Publications by authors named "Koon H Rha"

41 Publications

Single stage Xi® robotic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: surgical technique and outcomes.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Urology, VCU Health System, Richmond, VA, USA -

Background: Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) represents the standard of care for high grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Open and laparoscopic approaches are well-established treatments, but evidence regarding robotic RANU is growing. The introduction of the Xi® system facilitates the implementation of this multi-quadrant procedure. The aim of this video-article is to describe the surgical steps and the outcomes of Xi® robotic RNU.

Methods: Single stage Xi® robotic RNU without patients repositioning and robot re-docking were done between 2015 and 2019 and collected in a large worldwide multi-institutional study, the ROBotic surgery for Upper tract Urothelial cancer STudy (ROBUUST). Institutional review board approval and data share agreement were obtained at each center. Surgical technique is described in detail in the accompanying video. Descriptive statistics of baseline characteristics and surgical, pathological, and oncological outcomes were analyzed. RESULTSː Overall, 148 patients were included in the analysis; 14% had an ECOG >1 and 68.2% ASA ≥3. Median tumor dimension was 3.0 (IQR:2.0-4.2) cm and 34.5% showed hydronephrosis at diagnosis. Forty-eight% were cT1 tumors. Bladder cuff excision and lymph node dissection were performed in 96% and 38.1% of the procedures, respectively. Median operative time and estimated blood loss were 215.5 (IQR:160.5-290.0) minutes and 100.0 (IQR: 50.0-150.0) mL, respectively. Approximately 56% of patients took opioids during hospital stay for a total morphine equivalent dose of 22.9 (IQR:16.0-60.0) milligrams equivalent. Postoperative complications were 26 (17.7%), with 4 major (15.4%). Seven patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, with median number of cycles of 4.0 (IQR:3.0-6.0).

Conclusions: Single stage Xi® RNU is a reproducible and safe minimally invasive procedure for treatment of UTUC. Additional potential advantages of the robot might be a wider implementation of LND with a minimally invasive approach.
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March 2021

A Preoperative Nomogram to Predict Renal Function Insufficiency for Cisplatin-based Adjuvant Chemotherapy Following Minimally Invasive Radical Nephroureterectomy (ROBUUST Collaborative Group).

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Urology, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Postoperative renal function impairment represents a main limitation for delivering adjuvant chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU).

Objective: To create a model predicting renal function decline after minimally invasive RNU.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 490 patients with nonmetastatic UTUC who underwent minimally invasive RNU were identified from a collaborative database including 17 institutions worldwide (February 2006 to March 2020). Renal function insufficiency for cisplatin-based regimen was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <50 ml/min/1.73 m at 3 mo after RNU. Patients with baseline eGFR >50 ml/min/1.73 m (n = 361) were geographically divided into a training set (n = 226) and an independent external validation set (n = 135) for further analysis.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Using transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines, a nomogram to predict postoperative eGFR <50 ml/min/1.73 m was built based on the coefficients of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operation (LASSO) logistic regression. The discrimination, calibration, and clinical use of the nomogram were investigated.

Results And Limitations: The model that incorporated age, body mass index, preoperative eGFR, and hydroureteronephrosis was developed with an area under the curve of 0.771, which was confirmed to be 0.773 in the external validation set. The calibration curve demonstrated good agreement. Besides, the model was converted into a risk score with a cutoff value of 0.583, and the difference between the low- and high-risk groups both in overall death risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.59, p < 0.001) and cancer-specific death risk (HR: 5.19, p < 0.001) was statistically significant. The limitation mainly lies in its retrospective design.

Conclusions: A nomogram incorporating immediately available clinical variables can accurately predict renal insufficiency for cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy after minimally invasive RNU and may serve as a tool facilitating patient selection.

Patient Summary: We have developed a model for the prediction of renal function loss after radical nephroureterectomy to facilitate patient selection for perioperative chemotherapy.
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February 2021

Outcomes of Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy for Clinical T3a Renal Masses: A Multicenter Analysis.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Urology, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Use of partial nephrectomy (PN) in T3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is controversial.

Objective: To evaluate quality outcomes of robot-assisted PN (RAPN) for clinical T3a renal masses (cT3aRM).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective multicenter analysis of patients with cT3aN0M0 RCC who underwent RAPN.

Intervention: RAPN.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The primary endpoint was a trifecta composite outcome of negative surgical margins, warm ischemia time (WIT) ≤25 min, and no perioperative complications. The optimal outcome was defined as achieving this trifecta and ≥90% preservation of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and no stage upgrading of chronic kidney disease. Multivariable analysis (MVA) identified risk factors associated with lack of the optimal outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted for survival outcomes.

Results And Limitations: Analysis was conducted for 157 patients (median follow-up 26 mo). The median tumor size was 7.0 cm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-7.8) and the median RENAL score was 9 (IQR 8-10). Median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 242 ml (IQR 121-354) and the median WIT was 19 min (IQR 15-25). A total of 150 patients (95.5%) had negative margins. Complications were noted in 25 patients (15.9%), with 4.5% having Clavien grade 3-5 complications. The median change in eGFR was 7 ml/min/1.72 m, with ≥90% eGFR preservation in 55.4%. The trifecta outcome was achieved for 64.3% and the optimal outcome for 37.6% of the patients. MVA revealed that greater age (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; p = 0.002), increasing RENAL score (OR 1.30; p = 0.035), and EBL >300 ml (OR 5.96, p = 0.006) were predictive of failure to achieve optimal outcome. The 5-yr recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival, were 82.1%, 93.3%, and 91.3%, respectively. Limitations include the retrospective design.

Conclusions: RAPN for select cT3a renal masses is feasible and safe, with acceptable quality outcomes. Further investigation is requisite to delineate the role of RAPN in cT3a RCC.

Patient Summary: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in patients with stage 3a kidney cancer provided acceptable survival, functional, and morbidity outcomes in the hands of experienced surgeons, and may be considered as an option when clinically indicated.
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November 2020

Management of patients who opt for radical prostatectomy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: an international accelerated consensus statement.

