Publications by authors named "Koorosh Kamali"

114 Publications

Comparison of Anesthesia Results between Wide Awake Local Anesthesia no Tourniquet (WALANT) and Forearm Tourniquet Bier Block in Hand Surgeries: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Arch Bone Jt Surg 2021 Jan;9(1):116-121

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: There is still some debate regarding the most proper anesthetic technique in minor hand surgeries. We hypothesized that both the WALANT and forearm tourniquet Bier block methods provide effective anesthesia in minor hand surgeries without significant difference.

Methods: A total of 85 patients consented to participate in this study and were randomized into WALANT and single tourniquet forearm Bier block groups. In WALANT group, patients received adrenaline-contained lidocaine without tourniquet while lidocaine was administered accordingly after applying a forearm tourniquet in Bier group. Due to difference in intervention methods, the study was non-blinded. Need for additional analgesia during surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity during operation and an hour later, amount of bleeding and active hand movements were evaluated and recorded.

Results: The need for analgesia and severity of pain (VAS) during surgery and one hour later were significantly less in WALANT group, whereas the amount of bleeding was less in Bier block group. The ability to move hand and fingers during the operation was the same in both groups.

Conclusion: Both WALANT and single cuff forearm tourniquet Bier block are effective methods in minor hand surgeries, however, forearm Bier block provides less analgesia and pain control with a drier field than WALANT method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/abjs.2020.49526.2487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957106PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of Drug and Alcohol Abuse in People Aged 15 Years and Older in Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(10):1940-1946

Department of Sociology, University of Welfare, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Drug addiction is known as one of the health, medical and social problems of the present century. Beyond the harmful physical and mental consequences for addicts, drug abuse can cause serious social problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug and alcohol abuse in individuals aged 15 yr and over in Iran in 2015.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on individuals aged 15 yr and older who lived in urban and rural areas of Iran. Overall, 36,600 individuals were selected by systematic and cluster random sampling. The postal code was used to access the samples in 31 provinces of Iran. In each province 1200 individuals (50% men, 50% women) were evaluated. The used instrument was the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), and data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: The results showed 4.6% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.4% used Amphetamine stimulants, 6.1% used Sedative drugs, and 2.6% used Alcoholic beverages on a regular basis. Within the last 12 months, 3.9% of individuals used Opium and its derivatives, 0.4% used Cannabis, 0.3% used Amphetamine stimulants, 5.8% used Sedative drugs, and 1.9% used Alcoholic beverages. With the exception of Sedatives drugs men used more drugs than women and residents of rural areas used more opium and its derivatives than other groups of drugs. Based on the provincial distribution, Kerman and Qom used the highest and lowest prevalence percentage of Opium and its derivatives respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, 2340000 individuals were addicts used Opium and its derivatives in 2015, therefore, medical and health officials should take all necessary measures to deal with these serious social problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719666PMC
October 2020

Effect of Zinc on Hyperbilirubinemia of Newborns, a Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial.

Curr Health Sci J 2020 Jul-Sep;46(3):250-254. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Jaundice is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in newborn infants. Zinc may have a possible role as a cofactor of enzymes in the metabolism of bilirubin and can prevent red blood cell destruction as an antioxidant agent. The present study aims to investigate the effect of zinc in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material&Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 112 healthy newborns with idiopathic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were divided into two groups receiving zinc and placebo. The case and control group received 10mg of zinc and placebo daily. The total bilirubin levels in the second, third, fourth and fifth day and duration of hospitalization and phototherapy were compared.

Results: The mean total bilirubin value in the second to fifth days in the zinc group were 11.95±2.35, 9.49±1.79, 8.54±1.63 and 8.64±0.96 respectively, and in the placebo group were 12.95±2.73, 9.88±2.35, 9.5±2.9 and 10.16±0.86 respectively and there was no significant difference between two groups. The duration of phototherapy and hospitalization in the zinc and placebo groups did not show any significant difference.

Conclusion: We did not find a significant reduction in serum bilirubin levels nor the duration of hospitalization in neonates receiving zinc sulfate compared to control group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12865/CHSJ.46.03.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716768PMC
September 2020

Screening , and Mutations in 4 Iranian Families with Non-Syndromic Tooth Agenesis.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2020 Oct-Dec;12(4):236-240

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in human and the main reasons for its occurrence are still unknown. Mutations of several genes such as , , , and have been reported which are associated with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. However, , and are commonly reported in the literature. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the mutations of these genes in 4 Iranian families with non-syndromic tooth agenesis.

