28 days and downregulated after 84 or 90 days, suggesting a commitment to enhanced metabolic shift and cell proliferation. Genotoxic hepatocarcinogens also enhanced c-MYC activation-related metabolic shift until 84 or 90 days. In addition, both genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens upregulated glutaminolysis-related or , or both, after 28 days and induced liver cell foci immunoreactive for neutral amino acid transporter B(0) (SLC1A5) in the subpopulation of GST-P foci after 84 or 90 days, suggesting glutaminolysis-mediated facilitation of cell proliferation toward hepatocarcinogenesis. These results suggest differential responses between genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens on reprogramming of energy metabolic pathways toward carcinogenesis in liver cells from the early stage of hepatocarcinogen treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.2019-0048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831489PMC
October 2019

Twenty-eight-day repeated oral doses of sodium valproic acid increases neural stem cells and suppresses differentiation of granule cell lineages in adult hippocampal neurogenesis of postpubertal rats.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Sep 11;312:195-203. Epub 2019 May 11.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Developmental exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a model compound for experimental autism, has shown to primarily target GABAergic interneuron subpopulations in hippocampal neurogenesis of rat offspring. The VPA-exposed animals had revealed late effects on granule cell lineages, involving progenitor cell proliferation and synaptic plasticity. To investigate the possibility whether hippocampal neurogenesis in postpubertal rats in a protocol of 28-day repeated exposure is affected in relation with the property of a developmental neurotoxicant by developmental exposure, VPA was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 200, 800 and 900 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. At 900 mg/kg, GFAP cells increased in number, but DCX cells decreased in number in the granule cell lineages. Moreover, CHRNB2 cells and NeuN postmitotic neurons decreased in number in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Transcript level examined at 900 mg/kg in the dentate gyrus was increased with Kit, but decreased with Dpsyl3, Btg2, Pvalb and Chrnb2. These results suggest that VPA increased type-1 stem cells in relation to the activation of SCF-KIT signaling and suppression of BTG2-mediated antiproliferative effect on stem cells. VPA also decreased type-3 progenitor cells and immature granule cells probably in relation with PVALB interneuron hypofunction and reduced CHRNB2 interneuron subpopulation in the hilus, as well as with suppression of BTG2-mediated terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Thus, the disruption pattern of VPA by postpubertal exposure was different from developmental exposure. However, disruption itself can be detected, suggesting availability of hippocampal neurogenesis in detecting developmental neurotoxicants in a 28-day toxicity study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.05.013DOI Listing
September 2019

Ameliorating effect of postweaning exposure to antioxidant on disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by developmental hypothyroidism in rats.

J Toxicol Sci 2019 ;44(5):357-372

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.

Developmental hypothyroidism as a model of autism spectrum disorders disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis through the adult stage. The present study investigated the ameliorating effect of postweaning exposure to antioxidant on the hypothyroidism-induced disruptive neurogenesis. Mated female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0 or 10 ppm 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) as an anti-thyroid agent in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. PTU-exposed male offspring were fed either basal diet, diet containing α-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) at 5,000 ppm or α-lipoic acid (ALA) at 1,000 ppm as an antioxidant from PND 21 to PND 77. PTU-exposure decreased DCX and NeuN granule cell lineage subpopulations, synaptic plasticity-related FOS granule cells, and hilar PVALB and GAD67 GABAergic interneurons, increased hilar SST and CALB2 interneurons, and upregulated Gria3, Otx2, and antioxidant enzyme genes in the dentate gyrus on PND 77. These results suggest disruption of neurogenesis remained in relation with increase of oxidative stress and compensatory responses to the disruption at the adult stage. AGIQ recovered expression of some antioxidant enzyme genes and was effective for restoration of NeuN postmitotic granule cells and PVALB and SST interneurons. In contrast, ALA was effective for restoration of all interneuron subpopulations, as well as postmitotic granule cells, and upregulated Grin2a that may play a role for the restoration. Both antioxidants recovered expression of Otx2 and AGIQ-alone recovered Gria3, suggesting a reversal of disruptive neurogenesis by compensatory responses. Thus, postweaning antioxidant exposure may be effective for ameliorating developmental hypothyroidism-induced disruptive neurogenesis by restoring the function of regulatory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2131/jts.44.357DOI Listing
September 2019

Aberrant epigenetic gene regulation in hippocampal neurogenesis of mouse offspring following maternal exposure to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile.