BJU Int 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused delays in definitive treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Beyond the immediate delay a backlog for future patients is expected. The objective of this work is to develop guidance on criteria for prioritisation of surgery and reconfiguring management pathways for patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer who opt for surgical treatment. A second aim was to identify the infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to achieve a low likelihood of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hazard if radical prostatectomy (RP) was to be carried out during the outbreak and whilst the disease is endemic.

Methods: We conducted an accelerated consensus process and systematic review of the evidence on COVID-19 and reviewed international guidance on prostate cancer. These were presented to an international prostate cancer expert panel (n = 34) through an online meeting. The consensus process underwent three rounds of survey in total. Additions to the second- and third-round surveys were formulated based on the answers and comments from the previous rounds. The Consensus opinion was defined as ≥80% agreement and this was used to reconfigure the prostate cancer pathways.

Results: Evidence on the delayed management of patients with prostate cancer is scarce. There was 100% agreement that prostate cancer pathways should be reconfigured and measures developed to prevent nosocomial COVID-19 for patients treated surgically. Consensus was reached on prioritisation criteria of patients for surgery and management pathways for those who have delayed treatment. IPC measures to achieve a low likelihood of nosocomial COVID-19 were coined as 'COVID-19 cold' sites.

Conclusion: Reconfiguring management pathways for patients with prostate cancer is recommended if significant delay (>3-6 months) in surgical management is unavoidable. The mapped pathways provide guidance for such patients. The IPC processes proposed provide a framework for providing RP within an environment with low COVID-19 risk during the outbreak or when the disease remains endemic. The broader concepts could be adapted to other indications beyond prostate cancer surgery.
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November 2020

Outcomes of minimally invasive partial nephrectomy among very elderly patients: report from the RESURGE collaborative international database.

Cent European J Urol 2020 8;73(3):273-279. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Unit of Urology, Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute (URI), IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

The aim of the study was to perform a comprehensive investigation of clinical outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in elderly patients presenting with a renal mass. The REnal SURGery in Elderly (RESURGE) collaborative database was queried to identify patients aged 75 or older diagnosed with cT1-2 renal mass and treated with RAPN or LPN. Study outcomes were: overall complications (OC); warm ischemia time (WIT) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); positive surgical margins (PSM), disease recurrence (REC), cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier, smoothed Poisson plots and logistic and linear regression models (MVA) were used. Overall, 216 patients were included in this analysis. OC rate was 34%, most of them being of low Clavien grade. Median WIT was 17 minutes and median 6-month eGFR was 54 ml/min/1.73 m. PSM rate was 5%. After a median follow-up of 20 months, the 5-year rates of REC, CSM and OCM were 4, 4 and 5%, respectively. At MVA predicting perioperative morbidity, RAPN relative to LPN (odds ratio [OR] 0.33; p <0.0001) was associated with lower OC rate. At MVA predicting functional outcomes, RAPN relative to LPN was associated with shorter WIT (estimate [EST] -4.09; p <0.0001), and with higher 6-month eGFR (EST 6.03; p = 0.01). In appropriately selected patients with small renal masses, minimally-invasive PN is associated with acceptable perioperative outcomes. The use of a robotic approach over a standard laparoscopic approach can be advantageous with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, and it should be preferred when available.
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September 2020

Active surveillance for small renal masses in elderly patients does not increase overall mortality rates compared to primary intervention: a propensity score weighted analysis.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Urology, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología (IVO), Valencia, Spain -

Background: To test the effect of active surveillance (AS) versus primary intervention (PI) on overall mortality (OM) in elderly patients diagnosed with SRM.

Methods: Elderly patients (75 years or older) diagnosed with SRMs (< 4cm) and treated with either PI [i.e. partial nephrectomy or kidney ablation] or AS between 2009 and 2018 were abstracted from the REnal SURGery in the Elderly (RESURGE) and Delayed Intervention and Surveillance for Small Renal Masses (DISSRM) datasets, respectively. OM rates were estimated among groups with Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression models after applying inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate IPTW. Covariates of interest were those unbalanced and/or significantly correlated with the treatment choice or with OM.

Results: A total of 483 patients were included; 121 (25.1%) underwent AS. 60 patients (12.4%) died. Overall, 6.7% of all deaths were related to cancer. IPTW-Kaplan Meier curves showed a 5-year overall survival rates of 70.0 ± 3.5% and 73.2 ± 4.8% in AS and PI groups, respectively (IPTW-Log-rank p-value=0.308). IPTW-Cox regression model did not show meaningfully increased OM rates in AS group (HR=1.31, 95% CI: 0.69-2.49).

Conclusions: AS represents an appealing treatment option for very elderly patients presenting with SRM, as it avoids the risks of a PI while not compromising the survival outcomes of these patients.
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September 2020

Omission of Cortical Renorrhaphy During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: A Vattikuti Collective Quality Initiative Database Analysis.

Urology 2020 Dec 15;146:125-132. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:

Objectives: To analyze the outcomes of patients in whom cortical (outer) renorrhaphy (CR) was omitted during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN).

Methods: We analyzed 1453 patients undergoing RPN, from 2006 to 2018, within a large multi-institutional database. Patients having surgery for bilateral tumors (n = 73) were excluded. CR and no-CR groups were compared in terms of operative and ischemia time, estimated blood loss (EBL), complications, surgical margins, hospital stay, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and need of angioembolization. Inverse probability of treatment weighting with Firth correction for center code was performed to account for selection bias.

