Publications by authors named "Konstantinos Chouliaras"

45 Publications

Intraoperative Botulinum Toxin Chemodenervation and Analgesia in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

Surg Innov 2020 Nov 24:1553350620975253. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

To analyze the impact of botulinum toxin chemodenervation on postoperative opiate consumption through a novel intraoperative injection protocol. A retrospective review of the implementation of a novel intraoperative botulinum toxin injection into both rectus and oblique musculature. Patients undergoing open retrorectus release, with and without intraoperative chemodenervation with Botox, were retrospectively collected between 2015 and 2019. Demographics, comorbidities, and opioid use in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) were retrospectively captured. Basic descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were performed. 19 patients in the Botox and 22 in the no Botox group were analyzed. Basic demographics were similar with female preponderance in the Botox group, 58% vs 27%, = .05. Median hernia length was 15 cm for both groups ( = .57), median hernia width was 8 vs 9 cm ( = .39), epidural catheter used in 0 vs 4 ( = .11), transverse abdominal plane blocks in 3 vs 4 ( = 1), median MME usage was 191 vs 230 ( = .37) in the inpatient setting, 225 vs 300 ( = .17) in the outpatient setting, and 405 vs 568 ( = .07) in total for Botox vs no Botox groups. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified Botox as the only predictor for MME usage, = .048. Chemodenervation was the only factor associated with reduced opioid usage compared to a standard group using multimodality analgesia. The role of muscular pain in laparotomy is likely underappreciated and understudied. Intraoperative selective muscular chemodenervation may play a significant role in recovery from abdominal surgery and requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350620975253DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of resection margin on outcomes in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity-A USSC analysis.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 4;123(2):479-488. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The optimal margin of resection for high-grade extremity sarcomas and its impact on survival has long been questioned in the setting of adjuvant radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of resection status on recurrence and survival.

Methods: All patients with primary, nonmetastatic, high-grade extremity sarcomas that underwent surgical resection from January 2000 to April 2016 in the U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative (USSC) were retrospectively reviewed. Recurrence patterns, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were examined in multivariate analyses (MVA).

Results: A cohort of 959 patients was identified with a median follow-up of 34.7 months from diagnosis. R0 resection was achieved in 86.7% (831) while R1 resection in 13.3% (128). Locoregional recurrence for R0 and R1 groups occurred in 9.1% (76) versus 14.8% (19; p = .05) while distant recurrence occurred in 24.7% (205) versus 26.6% (34; p = .65), respectively. Median RFS was 171.2 versus 48.5 (p = .01) while median OS was 149.8 versus 71.5 months (p = .02) for the R0 versus R1 group, respectively. On MVA, female gender (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, p = .007) and adjuvant radiotherapy (0.7, p = .04) were associated with improved OS, whereas older age (HR = 1.03, p < .001) and tumor size (HR = 1.01, p < .001) were associated with worse OS. R0 resection status was associated with improved locoregional RFS (HR = 0.56, p = .03) but not with distant RFS (HR = 0.84, p = .4) or OS (HR = 0.7, p = .052).

Conclusions: In high-grade extremity sarcomas, tumor size and gender are predictive of OS while R0 resection status is associated with improved locoregional recurrence rate without a significant impact on distant RFS or OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26275DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence and clinical relevance of tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) in breast cancer.

Surgery 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Breast Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY; Department of Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan; Department of Breast Surgery and Oncology, Tokyo Medical University, Japan; Department of Breast Surgery, Fukushima Medical University, Japan; Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) has been associated with outcomes in a variety of solid tumors; however, its role in breast cancer is not well defined. We hypothesized that tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia is associated with a high mutation and neoantigen load, and we assessed its correlation with cancer outcomes.

Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed for eosinophil signatures in breast cancer specimens. Descriptive analyses were performed, including the tumor-infiltrating cell composition using CIBERSORT, cytolytic activity score, and gene set enrichment analysis. Overall survival and disease-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Out of 1069 cases analyzed, 40 (3.7%) had tissue eosinophils (the tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia group). Tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia was noted in 32.5% luminal, 5% HER2-positive, and 15% triple-negative breast cancer subtypes. The single nucleotide variant-neoantigen load was significantly higher in the tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia group (P = .005), with a higher nonsilent mutation rate (P = .01). The tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia group had lower cytolytic activity (P = .02) but had enriched MYC-targeted (P = .002), E2F-targeted (P = .04), deoxyribonucleic acid repair (P = .03), and unfolded protein response gene sets (P = .05). Tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia was associated with a trend toward improved disease-free survival (P = .06) but presented no differences in overall survival (P = .56).