J Toxicol Sci 2019 ;44(2):93-105

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.

Maternal exposure to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) affects hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring, with biphasic disruption, which facilitates neurogenesis during exposure and reduces the broad range of the granule cell lineage population at the adult stage. The present study investigated the epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to the IDPN-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were treated with IDPN at 0 or 1200 ppm in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring on PND 21 was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses, followed by validation analyses on DNA methylation. Three genes, Edc4, Kiss1 and Mrpl38, were identified as those showing promoter-region hypermethylation and transcript downregulation, with Mrpl38 sustaining the changes through PND 77. Immunohistochemically, MRPL38, a mitochondrial ribosomal protein, revealed an irreversible decrease in the number of immunoreactive interneurons in the dentate gyrus hilar region, suggesting a causal relationship with the long-lasting effect on neurogenesis by the impaired migration due to mitochondrial dysfunction of interneurons, which regulate the differentiation and survival of granule cell lineages. Downregulation of Edc4 may also be responsible for decreased neurogenesis on PND 77 owing to a mechanism involving interleukin-6 downregulation via processing body dysfunction. Downregulation of Kiss1 may be responsible for the facilitation of neurogenesis during IDPN-exposure due to decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission and also for suppressed neurogenesis on PND 77 due to decreased expression of immediate-early genes, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of cell differentiation or plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2131/jts.44.93DOI Listing
February 2019

Expression Characteristics of Genes Hypermethylated and Downregulated in Rat Liver Specific to Nongenotoxic Hepatocarcinogens.

Toxicol Sci 2019 05;169(1):122-136

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

This study examined hypermethylated and downregulated genes specific to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by Methyl-Seq analysis combined with expression microarray analysis in the liver of rats treated with CCl4 or N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) for 28 days, by excluding those with DEN. Among 52 genes, Ldlrad4, Proc, Cdh17, and Nfia were confirmed to show promoter-region hypermethylation by methylation-specific quantitative PCR analysis on day 28. The transcript levels of these 4 genes decreased by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis in the livers of rats treated with nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens for up to 90 days compared with untreated controls and genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. Immunohistochemically, LDLRAD4 and PROC showed decreased immunoreactivity, forming negative foci, in glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)+ foci, and incidences of LDLRAD4- and PROC- foci in GST-P+ foci induced by treatment with nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens for 84 or 90 days were increased compared with those with genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. In contrast, CDH17 and NFIA responded to hepatocarcinogens without any relation to the genotoxic potential of carcinogens. All 4 genes did not respond to renal carcinogens after treatment for 28 days. Considering that Ldlrad4 is a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-β signaling, Proc participating in p21WAF1/CIP1 upregulation by activation, Cdh17 inducing cell cycle arrest by gene knockdown, and Nfia playing a role in a tumor-suppressor, all these genes may be potential in vivo epigenetic markers of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens from the early stages of treatment in terms of gene expression changes. LDLRAD4 and PROC may have a role in the development of preneoplastic lesions produced by nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfz027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484883PMC
May 2019

Developmental Exposure of Mice to T-2 Toxin Increases Astrocytes and Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells Expressing Metallothionein.

Neurotox Res 2019 Apr 29;35(3):668-683. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.