Methods: DNA extractions from peripheral blood cells of patients with non-syndromic tooth agenesis from 4 unrelated Iranian families were performed by salting out method, and the candidate genes were amplified then followed by Sanger sequencing method.

Results: One missense variant (rs4904210) and 4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2236007, rs12883298, rs12882923 and rs12883049) were found in gene. Five variants (rs149370601, rs8670, rs186861426 and rs774949973) including a missense variant (rs36059701) were detected in gene and no variants were found in gene.

Conclusion: All variants were analyzed based on bioinformatics websites and Iranian gene databases, and as a result, it was revealed that variants of , and may not play a role in non-syndromic tooth agenesis among Iranian cases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502159PMC
October 2020

Investigation of Aneusomy of Chromosome 21 in the Micronuclei of 13 Patients with Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization: A Pilot Study.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Jan;8(4):446-453

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative and dementia disorders in people between the ages of 30 and 65. When symptoms appear in this age group, the disease is referred to as early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Unfortunately, the symptoms are progressive and no current treatments are effective.

Methods: In this research, 13 patients, aged 37 to 65 years with symptoms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, were studied. First, patient lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in RPMI 1640 medium using a special micronucleus (MN) culture method. Next, the lymphocytes were harvested and prepared on slides. The slides were then examined by fluorescent microscopy using a unique FISH protocol specific for MNs. The patients were divided into groups aged 30-39, 40-49, and 50-65.

Results: We found that 19.76% of the MNs from our EOAD patients originated in chromosome 21. Micronuclei originated in chromosome 21 in 21.20 and 16.52% of patients without and with family histories of Alzheimer's, respectively. This difference was not significant. Also, the percentage of micronuclei originating in chromosome 21 was not dependent on the patient age at the time of the study, or symptom onset age or duration.

Conclusion: This study shows that the rate of micronuclei with the origin of chromosome 21 is high in these patients. However, the micronucleus increased has no significant relationship with age and duration of disease or family history of it.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275832PMC
January 2020

The Success Rate and Factors Affecting the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Treatment in Subfertile Men.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Feb;49(2):332-340

Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the success rate of male infertility treatment and the factors affecting its outcome.

Methods: In a historical cohort study, from Mar 2013 to Mar 2014, 323 couples with male factor were investigated. Couples had treated with IUI or/and ICSI were included randomly. Assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcome (treatment success) was defined as a live birth. Age, duration of infertility, type of infertility, treatment history and clinical examination results were investigated. The logistic regression and survival analysis were applied.

Results: The average of men age, duration of infertility and BMI were 33.5, 4.7 (yr) and 26.6 (kg/m) respectively. 87.9% of men have primary infertility and average duration of treatment was 14.1(month). Previous treatment, type of infertility, treatment method, man's BMI, normality of sperm and sperm head were important variable that affecting outcome. The rate of live birth in the first attempt was 29.7%, and 44.9% of the couples succeeded to give live birth after several treatment cycles. Couples who had no previous history of treatment were 8.5 times more successful in live birth. The Cox analysis showed that "BMI of man" and percentage of "Sperm with normal head" are predictors that had a significant effect on live birth.

Conclusion: Live birth in the first treatment cycles was influenced by four variables but two other variable were affecting several treatment cycles outcome. The chances of successful treatment were higher with taking into account the length of time and having live birth was determined as 78% for five years of continuous treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231713PMC
February 2020

NMR-based plasma metabolic profiling in patients with unstable angina.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Mar;23(3):311-320

Zanjan Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Objectives: Unstable angina (UA) is a form of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that affects more than a third of the population before age 70. Due to the limitations of diagnostic tests, appropriate identification of UA is difficult. In this study, we proceeded to investigate metabolite profiling in UA patients compared with controls to determine potential candidate biomarkers.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-four plasma samples from UA and 32 samples from controls were analyzed based on 1H NMR spectroscopy. The raw data were processed, analyzed, and subjected to partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), a supervised classification method with a good separation of control and UA patients was observed. The most important variables (VIP) ≥1 were selected and submitted to MetaboAnalyst pathway enrichment to identify the most important ones.