Results: CR was omitted in 120 patients (8.7%); 1260 (91.3%) patients underwent both inner layer and CR. There was no difference in intraoperative complications (7.4% CR; 8.9% no-CR group; P = .6), postoperative major complications (1% and 2.8% in CR and no-CR groups, respectively; P = .2), or median drop in eGFR (7.3 vs 10.4 mL/min/m). The no-CR group had a higher incidence of minor complications (26.7% vs 5.5% in CR group; P < .001). EBL was 100 mL (IQR 50-200) in both groups (P = .6). Angioembolization was needed in 0.7% patients in CR vs 1.4% in no-CR group (P = .4). Additionally, there was no difference in median operative time (168 vs 162 min; P = .2) or ischemia time (18 vs 17 min; P = .7).

Conclusion: In selected patients with renal masses, single layer renorrhaphy does not significantly improve operative time, ischemia time, or eGFR after RPN. There is a higher incidence of minor complications, but not major perioperative complications after no-CR technique.
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December 2020

Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy versus open retropubic radical prostatectomy: a prospective comparative study with 19-month follow-up.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2020 Oct 4;72(5):586-594. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea -

Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the surgical outcomes of retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) and open retropubic radical prostatectomy (ORP).

Methods: We included patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent RS-RARP or ORP and met our inclusion criteria. We compared the perioperative, oncological, and continence outcomes between both surgical approaches. Continence function was assessed using the validated International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form. Continence was defined as using 0-1 safety pad per day. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined as two consecutive rises in serum PSA more than 0.2 ng/mL. Events of local recurrence, distant metastasis, and cancer death were reported and compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Results: Between 1 June 2013 and 1 October 1 2016, 184 men were enrolled, of whom 125 underwent RS-RARP and 59 underwent ORP. Baseline demographic and pathological characteristics were similar between both groups (P>0.05). Patients in RS-RARP group had significantly lower blood loss, fewer transfusion rates, lower VAS score, and shorter hospital stay than patients in ORP group (P<0.05). Major complications (≥grade 3b) did not differ between both groups (P=0.121). Positive surgical margins were 28.8% and 24.8% in ORP and RS-RARP, respectively (P=0.494). The BCR free-survival rates in ORP and RS-RARP at 1-year was 87.3% and 92.3%, respectively (Log-rank, P=0.740). At 1-, 6-, and 12-month after surgery, 42.4%, 79.7%, and 84.7% of men undergoing ORP were continent, compared with 72.8%, 90.4%, and 92% undergoing RS-RARP, respectively. Men in RS-RARP group achieved faster recovery of urinary continence compared to men in ORP group (Log-rank, P=0.001).

Conclusions: RS-RARP had better perioperative outcomes and faster recovery of urinary continence compared with ORP. Short-term oncological outcomes were comparable between both surgical approaches.
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October 2020

Partial versus radical nephrectomy in very elderly patients: a propensity score analysis of surgical, functional and oncologic outcomes (RESURGE project).

World J Urol 2020 Jan 1;38(1):151-158. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, 1200 East Broad st, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of PN to those of RN in very elderly patients treated for clinically localized renal tumor.

Patients And Methods: A purpose-built multi-institutional international database (RESURGE project) was used for this retrospective analysis. Patients over 75 years old and surgically treated for a suspicious of localized renal with either PN or RN were included in this database. Surgical, renal function and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Propensity scores for the predicted probability to receive PN in each patient were estimated by logistic regression models. Cox proportional hazard models were estimated to determine the relative change in hazard associated with PN vs RN on overall mortality (OM), cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM).

Results: A total of 613 patients who underwent RN were successfully matched with 613 controls who underwent PN. Higher overall complication rate was recorded in the PN group (33% vs 25%; p = 0.01). Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 35 months (interquartile range [IQR] 13-63 months). There was a significant difference between RN and PN in median decline of eGFR (39% vs 17%; p < 0.01). PN was not correlated with OM (HR = 0.71; p = 0.56), OCM (HR = 0.74; p = 0.5), and showed a protective trend for CSM (HR = 0.19; p = 0.05). PN was found to be a protective factor for surgical CKD (HR = 0.28; p < 0.01) and worsening of eGFR in patients with baseline CKD. Retrospective design represents a limitation of this analysis.

Conclusions: Adoption of PN in very elderly patients with localized renal tumor does not compromise oncological outcomes, and it allows better functional preservation at mid-term (3-year) follow-up, relative to RN. Whether this functional benefit translates into a survival benefit remains to be determined.
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January 2020

Outcomes of Partial and Radical Nephrectomy in Octogenarians - A Multicenter International Study (Resurge).

Urology 2019 Jul 23;129:139-145. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in octogenarian patients.

Methods: The RESURGE (REnal SUrgery in the Eldely) multi-institutional database was queried to identify patients ≥80 years old who had undergone a PN or RN for a renal tumor. Multivariable binary logistic regression estimated the association between type of surgery and occurrence of complications. Multivariable Cox regression model assessed the association between type of surgery and All-Causes Mortality.

Results: The study analyzed 585 patients (median age 83 years, IQR 81-84), 364 of whom (62.2%) underwent RN and 221 (37.8%) PN. Patients undergoing RN were older (P = .0084), had larger tumor size (P < .0001) and higher clinical stage (P < .001). At multivariable analysis for complications, the only significant difference was found for lower risk of major postoperative complications for laparoscopic RN compared to open RN (OR: 0.42; P = .04). The rate of significant (>25%) decrease of eGFR in PN and RN was 18% versus 59% at 1 month, and 23% versus 65% at 6 months (P < .0001). After a median follow-up time of 39 months, 161 patients (31%) died, of whom 105 (20%) due to renal cancer.

Conclusion: In this patient population both RN and PN carry a non-negligible risk of complications. When surgical removal is indicated, PN should be preferred, whenever technically feasible, as it can offer better preservation of renal function, without increasing the risk of complications. Moreover, a minimally invasive approach should be pursued, as it can translate into lower surgical morbidity.
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July 2019

Robot-assisted versus open partial nephrectomy: comparison of outcomes. A systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2019 Apr 18;71(2):113-120. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Urology, OLV, Aalst, Belgium.