We previously reported that developmental exposure to T-2 toxin caused transient disruption of the hippocampal neurogenesis targeting neural stem cells (NSCs) and early-stage progenitor cells involving oxidative stress on weaning in mouse offspring. The present study examined metallothionein (MT) expression changes and their cellular identity in brain regions of these animals. T-2 toxin at 0, 1, 3, and 9 mg/kg was given in the diet of maternal mice from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. Offspring were maintained through PND 77 without T-2 toxin exposure. Male offspring were analyzed. Immunohistochemically, MT-I/II cells increased in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and cerebral cortex at ≥ 3 mg/kg and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, and cerebellum at 9 mg/kg on PND 21, suggestive of operation of cytoprotective function against oxidative stress throughout the brain. Double immunohistochemistry analysis revealed MT-I/II SGZ cells to be NSCs and MT-I/II cells in other brain regions to be astrocytes as toxicity targets of T-2 toxin. Phosphorylated STAT3 cell numbers increased only in the cerebellum in parallel with the increase of GFAP astrocytes at 9 mg/kg, suggesting a STAT3-mediated transcriptional GFAP upregulation in cerebellar astrocytes. In the dentate gyrus, Il1a, Il1r1, and Mt2 increased transcripts at 9 mg/kg, suggesting activation of the IL-1 signaling cascade, possibly causing MT-II upregulation. The increase of MT-I/II cells in all brain regions disappeared or was suppressed below the control level on PND 77, suggesting a recovery from the T-2 toxin-induced oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9981-4DOI Listing
April 2019

A case of rapid recurrence of apocrine ductal carcinoma originating from the oral scent gland of a Richardson's ground squirrel ().

J Toxicol Pathol 2018 Jul 29;31(3):189-193. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

A 3-year-old female Richardson's ground squirrel developed a subcutaneous mass at the left oral angle. Seven days after removal of the mass, the mass recurred and metastasized to the cervical lymph node. Histologically, the primary mass was subdivided by fibrous trabeculae into various-sized neoplastic cell lobules showing a solid growth pattern with frequent mitoses and sometimes forming intracytoplasmic lumina. Large to medium-sized lobules formed a central cyst plugged by comedo necrosis. Neoplastic cells showed infiltrative subcutaneous growth. In the recurrent tumor, tubular structures lacking apparent apocrine secretion appeared within the solid growth portion. Neutrophil infiltration was evident within the tubules and intracytoplasmic lumina. Neoplastic cells were diffusely immunopositive for AE1/AE3 pan-cytokeratin (CK) in all lobules and focally positive for CAM5.2 CK in the lobules forming a central cyst and/or tubular structures, but they entirely lacked positivity for the periodic acid Schiff reaction. Ki-67-positive proliferating neoplastic cells were higher in numbers with the recurrent tumor than with the primary tumor. In addition, phosphorylated c-MYC immunoreactivity was observed in neoplastic cell nuclei, distinctly at the portion of invasive growth. Thus, the present case was diagnosed as apocrine ductal carcinoma originating from the oral scent gland, which typically shows highly aggressive biological behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.2017-0071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077161PMC
July 2018

Developmental exposure of citreoviridin transiently affects hippocampal neurogenesis targeting multiple regulatory functions in mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Oct 30;120:590-602. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

To investigate the developmental exposure effect of citreoviridin (CIT) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were dietary exposed to CIT at 0, 1, 3 and 10 ppm from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. Offspring were maintained through PND 77 without CIT exposure. Male offspring were analyzed. At 10 ppm on PND 21, weak changes suggestive of neural stem cell reduction and progenitor cell proliferation were observed. Number of hilar CALB1 interneurons reduced, suggesting an influence on neurogenesis. In contrast, number of hilar SST interneurons increased and Bdnf and Ntrk2 transcripts upregulated in the dentate gyrus, suggesting a facilitation of BDNF-TRKB signaling for progenitor cell proliferation. Transcript expression changes of an outside regulatory system suggested suppressed function of GABAergic interneurons, especially of PVALB interneurons for compensation on neural stem cell reduction. At ≥ 3 ppm, number of ARC mature granule cells increased, and at 10 ppm, number of hilar GRIA1 cells increased and Gria2 and Gria3 upregulated, suggesting an operation of AMPA receptor membrane trafficking on the increase of ARC-mediated synaptic plasticity. On PND 77, all the transcript expression changes of the neurogenesis regulatory system except for Grin2d were inverted, suggesting an operation of a homeostatic mechanism on CIT-induced disruptive neurogenesis. Simultaneous downregulation of Grin2a and Grin2d suggests suppression of GABAergic interneuron function to adjust neurogenesis at the normal level. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of CIT for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 1 ppm, translating to 0.13-0.51 mg/kg body weight/day of maternal oral exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.07.051DOI Listing
October 2018

Developmental Exposure to Aluminum Chloride Irreversibly Affects Postnatal Hippocampal Neurogenesis Involving Multiple Functions in Mice.