Results: We identified 17 disturbed metabolites in UA patients in comparison with the controls. These metabolites are involved in various biochemical pathways such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and lysine degradation. Some of the metabolites were deoxycorticosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, androstanedione, etiocholanolone, estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-methoxyestradiol, and 2-methoxyestrone. In order to determine test applicability in diagnosing UA, a diagnostic model was further created using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and precision were 0.87, 90%, 65%, and 91%, respectively, for diagnosing of UA.

Conclusion: These metabolites could not only be useful for the diagnosis of UA patients but also provide more information for further deciphering of the biological processes of UA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2020.39979.9475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229510PMC
March 2020

Prevalence of Autism and its Comorbidities and the Relationship with Maternal Psychopathology: A National Population-Based Study.

Arch Iran Med 2019 10 1;22(10):546-553. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Hafez Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: There is no clear picture regarding the prevalence rates of autism and its comorbidities among Iranian children and adolescents. The present study aimed to estimate these rates as part of a large national population-based study on epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents.

Methods: The total sample consisted of 31000 children and adolescents between 6 to 18 years of age. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Present and Life time version (K-SADS-PL) was used as the diagnostic tool.

Results: The prevalence of autism in the total sample is equal to 0.1% (10 per 10000), with a 2:1 male-to-female ratio. In total, 86% of people with autism had at least one comorbid condition. Intellectual disability, epilepsy, enuresis and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with prevalence rates of 70.3%, 29.7%, 27% and 21.62%, respectively, were the most prevalent comorbid conditions in people with autism. Maternal personality disorders were also shown to be associated with increasing risk of autism.

Conclusion: The present study shows high prevalence rates for autism and its comorbid conditions among Iranian children and adolescents. It also reveals that there is a relationship between some maternal psychiatric disorders and the risk of autism.
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October 2019

National Growth Charts for BMI among Iranian Children and Adolescents in Comparison with the WHO and CDC Curves.

Child Obes 2020 01 10;16(1):34-43. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Previous attempts to create national BMI curves for Iranian children and adolescents were limited to local databases. The objective of this study was to build national BMI growth charts for children and adolescents and to report the key percentiles and national cutoff points based on the data obtained from all provinces of Iran. We also aimed to compare our BMI curves to WHO and CDC curves. In each province, about 1000 children and adolescents (6-18 years) were randomly selected from the urban and rural areas by the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Across the entire country, 240 trained researchers visited the participants' homes. After obtaining consent forms, these researchers gathered the demographic data, accurate anthropometrics, and BMI measurements. In the data screening and data cleaning levels, the outliers were removed. Then the data sets were smoothed using the log-transformation method. After this, they were converted to -scores based on normal distribution and then transformed back to the original scale. Finally, these data sets were used to determine each percentile. A total of 22,718 final cleaned data were analyzed, including 10,921 (48.1%) boys and 11,797 (51.9%) girls. The normal BMI curves of Iranian children and adolescents and comparison to the WHO and CDC curves are presented here. This study introduces the new cutoff points for categorizing Iranian children and adolescents as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese, based on a large-scale national survey. The fifth BMI percentiles in Iranian boys and girls were significantly lower compared to WHO and CDC fifth percentile. Also, the 95th percentile curve in our study was significantly lower than the CDC 95th percentile curves in boys and girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2019.0107DOI Listing
January 2020

Correlation between malnutrition and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in elderly Iranian adults.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jan 10;48(1):300060519863497. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060519863497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140194PMC
January 2020

Lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic predictors, and comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder: the National Epidemiology of Iranian Child and Adolescent Psychiatric disorders (IRCAP).

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 Apr 19;42(2):162-167. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Jondi Shapour University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Objective: This was the first national epidemiological study on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Iran, which provided new information about the prevalence, comorbidities, and sociodemographic predictors of ODD.

Methods: Data from a face-to-face household survey of 30,532 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were collected from across all 31 provinces of Iran using a multistage cluster sampling design. The Persian version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used in this study.

Results: The lifetime prevalence of ODD was found to be 3.9%. ODD was significantly more common in boys than girls and appeared in late adolescence more frequently than in childhood. A lower prevalence of ODD was found among participants who lived in rural areas. ODD is highly likely to co-occur with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depressive disorders.