Introduction: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is increasingly used for the surgical management of renal masses. Aim of this study was to analyze the available literature regarding the outcomes of RAPN compared to those of open partial nephrectomy (OPN).

Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed up to October 2018 using PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase. Article selection followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) principles and Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes (PICO) methodology was used. Population (P) was patients with renal masses who underwent RAPN (I). RAPN was compared with OPN (C). Outcomes of interest were perioperative, oncological and functional outcomes of both surgical procedures (O). Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled studies andobservational cohort studies comparing RAPN versus OPN, which reported at least one outcome of interest.

Evidence Synthesis: Twenty-two manuscripts met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. RAPN was superior to OPN in terms of complication rate in 11 studies while similar results were observed in 9 studies. Positive surgical margins were similar in 13 studies while RAPN had lower surgical margins in 6 studies. Operative and warm ischemia times were longer in OPN in 13 and 10 studies, respectively. Seventeen and 19 studies showed that estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were higher in RAPN. Estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and chronic kidney disease upstaging decline were similar in the majority of studies.

Conclusions: Current evidence demonstrate that RAPN is a reasonable alternative to OPN with regard to oncological and early functional outcomes with a straightforward advantage of improved perioperative morbidity, as expected by minimally invasive techniques. Nevertheless, there is still a great need for well-designed randomized studies with an extended follow-up.
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April 2019

Entry techniques in laparoscopic radical and partial nephrectomy: a multicenter international survey of contemporary practices.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2018 Aug 3;70(4):414-421. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Urology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA.

Background: There is no clear consensus as to the optimal method of entry in laparoscopic renal surgery and no reports have compared them in Urology. To analyze contemporary practice patterns in entry technique and port placement for laparoscopic kidney surgery.

Methods: We identified 60 high volume urological laparoscopic centers. A purpose-built questionnaire was sent to surgeons. The survey included 22 questions regarding access techniques and port configuration during laparoscopic kidney surgery. Data on were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Concordance among port configurations was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics.

Results: The survey was sent to 60 surgeons and completed by 32 of them. Surgical procedures included were laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (1177 LRN/year) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (1047 LPN/year). The transperitoneal route was preferred (85%). Hasson technique was used for the access in 55% of the cases. Patient lateral recumbent position is the most frequently used during the port placement (41%). Although there is a high variability in the port positioning among the surgeons, in more than 90% of cases it was found a specific concordance in triangulation of optics and operating trocars. There were no significant differences between port configuration in LRN and LPN. Limitations include retrospective design and limited sample.

Conclusions: A standard port configuration has not been previously reported in urological literature. Our study suggests that the transperitoneal approach, the Hasson technique and a specific triangulation of optics and operating trocars have a significant concordance in some high volume laparoscopic urologic centers.
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August 2018

Impact of preoperative calculation of nephron volume loss on future of partial nephrectomy techniques; planning a strategic roadmap for improving functional preservation and securing oncological safety.

BJU Int 2017 11 19;120(5):682-688. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.

Objectives: To assess the correlation of the resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), which is a preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss, with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset.

Patients And Methods: We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robot-assisted PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify the associations between various time points of PRF and the RAIV, as a continuous variable.

Results: The mean (sd) RAIV was 24.2 (29.2) cm . The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the eGFRs at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN were 91.0 and 76.8, 80.2 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m , respectively. In multivariable linear regression analysis, the amount of decline in PRF at follow-up was significantly correlated with the RAIV (β 0.261, 0.165, 0.260 at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN, respectively). This study has the limitation of its retrospective nature.

Conclusion: Preoperatively calculated RAIV significantly correlates with the amount of decline in PRF during long-term follow-up. The RAIV could lead our research to the level of prediction of the amount of PRF decline after PN and thus would be appropriate for assessing the technical advantages of emerging techniques.
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November 2017

Future of robotic surgery in urology.

BJU Int 2017 12 22;120(6):822-841. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Department of Urology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of the field of robotic systems for urological surgery and discuss future perspectives.

Materials And Methods: A non-systematic literature review was performed using PubMed/Medline search electronic engines. Existing patents for robotic devices were researched using the Google search engine. Findings were also critically analysed taking into account the personal experience of the authors.

Results: The relevant patents for the first generation of the da Vinci platform will expire in 2019. New robotic systems are coming onto the stage. These can be classified according to type of console, arrangement of robotic arms, handles and instruments, and other specific features (haptic feedback, eye-tracking). The Telelap ALF-X robot uses an open console with eye-tracking, laparoscopy-like handles with haptic feedback, and arms mounted on separate carts; first clinical trials with this system were reported in 2016. The Medtronic robot provides an open console using three-dimensional high-definition video technology and three arms. The Avatera robot features a closed console with microscope-like oculars, four arms arranged on one cart, and 5-mm instruments with six degrees of freedom. The REVO-I consists of an open console and a four-arm arrangement on one cart; the first experiments with this system were published in 2016. Medicaroid uses a semi-open console and three robot arms attached to the operating table. Clinical trials of the SP 1098-platform using the da Vinci Xi for console-based single-port surgery were reported in 2015. The SPORT robot has been tested in animal experiments for single-port surgery. The SurgiBot represents a bedside solution for single-port surgery providing flexible tube-guided instruments. The Avicenna Roboflex has been developed for robotic flexible ureteroscopy, with promising early clinical results.