Conclusion: Tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia was noted in 3.7% of breast cancers and was associated with a higher single nucleotide variant-neoantigen load and nonsilent mutation rate, similar to that of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the triple-negative subtype. However, a lower cytolytic activity score and enriched cell proliferation-related gene sets implicate different roles for tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia than for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.07.052DOI Listing
September 2020

A closer look at the natural history and recurrence patterns of high-grade truncal/extremity leiomyosarcomas: A multi-institutional analysis from the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 30;34:292-297. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background/objective: Natural history and outcomes for truncal/extremity (TE) soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is derived primarily from studies investigating all histiotypes as one homogenous cohort. We aimed to define the recurrence rate (RR), recurrence patterns, and response to radiation of TE leiomyosarcomas (LMS).

Methods: Patients from the US Sarcoma Collaborative database with primary, high-grade TE STS were identified. Patients were grouped into LMS or other histology (non-LMS). Primary endpoints were locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS), distant-RFS (D-RFS), and disease specific survival (DSS).

Results: Of 1215 patients, 93 had LMS and 1122 non-LMS. In LMS patients, median age was 63 and median tumor size was 6 cm. In non-LMS patients, median age was 58 and median tumor size was 8 cm. In LMS patients, overall RR was 42% with 15% LR-RR and 29% D-RR. The 3yr LR-RFS, D-RFS, and DSS were 84%, 65%, and 76%, respectively. When considering high-risk (>5 cm and high-grade, n = 49) LMS patients, the overall RR was 45% with 12% LR-RR and 35% D-RR. 61% received radiation. The 3yr LR-RFS (78vs93%, p = 0.39), D-RFS (53vs63%, p = 0.27), and DSS (67vs91%, p = 0.17) were similar in those who did and did not receive radiation. High-risk, non-LMS patients had a similar overall RR of 42% with 15% LR-RR and 30% D-RR. 60% of non-LMS patients received radiation. There was an improved 3yr LR-RFS (82vs75%, p = 0.030) and DSS (77vs65%,p = 0.007) in non-LMS patients who received radiation.

Conclusions: In our cohort, patients with LMS have a low local recurrence rate (12-15%) and modest distant recurrence rate (29-35%). However, LMS patients had no improvement in local control or long-term outcomes with radiation. The value of radiation in these patients merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.06.003DOI Listing
September 2020

High neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is not independently associated with worse survival or recurrence in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma.

Surgery 2020 10 28;168(4):760-767. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Background: Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogenous group of neoplasms without well-validated biomarkers. Cancer-related inflammation is a known driver of tumor growth and progression. Recent studies have implicated a high circulating neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a surrogate marker for the inflammatory tumor microenvironment and a poor prognosticator in multiple solid tumors, including colorectal and pancreatic cancers. The impact of circulating neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in soft tissue sarcomas has yet to be elucidated.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing curative resection for primary or recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcomas at academic centers within the US Sarcoma Collaborative. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was calculated retrospectively in treatment-naïve patients using blood counts at or near diagnosis.

Results: A high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (≥4.5) was associated with worse survival on univariable analysis in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas (hazard ratio 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.8; P < .001). On multivariable analysis, increasing age (hazard ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.04; P < .001), American Joint Committee on Cancer T3 (hazard ratio 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.09; P = .011), American Joint Committee on Cancer T4 (hazard ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.92; P = .001), high tumor grade (hazard ratio 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-9.45; P < .001), and radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.82; P = .002) were independently predictive of overall survival, but a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was not predictive of survival (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.82; P = .22).