Toxicol Sci 2018 07;164(1):264-277

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

Aluminum (Al) is neurotoxic to adults and also to infants. In this study, we investigated the developmental exposure effect of AlCl3 on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Pregnant mice were administered 0-, 900-, or 1800-ppm AlCl3 via drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21, with their offspring examined on PND 21 and PND 77. On PND 21, GFAP-immunoreactive (+) neural stem cells (NSCs) and p21Cip1/Waf1+ cells were decreased in number in the subgranular zone at 900 and ≥900 ppm, respectively. Pcna transcript level examined at 1800 ppm was decreased in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest induction of compromised cell quiescence that caused impaired self-renewal capacity of NSCs accompanying slowing down of cell cycling, which ultimately resulted in exhaustion of the NSC pool. At 1800 ppm, Reelin+ hilar GABAergic interneurons were also decreased, suggesting a contribution to the NSC reduction. At this dose, TBR2+ or DCX+ progenitor and immature granule cells and PVALB+ interneurons were increased. Moreover, COX-2+ granule cells were increased at ≥900 ppm. These results suggest facilitation of transient progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation during exposure. Moreover, TUNEL+ or Morin-stained granule cells were increased, together with Casp12 transcript upregulation, suggesting induction of Al accumulation-related endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated granule cell apoptosis. Transcript expression changes on cholinergic and glutamatergic signals and synaptic plasticity suggested contribution to disruptive neurogenesis. The NSC-targeting effects sustained through the adult stage despite no sustained Al-accumulation. These results suggest that developmental AlCl3-exposure irreversibly affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis involving multiple functions in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016705PMC
July 2018

Aberrant Epigenetic Gene Regulation in GABAergic Interneuron Subpopulations in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring Following Developmental Exposure to Hexachlorophene.

Toxicol Sci 2018 05;163(1):13-25

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on PND 21. Validation analyses on methylation identified three genes, Dlx4, Dmrt1, and Plcb4, showing promoter-region hypermethylation. Immunohistochemically, DLX4+, DMRT1+, and PLCB4+ cells in the dentate hilus co-expressed GAD67, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuron marker. HCP decreased all of three subpopulations as well as GAD67+ cells on PND 21. PLCB4+ cells also co-expressed the metabotropic glutamate receptor, GRM1. HCP also decreased transcript level of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the dentate gyrus and immunoreactive granule cells for synaptic plasticity-related ARC. On PND 77, all immunohistochemical cellular density changes were reversed, whereas the transcript expression of the synaptic plasticity-related genes fluctuated. Thus, HCP-exposed offspring transiently reduced the number of GABAergic interneurons. Among them, subpopulations expressing DLX4, DMRT1, or PLCB4 were transiently reduced in number through an epigenetic mechanism. Considering the role of the Dlx gene family in GABAergic interneuron migration and differentiation, the decreased number of DLX4+ cells may be responsible for reducing those GABAergic interneurons regulating neurogenesis. The effect on granule cell synaptic plasticity was sustained until the adult stage, and reduced GABAergic interneurons active in GRM1-PLCB4 signaling may be responsible for the suppression on weaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5917777PMC
May 2018

Downregulation of TMEM70 in Rat Liver Cells After Hepatocarcinogen Treatment Related to the Warburg Effect in Hepatocarcinogenesis Producing GST-P-Expressing Proliferative Lesions.