Conclusions: The findings of this national population-based study confirm and extend previous findings on the prevalence, comorbidities, and sociodemographic predictors of ODD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115452PMC
April 2020

Comparison of effects of propofol and ketofol (Ketamine-Propofol mixture) on emergence agitation in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

Afr Health Sci 2019 Mar;19(1):1736-1744

Anesthesiologist, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of propofol and ketofol (ketamine-propofol mixture) on EA in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

Method: In this randomized clinical trial, 87 ASA class I and II patients, aged 3-12 years, who underwent tonsillectomy, were divided into two groups to receive either propofol 100 µg/kg/min (group p, n=44) or ketofol : ketamine 25 µg/kg/min + propofol 75 µg/kg/min (group k, n= 43). Incidence and severity of EA was evaluated using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scales on arrival at the recovery room, and 10 and 30 min after that time.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic data between the two groups. In the ketofol group, the need for agitation treatment and also mean recovery duration were lower than in the propofol group (30 and 41%, and 29.9 and 32.7 min), without statistically significant difference (P value=0.143 and P value=0.187). Laryngospasm or bronchospasm occurred in 2 patients in each group and bleeding was observed in only one individual in the ketofol group.

Conclusion: Infusion of ketofol in children undergoing tonsillectomy provides shorter recovery time and lower incidence of EA despite the non significant difference with propofol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v19i1.50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531964PMC
March 2019

Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders in a National Survey of Iranian Children and Adolescents.

Iran J Psychiatry 2019 Jan;14(1):1-15

Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Considering the impact of rapid sociocultural, political, and economical changes on societies and families, population-based surveys of mental disorders in different communities are needed to describe the magnitude of mental health problems and their disabling effects at the individual, familial, and societal levels. A population-based cross sectional survey (IRCAP project) of 30 532 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years was conducted in all provinces of Iran using a multistage cluster sampling method. Data were collected by 250 clinical psychologists trained to use the validated Persian version of the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-PL (K-SADS-PL). In this national epidemiological survey, 6209 out of 30 532 (22.31%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. The anxiety disorders (14.13%) and behavioral disorders (8.3%) had the highest prevalence, while eating disorders (0.13%) and psychotic symptoms (0.26%) had the lowest. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly lower in girls (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.80-0.90), in those living in the rural area (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.73-0.87), in those aged 15-18 years (OR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.99), as well as that was significantly higher in those who had a parent suffering from mental disorders (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.63-2.36 for mother and OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.66 for father) or physical illness (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17-1.35 for mother and OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.10-1.28 for father). About one fifth of Iranian children and adolescents suffer from at least one psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we should give a greater priority to promoting mental health and public health, provide more accessible services and trainings, and reduce barriers to accessing existing services.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505051PMC
January 2019

Gender Determines the Pattern of Correlation between Body Mass Index and Major Depressive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: Results from Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders Study.

Child Obes 2019 07 9;15(5):331-337. Epub 2019 May 9.

26 Department of Mental Health and Addiction, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

We aimed to determine the correlation of BMI with depression and to determine the role of gender in this association, in a large study sample. We used the data of participants in the Iranian Children and Adolescents' Psychiatric Disorders (IRCAP) Study, conducted in 2017. This study was a national community-based, cross-sectional study in which the urban and rural areas of all provinces of Iran were covered. Overall 30,532 children and adolescents, ages 6-18, were randomly selected with the stratified cluster sampling method. Of a total of 30,532 participants, 25,321, whose BMI had been measured and who had been interviewed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS), entered the study (12,455 boys and 12,866 girls). We categorized the participants according to the national cutoff points for BMI classification. After controlling for age, father's and mother's job and education, and place of residence, the odds ratio (OR) of depression in underweight, healthy weight, and overweight boys compared with obese boys was 2.19 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00-4.81], 1.06 (95% CI: 0.73-1.55), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.49-1.32), respectively. In the girls' subgroup, after controlling for the aforementioned covariates, the OR of depression in healthy weight, overweight, and obese participants compared with underweight subjects was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.52-3.19), 1.54 (95% CI: 0.59-3.98), and 1.79 (95% CI: 0.68-4.69), respectively. Underweight boys were more likely diagnosed with depression than normal weight and overweight boys. While in girls, the probability of depression increased by increased BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2018.0323DOI Listing
July 2019

Practical Difficulties in Estimating The Prevalence of Primary Infertility in Iran.