Conclusion: Tumor inflammation as measured by high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was not independently associated with overall survival in patients undergoing resection for extremity soft tissue sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.06.017DOI Listing
October 2020

Analysis of textbook outcomes among patients undergoing resection of retroperitoneal sarcoma: A multi-institutional analysis of the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Nov 21;122(6):1189-1198. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: The novel composite metric textbook outcome (TO) has increasingly been used as a quality indicator but has not been reported among patients undergoing surgical resection for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) using multi-institutional collaborative data.

Methods: All patients who underwent resection for RPS between 2000 to 2016 from eight academic institutions were included. TO was defined as a patient with R0/R1 resection that discharged to home and was without transfusion, reoperation, grade ≥2 complications, hospital-stay >50th percentile, or 90-day readmission or mortality. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed.

Results: Among 627 patients, 56.1% were female and the median age was 59 years. A minority of patients achieved a TO (34.9%). Factors associated with achieving a TO were tumor size <20 cm and low tumor grade, while ASA class ≥3, history of a prior cardiac event, resection of left colon/rectum, distal pancreatic resection, major venous resection and drain placement were associated with not achieving a TO (all P < .05). Achievement of a TO was associated with improved survival (median:12.7 vs 5.9 years, P < .01).

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing resection for RPS, failure to achieve TO is common and associated with significantly worse survival. The use of TO may inform patient expectations and serve as a measure for patient-level hospital performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26136DOI Listing
November 2020

Neoadjuvant radiation improves margin-negative resection rates in extremity sarcoma but not survival.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Jun 30;121(8):1249-1258. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Objectives: Radiation improves limb salvage in extremity sarcomas. Timing of radiation therapy remains under investigation. We sought to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant radiation (NAR) on surgery and survival of patients with extremity sarcomas.

Materials And Methods: A multi-institutional database was used to identify patients with extremity sarcomas undergoing surgical resection from 2000-2016. Patients were categorized by treatment strategy: surgery alone, adjuvant radiation (AR), or NAR. Survival, recurrence, limb salvage, and surgical margin status was analyzed.

Results: A total of 1483 patients were identified. Most patients receiving radiotherapy had high-grade tumors (82% NAR vs 81% AR vs 60% surgery; P < .001). The radiotherapy groups had more limb-sparing operations (98% AR vs 94% NAR vs 87% surgery; P < .001). NAR resulted in negative margin resections (90% NAR vs 79% surgery vs 75% AR; P < .0001). There were fewer local recurrences in the radiation groups (14% NAR vs 17% AR vs 27% surgery; P = .001). There was no difference in overall or recurrence-free survival between the three groups (OS, P = .132; RFS, P = .227).

Conclusion: In this large study, radiotherapy improved limb salvage rates and decreased local recurrences. Receipt of NAR achieves more margin-negative resections however this did not improve local recurrence or survival rates over.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25905DOI Listing
June 2020

Is a Nomogram Able to Predict Postoperative Wound Complications in Localized Soft-tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 03;478(3):550-559

M. Bedi, J. Charlson, D. M. King, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Medical Oncology, and Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Postoperative wound complications are challenging in patients with localized extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Various factors have been associated with wound complications, but there is no individualized predictive model to allow providers to counsel their patients and thus offer methods to mitigate the risk of complications and implement appropriate measures.

Questions/purposes: We used data from multiple centers to ask: (1) What risk factors are associated with postoperative wound complications in patients with localized soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity? (2) Can we create a predictive nomogram that will assess the risk of wound complications in individual patients after resection for soft-tissue sarcoma?

Methods: From 2000 to 2016, 1669 patients undergoing limb-salvage resection for a localized primary or recurrent extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with at least 120 days of follow-up at eight participating United States Sarcoma Collaborative institutions were identified. Wound complications included superficial wounds with or without drainage, deep wounds with drainage because of dehiscence, and intentional opening of the wound within 120 days postoperatively. Sixteen variables were selected a priori by clinicians and statisticians as potential risk factors for wound complications. A univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact tests for categorical predictors, and Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests were used for continuous predictors. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to train the prediction model that was used to create the nomogram. The prediction performance of the datasets was evaluated using a receiver operating curve, area under the curve, and calibration plot.

Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors such as comorbidities, functional status, albumin level, and chemotherapy use, we found that increasing age (odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.03; p = 0.008), BMI (OR 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09; p = 0.004), lower-extremity location (OR 6; 95% CI, 2.87-12.69; p < 0.001), and neoadjuvant radiation (OR 2; 95% CI, 1.47-3.16; p < 0.001) were associated with postoperative wound complications (area under the curve 69.2% [range 62.8%-75.6%]).

Conclusions: We found that age, BMI, tumor location, and timing of radiation are associated with the risk of wound complications. Based on these factors, a validated nomogram has been established that can provide an individualized prediction of wound complications in patients with a resected soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity. This may allow for proactive management with nutrition and surgical techniques, and help determine the delivery of radiation in patients with a high risk of having these complications.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145071PMC
March 2020

Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases revisited.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Sep 17;22(9):1265-1270. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Recent reports indicate improved survival in patients undergoing surgical treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) with hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) pump chemotherapy compared to surgery alone.

Methods: Patients who underwent resection and/or ablation of CRLM between 1996 and 2016 were included from a single-institution prospectively maintained database. Proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of overall survival (OS) and 3:1 propensity score analysis (PSA).

Results: Of 349 patients included, 36 had HAI pumps placed (HAI group) and 313 did not (no-HAI group). There was no difference in primary tumor grade (p = 0.24), ECOG status (p = 0.44), tumor number (p = 0.1), tumor size (p = 0.56), margin status (p = 0.76) between the two groups. Median overall survival was 44.7months vs 37.1months for the HAI versus no-HAI group (p = 0.01). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated positive margin status (HR:2.47,p < 0.0001), HAI therapy (HR:0.56,p = 0.02), preoperative chemotherapy (HR:0.69,p = 0.02) and tumor diameter (HR:1.07,p = 0.005) as predictors of OS. In 3:1 PSA, 32 HAI subjects were matched with 87 non-HAI subjects balancing all covariates. Median OS was 42.4 months versus 35.6 months for the HAI versus no-HAI group (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: Surgical treatment of CRLM combined with HAI chemotherapy is associated with improved OS compared to surgery alone. Further study of this treatment approach is indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2019.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365757PMC
September 2020

Trends in the Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Grade Truncal and Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

J Surg Res 2020 01 5;245:577-586. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: In the randomized controlled trial (RCT) EORTC 62931, adjuvant chemotherapy failed to show improvement in relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) for patients with resected high-grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS). We evaluated whether the negative results of this 2012 RCT have influenced multidisciplinary treatment patterns for patients with high-grade STS undergoing resection at seven academic referral centers.

Methods: The U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative database was queried to identify patients who underwent curative-intent resection of primary high-grade truncal or extremity STS from 2000 to 2016. Patients with recurrent tumors, metastatic disease, and those receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Patients were divided by treatment era into early (2000-2011, pre-European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] trial) and late (2012-2016, post-EORTC trial) cohorts for analysis. Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy and clinicopathologic variables were compared between the two cohorts. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with OS and RFS.

Results: 949 patients who met inclusion criteria were identified, with 730 patients in the early cohort and 219 in the late cohort. Adjuvant chemotherapy rates were similar between the early and late cohorts (15.6% versus 14.6%; P = 0.73). Patients within the early and late cohorts demonstrated similar median OS (128 months versus median not reached, P = 0.84) and RFS (107 months versus median not reached, P = 0.94). Receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with larger tumor size (13.6 versus 8.9 cm, P < 0.001), younger age (53.3 versus 63.7 years, P < 0.001), and receipt of adjuvant radiation (P < 0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, risk factors associated with decreased OS were increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = 0.02), increasing tumor size (P < 0.001), and margin-positive resection (P = 0.01). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with OS (P = 0.88). Risk factors associated with decreased RFS included increasing tumor size (P < 0.001) and margin-positive resection (P = 0.03); adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with RFS (P = 0.23).

Conclusions: Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected high-grade truncal or extremity STS have not decreased over time within the U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative, despite RCT data suggesting a lack of efficacy. In this retrospective multi-institutional analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with RFS or OS on multivariate analysis, consistent with the results from EORTC 62931. Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy for high-grade STS were low in both cohorts but may be influenced more by selection bias based on clinicopathologic variables such as tumor size, margin status, and patient age than by prospective, randomized data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.08.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Role of radiation therapy for retroperitoneal sarcomas: An eight-institution study from the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

J Surg Oncol 2019 Dec 4;120(7):1227-1234. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background: The use of radiation therapy in the treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas has increased in recent years. Its impact on survival and recurrence is unclear.