Toxicol Sci 2017 09;159(1):211-223

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

We previously observed downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation-related protein, TMEM70, which is suggestive of disrupted cellular senescence, in GST-P-expressing (+) proliferative lesions from early hepatocarcinogenesis stages in rats. The present study investigated the immunohistochemical relationship between TMEM70 downregulation and cellular metabolic changes in carcinogenic processes, as well as the onset of the liver cell respiratory changes after repeated hepatocarcinogen treatment in rats. At the early hepatocarcinogenesis stage in a 2-stage model, GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions showing TMEM70 downregulation also downregulated the mitochondrial ATPase, ATPB, but upregulated glycolysis-related glucose transporter member 1 (GLUT1) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. Combined downregulation of TMEM70 and ATPB increased proliferation activity in GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions, suggesting cell proliferation facilitation by reducing mitochondrial respiration. Concurrent GLUT1-upregulation and TMEM70-downregulation increased nuclear phosphorylated c-MYC+ cells in GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions, suggesting c-MYC-mediated transcription facilitation to promote glycolysis and cell proliferation. The TMEM70-related metabolic shift was enhanced in GST-P+ neoplastic lesions, suggesting a contribution to tumor progression. Conversely, the TMEM70-related metabolic shift was lacking in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as in carcinogenic processes targeting other organs. Transcript expression analysis following 28- and 90-day repeated hepatocarcinogen treatment showed downregulation of Tmem70 from day 28 and upregulation of Pkm and Myc at day 90, suggesting early onset of a catastrophic cellular senescence-related metabolic shift beginning from depressed mitochondrial respiration in the liver. These results suggest a contribution of TMEM70 downregulation to the Warburg effect, which directs tumor promotion and progression in GST-P+-linked hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx131DOI Listing
September 2017

Downregulation of UBE2E2 in rat liver cells after hepatocarcinogen treatment facilitates cell proliferation and slowing down of DNA damage response in GST-P-expressing preneoplastic lesions.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2017 11 9;334:207-216. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

We previously found downregulation of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 2 (UBE2E2) in GST-P-positive proliferative lesions produced by tumor promotion from early hepatocarcinogenesis stages in rats. Here we investigated the role of UBE2E2 downregulation in preneoplastic lesions of the liver and other target organs produced by tumor promotion in rats. Increased number of UBE2E2-related ubiquitination target proteins, phosphorylated c-MYC, KDM4A and KMT5A, was found in the UBE2E2-downregulated GST-P foci, compared with GST-P foci expressing UBE2E2. However, p21, another UBE2E2 target protein, did not increase in the positive cells. Furthermore, the numbers of PCNA cells and γH2AX cells were increased in UBE2E2-downregulated foci. These results suggest sustained activation of c-MYC and stabilization of KMT5A to result in c-MYC-mediated transcript upregulation and following KMT5A-mediated protein stabilization of PCNA in GST-P foci, as well as KDM4A stabilization resulting in slowing down of DNA damage response in these lesions. Similar results were also observed in GST-P foci produced by repeated treatment of rats with a hepatocarcinogen, thioacetamide, for 90days. Hepatocarcinogen treatment for 28 or 90days also increased the numbers of liver cells expressing UBE2E2-related ubiquitination target proteins, as well as PCNA or γH2AX cells. Conversely, UBE2E2 downregulation was lacking in PPARα agonist-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as in carcinogenic processes targeting other organs, suggestive of the loss of UBE2E2-related ubiquitination limited to hepatocarcinogenesis producing GST-P proliferative lesions. Our results suggest that repeated hepatocarcinogen treatment of rats causes stabilization of UBE2E2-related ubiquitination target proteins in liver cells to promote carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2017.09.005DOI Listing
November 2017

Differential effects between developmental and postpubertal exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on progenitor cell proliferation of rat hippocampal neurogenesis in relation to COX2 expression in granule cells.

Toxicology 2017 08 6;389:55-66. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