Conclusions: Several console-based robots for laparoscopic multi- and single-port surgery are expected to come to market within the next 5 years. Future developments in the field of robotic surgery are likely to focus on the specific features of robotic arms, instruments, console, and video technology. The high technical standards of four da Vinci generations have set a high bar for upcoming devices. Ultimately, the implementation of these upcoming systems will depend on their clinical applicability and costs. How these technical developments will facilitate surgery and whether their use will translate into better outcomes for our patients remains to be determined.
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December 2017

Positive surgical margins and local recurrence after simple enucleation and standard partial nephrectomy for malignant renal tumors: systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of prevalence.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2017 Dec 26;69(6):523-538. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Division of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: The definition of the safest width of healthy renal margin to achieve oncological efficacy and therefore of the safest resection technique (RT) during partial nephrectomy (PN) continues to be widely debated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of positive surgical margins (PSM), loco-regional recurrence (LRR) and renal recurrence (RER) rates after simple enucleation (SE) and standard partial nephrectomy (SPN) for malignant renal tumors.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the English-language literature was performed through August 2016 using the Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases according to the PRISMA criteria. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in those studies that defined the exact anatomical location of recurrence after PN.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall, 33 studies involving 11,282 patients were selected for quantitative analysis. At a median follow-up of 43 (SE) and 52 (SPN) months, the pooled estimates of the prevalence of PSMs, LRR and RER were 2.7% (95% CI: 1.5-4.6%, P<0.001) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-2.2%, P=0.018), 2.0% (95% CI: 1.4-2.8%, P<0.001) and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5-1,7%, P=0.04), 1.5% (95% CI: 0.9-2.3%, P=0.001) and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5-1,7%, P=0.40) in patients undergoing SPN and SE, respectively.

Conclusions: Our systematic analysis and meta-analysis demonstrates that SE is noninferior to SPN regarding PSM, LRR and RER rates in patients undergoing PN for malignant renal tumors. Further studies using standardized reporting tools are needed to evaluate the role of resection techniques for oncologic outcomes after PN.
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December 2017

Outcomes of high-complexity renal tumours with a Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score of ≥10 after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with a median 46.5-month follow-up: a tertiary centre experience.

BJU Int 2016 Nov 26;118(5):770-778. Epub 2016 May 26.

Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: To compare perioperative trifecta achievement and long-term oncological and functional outcomes between patients with renal tumours of low [Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score 6-7], intermediate (PADUA score 8-9) and high (PADUA score ≥10) complexity undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN), and to determine predictors for trifecta achievement.

Patients And Methods: Data were retrospectively analysed from 295 patients, who underwent RAPN, between 2006 and 2015, at a high-volume tertiary centre. Trifecta achievement was the primary outcome measurement. The perioperative parameters and long-term oncological and functional outcomes were the secondary outcome measures. Groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis H test or chi-square test. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine the most important determinant variables associated with trifecta accomplishment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and cancer-free survival (CFS).

Results: Of the 295 patients, 121 (41%) had a PADUA score of ≥10. Patients in the high-complexity PADUA group had larger tumours (P ≤ 0.001), higher clinical stages ≥T1b (P < 0.001), an increased risk of malignancy (P = 0.02), longer warm ischaemia time (P = 0.0030), and higher estimated blood loss (P = 0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-complexity groups. Seven of eight patients who were converted to radical nephrectomy had high-complexity tumours (P = 0.02). Trifecta achievement was less in the high-complexity PADUA group (P < 0.001). Renal functional outcomes did not differ among the groups at follow-up (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for OS (P = 0.314), CSS (P = 0.228) and CFS (P = 0.532). In multivariable analysis, the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, operative time and tumour size were independent predictors of trifecta achievement (P = 0.001, P = 0.03, and P = 0.006, respectively).

Conclusion: High-complexity PADUA tumours are associated with a lower rate of trifecta achievement; however, long-term oncological and functional outcomes seem to be equivalent among high-, intermediate-, and low-complexity tumours. Despite the perioperative outcomes; high-complexity tumours can be handled successfully via the robotic approach and the improved long-term oncological and functional outcomes might be considered useful for patients counselling.
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November 2016

Perioperative and short-term outcomes of Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy stratified by gland size.

BJU Int 2017 Jan 12;119(1):135-141. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To investigate the effect of preoperative prostate volume (PV) on the perioperative, continence and early oncological outcomes among patients treated with Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RS-RALP).

Patients And Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 294 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer treated with RS-RALP in a high-volume centre from November 2012 to February 2015. Patients were divided into three groups based on their transrectal ultrasonography estimated PV as follows: group 1, <40 mL (231 patients); group 2, 40-60 mL (47); group 3, >60 mL (16). Perioperative, oncological, and continence outcomes were compared between the three groups.

Results: The median [interquartile range (IQR)] PV for each group was; 26.1 (22-31) mL, 45.9 (41-50) mL, and 70 (68-85) mL. Blood loss was higher in group 3 compared to groups 2 and 1; at a median (IQR) of 475 (312-575) mL, 200 (150-400) mL, and 250 (150-400) mL, respectively (P = 0.001). The intraoperative transfusion rate was higher in group 3 patients (P = 0.004), while the complication rate did not differ (P = 0.05). The console time was slightly higher but was not statistically significant in group 3 compared to groups 2 and 1; at a mean (sd) of 100 (35) min, 92 (34.4) min, and 93 (24.8) min, respectively (P = 0.70). Biochemical recurrence and the continence rate did not differ between the three groups (P = 0.89 and P = 0.25, respectively).

Conclusion: RS-RALP is oncologically and functionally equivalent for all prostate sizes but technically demanding for larger prostates. We therefore recommend that surgeons initiate their RS-RALP technique with smaller prostates.
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January 2017

Number of positive preoperative biopsy cores is a predictor of positive surgical margins (PSM) in small prostates after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

BJU Int 2015 Dec 2;116(6):897-904. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To determine the impact of prostate size on positive surgical margin (PSM) rates after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and the preoperative factors associated with PSM.

Patients And Methods: In all, 1229 men underwent RARP by a single surgeon, from 2005 to August of 2013. Excluded were patients who had transurethral resection of the prostate, neoadjuvant therapy, clinically advanced cancer, and the first 200 performed cases (to reduce the effect of learning curve). Included were 815 patients who were then divided into three prostate size groups: <31 g (group 1), 31-45 g (group 2), >45 g (group 3). Multivariate analysis determined predictors of PSM and biochemical recurrence (BCR).