Int J Fertil Steril 2019 Jul 27;13(2):113-117. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions, infertility is an inability to become pregnant within one, two or five years of exposure to pregnancy, respectively. Inconsistent infertility-related definitions and various methodological approaches make it difficult to compare quantitative data in this regard and consequently, have negatively influenced estimating the prevalence of infertility. The present study reviewed the results of a large population-based survey on how the clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions of infertility produce different results in terms of infertility prevalence in Iran and subsequently, compared the findings in order to find the right time of treatment-seeking by couples.

Materials And Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out by Avicenna Research Institute in the urban and rural parts of Iran between 2010 and 2011. Using cluster sampling, the reproductive history of 17,187 married women aged 20-40 years, was recorded. Totally, 1011 clusters were randomly selected according to post office codes, proportional to the population of the province. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS statistical software.

Results: The prevalence of primary infertility based on the WHO's clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions were 20.2, 12.8 and 9.2%, respectively. In addition, secondary infertility rate was 4.9%.

Conclusion: Infertility estimates over a two-year exposure period made a 50% decrease in infertility rate; however, increasing exposure period to five years made no significant difference in infertility rate. The findings showed that most of the couples will get pregnant within two years of unprotected sexual intercourse and thus, need no treatment. Due to practical difficulties in estimating the prevalence of primary infertility, the reference limit for time to pregnancy, should be reconsidered and giving more time to younger women to become pregnant, seems reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2019.5583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500078PMC
July 2019

The prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic factors of depressive disorder among Iranian children and adolescents: To identify the main predictors of depression.

J Affect Disord 2019 03 5;247:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Depressive disorders are a major public health problem in developed and developing countries. Recently, several risk factors have been described for depressive disorders in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to identify the main risk factors that can affect the incidence of depression in Iranian children and adolescents.

Methods: A total of 30,546 children and adolescents (between 6 and 18 years of age) participated in a cross-sectional study to identify the predictors of depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were assessed using the Persian version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). In addition, a demographic characteristics questionnaire was completed by parents of the participants. The data was analyzed using the SPSS software via performing the descriptive analysis and the multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Results showed that a higher age (15-18), being female, and the father's unemployment were associated with an increased odds ratio for depressive disorders. The age of 10-14 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.57-2.81), the age of 15-18 (OR = 4.44; 95% CI, 3.38-5.83), female gender (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.2-1.73) and the father's unemployment (OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01-2.5) were significant positive predictors, whereas, the mother's job (as a housewife) (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.96) and a history of psychiatric hospitalization of the father and mother (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.78 and OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.84) were negative predictors for depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are common in children and adolescents and are correlated with age and gender. The assessment of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially the depressive disorders and their comorbidities, may help to prevent mood disorders in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.005DOI Listing
March 2019

The Effects of Group Discussion Based Education on the Promotion of Self-Management Behaviors in Hemodialysis Patients.

J Caring Sci 2018 Dec 1;7(4):225-232. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Improving self-management of the patients undergoing hemodialysis is an effective way to reduce complications and to improve the quality of life of them. The current study aims to assess the effects of group discussion on the promotion of self-management behaviors in hemodialysis patients. In this quasi -experimental clinical trial study (with experimental and control groups) 60 patients were arranged in two experimental and control groups through using convenience sampling with random allocation. Self-management interventions were conducted on the experimental group during 3 to 4 sessions of group discussion. The control group received routine interventions. The data were collected through Li and colleagues' self-management standard questionnaire before and 3 months after the intervention. The data were analyzed via SPSS software version 13 and chi-square, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon test. The results showed that the mean scores of four dimension of self-management including participation with the medical team, problem solving, self-care and emotional management after the implementation of group were significantly different between the experimental and control groups. Based on the findings, group discussion was an effective educational method to promote self-management of chronic hemodialysis patients. Therefore, holding group discussion to reinforce the self- management behaviors in patients undergoing hemodialysis is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcs.2018.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311626PMC
December 2018

Interaction Effect of RsaI and BamHI Polymorphisms of TGFα, BMP2 and BMP4 on the Occurrence of Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Patients.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):248-252

Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Orofacial cleft is the most common congenital defect of the maxillofacial region. Its non-syndromic type is multi-factorial, and several genes are involved in its occurrence. This study aimed to assess the interaction effect of Rsal and BamHI polymorphisms of gene and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP2) and BMP4 variants on the occurrence of Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate (NSCLP) in the Iranian population.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 120 children with NSCLP and 215 healthy children. Genotyping of the TGFA/BamHI (rs11466297), TGFA/RsaI (rs37322-48), BMP4 (rs17563) and BMP2 (rs235768) was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Logistic regression was applied to determine the effective factors and the interaction effect of different variants on the occurrence of NSCLP.