This study was performed to compare the exposure effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a cytocidal agent of proliferating cells, on rat hippocampal neurogenesis between developmental and postpubertal periods. Developmental exposure through maternal drinking water from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery on weaning decreased GFAP-immunoreactive stem cells and increased immunoreactive cells indicative of subsequent progenitor and postmitotic immature neuronal populations, TUNEL or p21 stem/progenitor cells and COX2 granule cells, on postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 77 after cessation of developmental exposure, NeuN postmitotic granule cells decreased in number. Postpubertal exposure by oral gavage for 28days decreased the numbers of all granule cell lineage populations and ARC or COX2 granule cells and increased the number of TUNEL stem/progenitor cells. These results suggested that both developmental and postpubertal exposure caused apoptosis of stem/progenitor cells. However, developmental exposure increased COX2 expression to facilitate intermediate progenitor cell proliferation and increased neuronal plasticity. This effect was concurrent with the induction of p21 that causes cell cycle arrest of stem/progenitor cells in response to accumulating DNA damage on weaning, resulting in a subsequent reduction of postmitotic granule cells. In contrast, postpubertal exposure suppressed neuronal plasticity as evidenced by downregulation of ARC and COX2. The COX2 downregulation was responsible for the lack of facilitating stem/progenitor cell proliferation. Induction of apoptosis and the lack of cell proliferation facilitation may be responsible for the overall reduction of neurogenesis caused by postpubertal exposure. Thus, the disrupted pattern of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by MNU is different between developmental and postpubertal exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.06.013DOI Listing
August 2017

Late effect of developmental exposure to glycidol on hippocampal neurogenesis in mice: Loss of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2017 Sep 8;69(7):517-526. Epub 2017 May 8.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-hi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Developmental exposure to glycidol of rats causes axonal injury targeting axon terminals in dams and transient disruption of late-stage differentiation of hippocampal neurogenesis, accompanying sustained increase in the number of reelin-producing or calretinin-expressing interneurons in offspring. The molecular mechanism of disruptive neurogenesis probably targets the newly generating nerve terminals. We previously found differences between mice and rats in the effects on hippocampal neurogenesis after developmental exposure to the same neurotoxic substances. In the present study, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of developmental exposure to glycidol on hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Glycidol (800 or 1600ppm) was administered in drinking water to mated female mice from gestational day 6 to postnatal day 21. Compared to mice drinking water without glycidol (control), the exposed dams showed axon terminal injury at both concentrations of glycidol. The offspring of the dams that had received 1600ppm glycidol had fewer parvalbumin (PVALB) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and neuron-specific nuclear protein postmitotic neurons in the hilus of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Thus, exposure of glycidol to adult mice induced axonal degeneration equivalent to that seen in the rat; however, the target mechanism for the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis by developmental exposure was different from that in rats, with the hilar neuronal population not affected until adulthood. Considering the role of PVALB GABAergic interneurons in the brain, developmental glycidol exposure in mice may cause a decline in cognitive function in later life, and involve a different mechanism from that targeting axon terminals in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2017.04.008DOI Listing
September 2017

Identification of epigenetically downregulated Tmem70 and Ube2e2 in rat liver after 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogenic thioacetamide showing gene product downregulation in hepatocellular preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions produced by tumor promotion.

Toxicol Lett 2017 Jan 30;266:13-22. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

The present study identified genes showing promoter region hypermethylation by CpG island microarrays in the liver of rats treated with hepatocarcinogen thioacetamide (TAA) for 28days. Among 47 hypermethylated genes, Hist1h2aa, Tmem70, Ube2e2, and Slk were confirmed to show hypermethylation by methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing analyses as well as downregulation of transcript levels by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis in the livers of rats treated with TAA. All gene products of the 4 selected genes showed decreased immunoreactivity forming negative liver cell foci in a subpopulation of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) foci in TAA-promoted rat livers in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Among them, TMEM70 and UBE2E2 showed increased incidences of negative foci in GST-P foci by promotion of all examined TAA, β-naphthoflavone, piperonyl butoxide, fenbendazole and phenobarbital, while HIST1H2AA and SLK did not respond to all promotive treatments. In the late stage of tumor promotion by TAA, the incidence of GST-P proliferative lesions with downregulation of TMEM70 or UBE2E2 was higher in adenomas and carcinomas than liver cell foci. TMEM70 plays a role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and UBE2E2 participates in the stabilization of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Therefore, our results indicate that aberrant epigenetic gene downregulation suggestive of a metabolic shift of cellular respiration from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and aberrant cell cycle regulation facilitating cell proliferation from as early as 28days after hepatocarcinogen treatment contribute to tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.11.022DOI Listing
January 2017
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