Results: Console time and blood loss increased with increasing prostate size. There were more high-grade tumours in group 1 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 3, 33.9% vs 25.1% and 25.6%, P = 0.003 and P = 0.005). PSM rates were higher in prostates of <45 g with preoperative PSA levels of >20 ng/dL, Gleason score ≥7, T3 tumour, and ≥3 positive biopsy cores. In group 1, preoperative stage T3 [odds ratio (OR) 3.94, P = 0.020] and ≥3 positive biopsy cores (OR 2.52, P = 0.043) were predictive of PSM, while a PSA level of >20 ng/dL predicted the occurrence of BCR (OR 5.34, P = 0.021). No preoperative factors predicted PSM or BCR for groups 2 and 3.

Conclusion: A preoperative biopsy with ≥3 positive cores in men with small prostates predicts PSM after RARP. In small prostates with PSM, a PSA level of >20 ng/dL is a predictor of BCR. These factors should guide the choice of therapy and indicate the need for closer postoperative follow-up.
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December 2015

New technologies in robotic surgery: the Korean experience.

Curr Opin Urol 2014 Jan;24(1):111-7

Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose Of Review: The development of the robotic systems has made surgery an increasingly technology-driven field. Since the introduction of the first robotic platform in 2005, surgical practice in South Korea has also been caught up in the global robotic revolution. Consequently, a market focused on improving the robotic systems was created and Korea has emerged as one of its frontrunners. This article reviews the Korean experience in developing various robotic technologies and then Korea's most recent contributions to the development of new technologies in robotic surgery.

Recent Findings: The goal of new technologies in the field of robotic surgery has been to improve on the current platforms by eliminating their disadvantages. The pressing goal is to develop a platform that is less bulky, more ergonomic, and capable of providing force feedback to the surgeon. In Korea, the Lapabot and two new robotic systems for single-port laparoscopic surgery are the most recent advances that have been reported.

Summary: Robotic surgery is rapidly evolving and Korea has stayed in the forefront of its development. These new advancements in technology will eventually produce better robotic platforms that will greatly improve the manner in which surgical care is delivered.
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January 2014

Analysis of oncological outcomes and renal function after laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy: a multi-institutional outcome analysis.

BJU Int 2014 Feb 25;113(2):266-74. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Martin-Luther-University, Halle/Saale, Germany.

Objective: To report on a large multi-institutional series of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) and analyse renal function and short-term oncological outcomes.

Material And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive cases of LESS-PN performed between November 2007 and March 2012 at 11 participating institutions. Demographic data and data on the main peri-operative outcomes and complications were gathered and analysed. Kidney function was evaluated by measuring serum creatinine concentration and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Chronic kidney disease was defined in stages for each patient according to the National Kidney Foundation, Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative.

Results: A total of 190 cases were included in this analysis. The mean renal tumour size was 2.6 cm, and the mean PADUA score was 7.2. The median operating time was 170 min with a median estimated blood loss of 150 mL. A clampless technique was used in 70 cases (36.8%) and the median warm ischaemia time (WIT) was 16.5 min. PADUA score independently predicted the length of WIT (low vs high score: odds ratio 5.11, CI 1.50-17.41, P = 0.009; intermediate vs high score: odds ratio 5.13, CI 1.56-16.88, P = 0.007). The overall postoperative complication rate was 14.7%. Where a clamping technique was used, a significant increase in serum creatinine concentration and a significant decrease in eGFR were observed postoperatively and at 6 months. On multivariate analysis PADUA score was the only predicting factor. Overall survival rates were 99, 97 and 88% at 12-, 24- and 36-month follow-up, respectively, while disease-free survival rates were 98% at 12-month and 97% at 24- and 36-month follow-up.

Conclusion: The study showed that LESS-PN is effective in terms of renal function preservation and oncological control at short- and intermediate-term follow-up.
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February 2014

Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site transumbilical partial nephrectomy: functional and oncologic outcomes at 2 years.

Urology 2013 Sep 26;82(3):595-9. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand, Edgecliff, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To assess the functional and oncologic outcomes of robotic laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) partial nephrectomy with a minimum of 2-year follow-up.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-nine consecutive patients who had undergone robotic LESS partial nephrectomy were identified with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Perioperative data were recorded along with functional and oncologic outcomes. Patient's estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. A univariate analysis was performed using independent samples t test. Data are presented as medians with interquartile range and counts or frequencies with percentages or proportion.

Results: The median age was 51 (45, 59). The median resected tumor size was 3 cm (2, 3.7), and the median operative time was 185 minutes (135, 237). The median estimated blood loss was 150 mL (70, 150), and the median warm ischemia time was 25 minutes (17, 35). The estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly at 24 month follow-up with a mean decrease of 6.4 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) (-7.5%, P = .22). Renal cell carcinoma was confirmed in 33 patients (85%) with tumor stage pT1a in 26 patients (78%). There was 1 patient with a positive surgical margin. At a median follow-up of 26 months (24, 32), there was no local recurrence and only 1 distant recurrence was detected.

Conclusion: This study appears to be the first to report on intermediate term functional and oncologic outcomes after robotic LESS partial nephrectomy. It has shown comparable results with other minimal invasive surgical options.
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September 2013

Laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy: a multi-institutional outcome analysis.

Eur Urol 2013 Aug 8;64(2):314-22. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Martin-Luther-University, Halle/Saale, Germany.

Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed in an attempt to further reduce the surgical trauma associated with conventional laparoscopy. Partial nephrectomy (PN) represents a challenging indication for LESS.

Objective: To report a large multi-institutional series of LESS-PN and to analyze the predictors of outcomes after LESS-PN.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Consecutive cases of LESS-PN done between November 2007 and March 2012 at 11 participating institutions were included in this retrospective analysis.

Intervention: Each group performed LESS-PN according to its own protocols, entry criteria, and techniques.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Demographic data, main perioperative outcome parameters, and perioperative complications were gathered and analyzed. A multivariable analysis was used to assess the factors predicting a short (≤ 20 min) warm ischemia time (WIT), the occurrence of postoperative complication of any grade, and a favorable outcome, arbitrarily defined as a combination of the following events: short WIT plus no perioperative complications plus negative surgical margins plus no conversion to open surgery or standard laparoscopy.