Results: Gender of patients had no significant association with the occurrence of NSCLP (p=0.335). Multiple logistic regression showed that the interaction effect of the aforementioned polymorphisms on the occurrence of NSCLP was not statistically significant (p=1.000).

Conclusion: Although the individual effect of each of the BMP4, BMP2, RsaI and BamHI variants on the occurrence of NSCLP in the Iranian population has been previously confirmed, their interaction does not play a role in this respect.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252027PMC
December 2018

Association of the Variations and the Risk of Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in a Population of Iranian Infants.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Jul-Sep;10(3):168-172

Genetic Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is the most common orofacial birth defect, often attributed to ethnic and environmental differences. Up to now, linkage analyses and genome-wide association studies have identified several genomic susceptibility regions for NSCL/P. The genes including are strong candidates for NSCL/P, since they are involved in regulating mid-face development and upper lip fusion. This study tested association of the polymorphisms, rs-3809857 G/T and rs9890413 G/A, with the risk of NSCL/P in a population of Iranian infants.

Methods: The allelic and genotypic frequencies for each participant were determined in 113 unrelated Iranian subjects with NSCL/P and 220 control subjects using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The rs3809857 GT genotype was significantly lower (p=0.039, OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.30-0.97) in the NSCL/P (21.2%) than the control group (30.42%). For the rs9890413 G/A polymorphism, neither genotype nor allele frequencies were significantly different between the case and control groups.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that the rs3809857 GT genotype may have a protective effect against NSCL/P in Iranian population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064000PMC
August 2018

Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 Polymorphisms and the Risk of Endometriosis.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Jul-Sep;10(3):163-167

Genetic Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 gene has a key role in xenobiotic metabolism through the conjugation of acetyl group to xenobiotic substances. has been suggested as a susceptibility factor in endometriosis; however, the results of studies have been controversial. In this study, the association of polymorphisms with susceptibility to endometriosis was evaluated in an Iranian population.

Methods: This is an association study and totally 141 women with diagnosis of endometriosis and 158 healthy women as control group were analyzed for gene polymorphisms (C481T, A803G, G857A and G590A) by PCR-RFLP methods.

Results: The 590 GA genotype was significantly lower (p=0.001; OR=0.42, 95% CI: 0.25-0.71) in the patients (38.3%) than the control group (55.1%). The 590A allele was significantly lower (p=0.033; OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.79) in the patients (31.2%) compared with the controls (39.6%). Analysis of haplotypes showed that 481C, 803A, 590A, 587A combination was significantly different between the case and control women (p= 0.029; OR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.13-8.52).

Conclusion: The G590A SNP may be associated with susceptibility to endometriosis and the 590A allele may have a protective role in development of endometriosis. The 481C, 803A, 590A, 587A haplotype was associated with a higher risk of endometriosis in Iranian population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064003PMC
August 2018

The C-565T Polymorphism (rs2422493) of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 Gene Contributes to the Development and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in an Iranian Population.

Oman Med J 2018 Jul;33(4):309-315

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Objectives: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a pivotal role in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues back to the liver. Abnormalities in ABCA1 function may lead to dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of C-565T (rs2422493) promoter polymorphism of ABCA1 gene in the development and severity of CAD in an Iranian subpopulation.

Methods: Our study population consisted of 110 angiographically-confirmed CAD patients and 110 matched controls. The severity of CAD was expressed based on the number of stenotic vessels. Genotyping of C-565T promoter polymorphism was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragments length polymorphism analysis methods. Lipid profile was determined by routine colorimetric methods.

Results: The distribution of ABCA1 C-565T genotypes ( 0.035) and alleles ( 0.017) was significantly different between the CAD and control groups. In univariate analysis (with genotype CC as reference), the TT genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of CAD (odds ratio = 3.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-11.30, 0.014), but the CT genotype was not ( 0.321). A multiple binary logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking, hypertension, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ABCA1 C-565T dominant genotype were significant and independent risk factors for CAD development ( < 0.050). The ABCA1 C-565T polymorphism affected the severity of CAD in TT homozygote state ( 0.028). However, no significant correlation was seen between this common polymorphism and lipid profile in the study population ( > 0.050).  Our study indicated that ABCA1 C-565T polymorphism is a significant risk factor for development and severity of CAD in our population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2018.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047175PMC
July 2018

Dogs' Gastrointestinal Parasites and their Association with Public Health in Iran.