Methods: A retrospective propensity score matched (PSM) analysis of patients with primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas, who underwent resection from 2000 to 2016 at eight institutions of the US Sarcoma Collaborative, was performed. Patients with metastatic disease, desmoid tumors, and palliative resections were excluded.

Results: Total 425 patients were included, 56 in the neoadjuvant radiation group (neo-RT), 75 in the adjuvant radiation group (adj-RT), and 294 in the no radiotherapy group (no-RT). Median age was 59.5 years, 186 (43.8%) were male with a median follow up of 31.4 months. R0 and R1 resection was achieved in 253 (61.1%) and 143 (34.5%), respectively. Overall 1:1 match of 46 adj-RT and 59 neo-RT patients was performed using histology, sex, age, race, functional status, tumor size, grade, resection status, and chemotherapy. Unadjusted recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 35.9 months (no-RT) vs 33.5 months (neo-RT) and 27.2 months (adj-RT), P = .43 and P = .84, respectively. In the PSM, RFS was 17.6 months (no-RT) vs 33.9 months (neo-RT), P = .28 and 19 months (no-RT) vs 27.2 months (adj-RT), P = .1.

Conclusions: Use of radiotherapy, both in adjuvent or neoadjuvent setting, was not associated with improved survival or reduced recurrence rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857791PMC
December 2019

Assessing the Role of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Primary High-Risk Truncal/Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas: An Analysis of the Multi-institutional U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Oct 24;26(11):3542-3549. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is questioned. This study aimed to define which patients may experience a survival advantage with NCT.

Methods: All the patients from the U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative database (2000-2016) who underwent curative-intent resection of high-grade, primary truncal/extremity STS size 5 cm or larger were included in this study. The primary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Of the 4153 patients, 770 were included in the study. The median tumor size was 10 cm, and 669 of the patients (87%) had extremity tumors. The most common histology was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), found in 42% of the patients. Of the 770 patients, 216 (28%) received NCT. The patients who received NCT had deeper, larger tumors (p < 0.001). Of the patients with tumors 5 cm or larger and 8 cm or larger, NCT was not associated with improved RFS or OS. However for the patients with tumors 10 cm or larger, NCT was associated with improved 5-year RFS (51% vs 40%; p = 0.053) and 5-year OS (58% vs 47%; p = 0.043). By location, the patients with extremity tumors 10 cm or larger but not truncal tumors had improved 5-yearr RFS (54% vs 42%; p = 0.042) and 5-year OS (61% vs 47%; p = 0.015) with NCT. According to histology, no subtype had improved RFS or OS with NCT, although the patients with UPS had a trend toward improved 5-year RFS (56% vs 42%; p = 0.092) and 5-year OS (66% vs 52%; p = 0.103) with NCT.

Conclusion: For the patients with high-grade STS, NCT was associated with improved RFS and OS when tumors were 10 cm or larger and located in the extremity. However, no histiotype-specific advantage was identified. Future studies assessing the efficacy of NCT may consider focusing on these patients, with added focus on histology-specific strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07639-7DOI Listing
October 2019

Recurrence patterns after resection of retroperitoneal sarcomas: An eight-institution study from the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

J Surg Oncol 2019 Sep 27;120(3):340-347. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background And Objectives: Resection of primary retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) has a high incidence of recurrence. This study aims to identify patterns of recurrence and its impact on overall survival.

Methods: Adult patients with primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas who underwent resection in 2000-2016 at eight institutions of the US Sarcoma Collaborative were evaluated.