Results And Limitations: A total of 190 cases were included in this analysis. Mean renal tumor size was 2.6, and PADUA score 7.2. Median operative time was 170 min, with median estimated blood loss (EBL) of 150 ml. A clampless technique was adopted in 70 cases (36.8%), and the median WIT was 16.5 min. PADUA score independently predicted length of WIT (low vs high score: odds ratio [OR]: 5.11 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.50-17.41]; p=0.009; intermediate vs high score: OR: 5.13 [95% CI, 1.56-16.88]; p=0.007). The overall postoperative complication rate was 14.7%. The adoption of a robotic LESS technique versus conventional LESS (OR: 20.92 [95% CI, 2.66-164.64]; p=0.003) and the occurrence of lower (≤ 250 ml) EBL (OR: 3.60 [95% CI, 1.35-9.56]; p=0.010) were found to be independent predictors of no postoperative complications of any grade. A favorable outcome was obtained in 83 cases (43.68%). On multivariate analysis, the only predictive factor of a favorable outcome was the PADUA score (low vs high score: OR: 4.99 [95% CI, 1.98-12.59]; p<0.001). Limitations of the study were the retrospective design and different selection criteria for the participating centers.

Conclusions: LESS-PN can be safely and effectively performed by experienced hands, given a high likelihood of a single additional port. Anatomic tumor characteristics as determined by the PADUA score are independent predictors of a favorable surgical outcome. Thus patients presenting tumors with low PADUA scores represent the best candidates for LESS-PN. The application of a robotic platform is likely to reduce the overall risk of postoperative complications.
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August 2013

Feasibility of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy for renal tumors >4 cm.

Eur Urol 2013 May 21;63(5):941-6. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) urologic procedures have gained significant interest worldwide in an attempt to further reduce morbidity and minimize scarring associated with conventional laparoscopic surgery. The robotic technology has overcome some of the limitations of manual single-incision surgery relating to lack of triangulation, instrument collision, and surgical exposure. There are no data on robotic LESS partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal tumors >4 cm.

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of robotic LESS PN for renal tumors >4 cm.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from 67 consecutive patients who underwent robotic LESS PN were collected between May 2009 to January 2011.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Patients were stratified into two groups: 20 patients with renal tumors >4 cm (group 1) and 47 patients with renal tumors ≤ 4 cm (group 2). Perioperative data were recorded and comparisons between the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

Results And Limitations: No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in demographic information, operative complications, pathologic characteristics, mean decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, estimated blood loss, operative times, conversion rate, or positive surgical margins. However, group 1 had a higher mean nephrometry score (p<0.01), longer warm ischemia time (p = 0.007), and longer length of stay (p = 0.046). Its retrospective design and being conducted at a single center were the main limitations of this study.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of robotic LESS PN for tumors >4 cm. Patients with tumors >4 cm had a statistically significant, higher mean nephrometry score, longer warm ischemia time, and longer length of stay, but there was no increased risk of adverse outcomes. A long-term study is needed to confirm the durable renal preservation and oncologic outcomes for patients with larger tumor burden.
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May 2013

Positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: a multi-institutional study.

J Urol 2011 Aug 15;186(2):511-6. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Global Robotics Institute, Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Purpose: Positive surgical margins are an independent predictive factor for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. We analyzed the incidence of and associative factors for positive surgical margins in a multi-institutional series of 8,418 robotic assisted radical prostatectomies.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 8,418 patients who underwent robotic assisted radical prostatectomy at 7 institutions. Of the patients 323 had missing data on margin status. Positive surgical margins were categorized into 4 groups, including apex, bladder neck, posterolateral and multifocal. The records of 6,169 patients were available for multivariate analysis. The variables entered into the logistic regression models were age, body mass index, preoperative prostate specific antigen, biopsy Gleason score, prostate weight and pathological stage. A second model was built to identify predictive factors for positive surgical margins in the subset of patients with organ confined disease (pT2).

Results: The overall positive surgical margin rate was 15.7% (1,272 of 8,095 patients). The positive surgical margin rate for pT2 and pT3 disease was 9.45% and 37.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis pathological stage (pT2 vs pT3 OR 4.588, p<0.001) and preoperative prostate specific antigen (4 or less vs greater than 10 ng/ml OR 2.918, p<0.001) were the most important independent predictive factors for positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy. Increasing prostate weight was associated with a lower risk of positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (OR 0.984, p<0.001) and a higher body mass index was associated with a higher risk of positive surgical margins (OR 1.032, p<0.001). For organ confined disease preoperative prostate specific antigen was the most important factor that independently correlated with positive surgical margins (4 or less vs greater than 10 ng/ml OR 3.8, p<0.001).

Conclusions: The prostatic apex followed by a posterolateral site was the most common location of positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy. Factors that correlated with cancer aggressiveness, such as pathological stage and preoperative prostate specific antigen, were the most important factors independently associated with an increased risk of positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy.
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August 2011

Comparison of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and open radical nephrectomy for pathologic stage T1 and T2 renal cell carcinoma with clear cell histologic features: a multi-institutional study.

Urology 2011 Apr 9;77(4):819-24. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Department of Urology, Yonsei University Severans Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: To assess the oncologic efficacy of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) compared with open radical nephrectomy (ORN) in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods: We analyzed the data from 2561 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy for RCC at 26 institutions in Korea from June 1998 to December 2007. The clinical data of 631 patients with clear cell RCC in the LRN group were compared with the clinical data of 924 patients in the ORN group. The patients with Stage pT3 or greater and those with lymph node or distant metastases were excluded to avoid a selection bias. To evaluate the technical adequacy and oncologic outcome, we compared the perioperative parameters and 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.