J Vet Res 2017 Jun 6;61(2):189-195. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Introduction: Dogs harbour zoonotic parasites that cause serious infections in humans, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, cystic echinococcosis, and alveolar echinococcosis. Studies on dogs' gastrointestinal parasites in different geographical locations are required to increase knowledge of the risk of canine zoonoses in human populations.

Material And Methods: The presence of parasites was examined in 450 faecal samples collected from eight zones of Zanjan province, northwest Iran from June to November 2015. The samples were examined using the sedimentation concentration method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 (19.1%) faecal samples. spp. (7.3%), spp. (5.6%), spp. (1.8%), and spp. (1.6%) were the most common parasites observed. The other detected parasites consisted of (0.7%), spp. (0.7%), spp. (0.4%), spp. (0.4%), spp. (1.3%), and (1.3%). The lowest parasite infection rates belonged to and (0.2% each).

Conclusion: This study provides current information on the infection rates in dog populations in Zanjan Province. Furthermore, the study shows a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, including zoonotic ones and particularly spp., potentially transmissible to humans and thus relevant to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jvetres-2017-0024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894391PMC
June 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Zanjan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S127-S130. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expert of Mental Health in Zanjan Provincial Health Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Zanjan in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of of Zanjan, Abhar and Qeydar. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 28.5% of the subjects (32.9% of females and 24.2% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (30%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (24.8%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and retired individuals compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one quarter of the sample (28.5%) were suspected of mental disorders, and the prevalence of these disorders has increased from 21.3% in 1999 to 28.5% in 2015. Therefore, it is up to the authorities and health managers of the province to take the basic steps to supply, maintain, and preserve the mental health of those in need and promote the mental health of the community.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Yazd, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S123-S126. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Yazd Provincial Health Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Yazd in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the Yazd province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Yazd, Ardekan and Meybod. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study indicates that through traditional scoring method, 26.7% of study population were highly suspicious for psychiatric disorders (32.1% of females and 21.4% of males). The prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders in urban areas (28.7%) was higher than the prevalence in rural areas (21.3%). The prevalence of probable somatization and anxiety was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and also the prevalence of these disorders was higher in women. The findings of this study show that the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders has a direct relationship with increasing age and the prevalence of such disorders is higher in women, urban residents, individuals aged more than 65, divorced and widowed individuals, illiterate and unemployed people.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that more than one quarter of study population were suspicious for psychiatric disorders and the prevalence of these disorders increased from 11.8% to 26.7% since 1999. So, health authorities in this province have to do their best for provision, maintenance and improvement of mental health.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of West Azarbaijan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S119-S122. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health in West Azarbayegan Provincial Health Center, West Azarbayegan University of Medical Sciences, Urumieh, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of West Azarbaijan in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional field study was conducted on the residents of both urban and rural areas of the West Azarbaijan province. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Urumia, Salmas and Mahabad. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 24% of individuals (29.1% of females and 18.7% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence rate of mental disorders was 19.8% for rural and 25.8% for urban areas. Prevalence of somatization and anxiety was higher than social dysfunction and depression and women revealed higher prevalence for these disorders compared with men. It was also shown that the prevalence rate significantly increased with age and was higher in women, people aged 65 and above, urban residents, widowed or divorced, illiterate, housewives, unemployed and retired people.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a quarter of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Comparing the results of the current survey with those of the study conducted in 1999 suggests that the prevalence of mental disorders is on the increase in this province (from 13.5% in 1999 to 24% in 2015). Therefore, it seems vital that the officials take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Tehran, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S115-S118. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expertise of Mental Health in Shahid Beheshti Provincial Health Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Tehran in 2015.