Results: The operative time was significantly longer in the LRN group than in the ORN group (219 ± 77 vs 182 ± 62 minutes, P < .001), but the estimated blood loss and complication rate were significantly lower in the LRN group than in the ORN group (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). On univariate analysis, the LRN group had 5-year overall (93.5% vs 89.8%, P = .120) and recurrence-free (94.0% vs 92.8%, P = .082) survival rates equivalent to those of the ORN group. Even after adjusting for age, sex, T stage, tumor grade, and body mass index in a Cox proportional hazards model, statistically significant differences between the 2 groups were not found for the 5-year overall (hazard ratio 1.523, P = .157) and recurrence-free (hazard ratio 0.917, P = .773) survival rates.

Conclusions: Our large multi-institutional data have shown that LRN provides survival outcomes equivalent to those of ORN in patients with Stage pT1-T2 clear cell RCC.
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April 2011

Training, credentialing, proctoring and medicolegal risks of robotic urological surgery: recommendations of the society of urologic robotic surgeons.

J Urol 2009 Sep 21;182(3):1126-32. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Purpose: With the exponential growth of robotic urological surgery, particularly with robot assisted radical prostatectomy, guidelines for safe initiation of this technology are a necessity. Currently no standardized credentialing system exists to our knowledge to evaluate surgeon competency and safety with robotic urological surgery performance. Although proctoring is a modality by which such competency can be evaluated, other training tools and guidelines are needed to ensure that the requisite knowledge and technical skills to perform this procedure have been acquired. We evaluated the current status of proctoring and credentialing in other surgical specialties to discuss and recommend its application and implementation specifically for robot assisted radical prostatectomy.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the literature on safety and medicolegal implications of proctoring and the safe introduction of surgical procedures to develop recommendations for robot assisted radical prostatectomy proctoring and credentialing.

Results: Proctoring is an essential mechanism for robot assisted radical prostatectomy institutional credentialing and should be a prerequisite for granting unrestricted privileges on the robot. This should be differentiated from preceptoring, wherein the expert is directly involved in hands-on training. Advanced technology has opened new avenues for long-distance observation through teleproctoring. Although the medicolegal implications of an active surgical intervention by a proctor are not clearly defined, the role as an observer should grant immunity from malpractice liability.

Conclusions: The implementation of guidelines and proctoring recommendations is necessary to protect surgeons, proctors, institutions and, above all, the patients who are associated with the institutional introduction of a robot assisted radical prostatectomy program. With no current guidelines we anticipate this article will serve as a catalyst of interorganizational discussion to initiate regulatory oversight of surgeon certification and proctorship.
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September 2009

Endourologic management of duodenal calculi in pancreas-kidney transplantation.

Urol Int 2005 ;74(4):371-2

Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-8915, USA.

Duodenal stones formed during pancreas-kidney transplantation are usually associated with nonabsorbable sutures or staples. We report on the delayed formation of a struvite duodenal stone not attributed to foreign material, managed successfully with intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy.
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September 2005

Laparoscopic pyeloplasty: current status.

BJU Int 2005 Mar;95 Suppl 2:102-5

The Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To review current publications and report our results and long-term follow-up of laparoscopic transperitoneal pyeloplasty for pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.

Patients And Methods: In all, 147 laparoscopic transperitoneal pyeloplasties were performed between August 1993 and November 2000 (mean patient age 35.7 years, range 10-85). All patients were diagnosed with PUJ obstruction by symptoms and intravenous urography, radionuclide diuretic renography or ultrasonography. An Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty (106), Y-V plasty (28), Fenger plasty (11) and others (two) were used, according to the intraoperative findings. Twenty-five patients had secondary obstruction, having had previous surgery to the PUJ. The mean (range) follow-up was 24 (3-84) months; all patients were followed clinically and radiologically.

Results: The mean operative duration time was 246 (100-480) min and estimated blood loss was 158 mL. Crossing vessels were identified in 80 cases. The success rate for all, primary and secondary patients was 95%, 98% and 84%, respectively. With one exception, all failures occurred within 6 months. Twenty-one patients (22 renal units) had simultaneous laparoscopic pyeloplasty and lithotomy; they were treated successfully and all have an intact PUJ, and 20 renal units (90%) were stone-free. The overall complication rate was 8.8%.

Conclusions: This series has comparable success rates to those of open pyeloplasty and the morbidity was minimal. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty may soon become the standard operation for PUJ obstruction, especially with crossing vessels.
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March 2005

Urethral stricture after pancreas-kidney transplantation due to polypoid urethritis.

Urology 2004 Nov;64(5):1030

Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Urologic complications are common after pancreas-kidney transplantation using bladder drainage. We report a case of urethral stricture caused by polypoid urethritis occurring 4 years after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Endoscopic exploration revealed irregular, ragged-appearing urethral mucosa. The diagnosis of polypoid urethritis was confirmed histopathologically.
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November 2004

Kidney transplantation in Yonsei University from 1979-2003.

Clin Transpl 2003 :183-92

Departments of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

1. Long-term graft survival has been markedly improved after the introduction of CsA microemulsion and FK-506 as our main immunosuppressants, and the use of triple maintenance immunosuppression including MMF in living-donor kidney transplantation (KTX) at Younsei University. 2. The risk factors affecting long-term graft survival in living-donor KTX were recipient and donor age, type of immunosuppression including regimen, presence of pretransplant diabetes or hepatitis B, and the development of acute rejection after KTX. 3. The long-term graft survival rate with living-unrelated donor KTX was comparable to that with HLA-haploidentical living-related donor KTX. 4. Because of the striking disparity between organ donation and the increasing demand for KTX, distant relatives, living unrelated donors (including swap donors) should be considered as an alternative approach to increasing the number of available donors when accompanied by a careful evaluation process. 5. We recommend the use of minimally invasive approaches to donor nephrectomy to increase the rate of living donor donation. 6. We recommend negative lymphocyte crossmatch conversion protocols for patients with a positive crossmatch against their potential living donor.
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October 2004