Method: This cross-sectional survey was performed on 1,200 individuals aged fifteen years and older, living in urban, and rural areas of the three main districts of Tehran, Shahriar, and Nasimshahr of Tehran Province. Individuals were enrolled in the study by clustered and systematic randomization. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used for screening for common mental disorders. Those scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 were considered to be suffering from at least one mental disorder. All data was analyzed using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: According to our data, 30.2% of the subjects (34.2% of females and 26.4% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (35.1%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (18.2%). Scoring above the cut-off point of the GHQ-28 also had a positive correlation with age, especially among those aged 65 years old and above. Somatization and also symptoms of anxiety were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depressive symptoms, and also more prevalent among females compared to males. Being suspected of a mental disorder was also more prevalent among those who had been divorced, widowed, unemployed, and having post-graduate university education.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that about one third of our sample population were suspected of suffering from a mental disorder. The prevalence of common mental disorders has increased from 21.2% in 1999 to 31.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that public health authorities put more effort to ensure necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health of the Iranian population residing in Tehran province.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of South Khorasan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S111-S114. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Expertise of Mental Health in South Khorasan Provincial Health Center, South Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of South Khorasan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of South Khorasan in Iran. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Birjand, Ghayen and Ferdows cities. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: Based on GHQ traditional scoring method, this study showed that 17.1% of the respondents (20% of women and 14.1% of men) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected individuals for mental disorders was higher in urban areas (18.2%) than rural areas (14.5%). It was also shown that the prevalence of anxiety and somatization symptoms was higher than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and women revealed higher prevalence for these disorders compared with men. The findings of this study also indicated that the prevalence of suspected cases for mental disorders increased with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher in women aged 65 and over, divorced, widowed, uneducated and the retired compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that one sixth of the sample population were suspected of mental disorders; therefore, health authorities and administrators need to take the principled measures to ensure and maintain the mental health of individuals as well as the evaluation and treatment of patients with mental disorders.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Sistan and Bluchestan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S107-S110. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Zabol Health Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2015.

Method: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Zahedan, Zabol, and Saravan cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 15.1% of individuals (17.2% of females and 13% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 19% in urban and 13.5% in rural areas. It also showed that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, age group of 65 and above, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate and retired individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Semnan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S103-S106. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Mental Health Expertise of Shahroud Health Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Semnan in 2015.

Method: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Semnan province in Iran. Through systematic random cluster sampling, 1200 individuals were selected from the residents of urban and rural areas of Semnan, Garmsar and Shahroud. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was applied as the screening tool. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 18.0 for windows.

Results: This study showed that using the traditional scoring method, 14.5% of the subjects (15.8% of females and 13.1% of males) were suspected of having mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected psychiatric disorders in urban areas (15.5%) was higher than the prevalence of these disorders in rural areas (12.1%). The prevalence of suspected anxiety and the somatization of symptoms was higher than the prevalence of social dysfunction and depression, and the prevalence of these components was higher in women than in men. The findings of this study also showed that the prevalence of suspected mental disorders increased significantly with age. The prevalence of suspected cases of these disorders was higher among women, the age group of 65 and older, people living in urban areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, and unemployed people than the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a sixth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017

A Survey on Mental Health Status of Adult Population Aged 15 and above in the Province of Razavi Khorasan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Nov 1;20(11 Suppl. 1):S99-S102. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Responsible Manager of Mental Health Office of Razavi Khorasan Provincial Health Center, Razavi Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: This research aims to determine the mental health status of population aged 15 and over in the province of Razavi Khorasan in 2015.

Methods: The statistical population of this cross-sectional field survey consisted of residents of urban and rural areas of Razavi Khorasan in Iran. An estimated sample size of 1200 people was chosen using systematic random cluster sampling. The access was provided by the contribution of Geographical Post Office of Mashhad, Torbate Jam and Sabzavar cities. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used as the screening tool for mental disorders. Data analysis in the current study was carried out using the SPSS-18 software.

Results: Using GHQ traditional scoring method, the results showed that 23.7% of individuals (26.9% of females and 20.6% of males) were suspected of mental disorders. The prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders was 23.6% in urban and 23.8% in rural areas. It was also shown that somatization and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent than social dysfunction and depression symptoms, and were more common in women than men. The results of this research also showed that the prevalence of suspected cases of mental disorders increased with aging. Such disorders were more common in females, people living in rural areas, divorced and widowed, illiterate, housewives and retired individuals compared with the other groups.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that about a fourth of the people in the province were suspected to have mental disorders and the prevalence rate of mental disorders increased from 7.7% in 1999 to 23.7% in 2015. Therefore, it is mandatory for the provincial public health authorities to take the needed steps to ensure that necessary requirements encompassing prevention and promotion of mental health are implemented.
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November 2017