Results: Four hundred and ninety-eight patients were analyzed, with 56.2% (280 of 498) having recurrences. There were 433 recurrences (1-8) in 280 patients with 126 (25.3%) being locoregional, 82 (16.5%) distant, and 72 (14.5%) both locoregional and distant. Multivariate analyses revealed the following: Patient age P = .0002), tumor grade (P = .02), local recurrence (P = .0003) and distant recurrence (P < .0001) were predictors of disease-specific survival. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate for patients who recurred vs not was 89.6% (standard error [SE] 1.9) vs 93.5% (1.8), 66.0% (3.2) vs 88.4% (2.6), and 51.8% (3.6) vs 83.9% (3.3), respectively, P < .0001. Median survival was 5.3 years for the recurrence vs 11.3+ years for the no recurrence group (P < .0001). Median survival from the time of recurrence was 2.5 years.

Conclusions: Recurrence after resection of RPS occurs in more than half of patients independently of resection status or perioperative chemotherapy and is equally distributed between locoregional and distant sites. Recurrence is primarily related to tumor biology and is associated with a significant decrease in overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743490PMC
September 2019

Outcomes of Elderly Patients Undergoing Curative Resection for Retroperitoneal Sarcomas: Analysis From the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

J Surg Res 2019 01 22;233:154-162. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Background: The postoperative outcomes of elderly patients undergoing resection of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) have not been widely studied.

Methods: Patients undergoing surgical resection for primary or recurrent RPS between 2000 and 2015 at participating US Sarcoma Collaborative institutions were identified. Patient demographics, perioperative morbidity, mortality, length of stay, discharge to home, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival were compared between elderly (≥70 y, n = 171) and nonelderly (<70 y, n = 494) patients.

Results: There was no difference in perioperative morbidity (total and major complications elderly versus nonelderly: 39% versus 35%; P = 0.401 and 18% versus 17%; P = 0.646, respectively) or mortality between elderly and nonelderly patients with each group experiencing a 1% 30-d mortality rate. Length of stay and 30-d readmission rates were similar (elderly versus nonelderly; 7 d interquartile range [IQR: 5-9] versus 6 d [IQR: 4-9], P = 0.528 and 11% versus 12%, P = 0.667). Elderly patients were more likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility (elderly versus nonelderly; 19% versus 7%, P < 0.001). There was no difference in 3-y disease-free survival between the elderly and nonelderly patients (41% versus 43%, P = 0.65); however, elderly patients had a lower 3-y disease-specific survival (60% versus 76%, P < 0.001). In elderly patients, the presence of multiple comorbidities and high-grade tumors were most predictive of outcomes.

Conclusions: Advanced age was not associated with an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality following resection of RPS in this multi-institutional review. Although short-term oncologic outcomes were similar in both groups, the risk of death after sarcoma recurrence was higher in elderly patients and may be related to comorbidity burden and tumor histology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.07.050DOI Listing
January 2019

ASO Author Reflections: Long-Term Survival Is Feasible After Complete CRS/HIPEC for Biphasic Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 12 12;25(Suppl 3):770-771. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-7028-yDOI Listing
December 2018

ASO Author Reflections: PCI is Not Predictive of Survival After Complete CRS/HIPEC for High-Grade Appendiceal Primaries.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 12 12;25(Suppl 3):769. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-7027-zDOI Listing
December 2018

Perioperative chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival in high-grade truncal sarcoma.

J Surg Res 2018 11 23;231:248-256. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: The treatment benefit of perioperative chemotherapy (CTX) for truncal soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not well established. This study evaluates the association of CTX with survival for patients with resected primary high-grade truncal STS.

Materials And Methods: Adult patients with high-grade truncal STS who had curative-intent resection from 2000 to 2016 at seven U.S. institutions were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were stratified by receipt of CTX. Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests were used to compare overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate characteristics associated with OS.

Results: Of patients with primary high-grade truncal STS, 235 underwent curative-intent resections. The most common histology was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and mean tumor size was 7.8 cm. Thirty percent of the patients received CTX (n = 70). Among patients receiving CTX, 34% (n = 24) had neoadjuvant CTX, 44% (n = 31) adjuvant CTX, and 21% (n = 15) had neoadjuvant and adjuvant CTX. Patients receiving CTX were more likely to receive radiation (51% versus 34%, P = 0.01), have deep tumors (86% versus 73%, P = 0.037) and solid organ invasion (14% versus 3%, P = 0.001). On univariate analysis, patients who received CTX had worse OS (P < 0.01) and a trend toward worse recurrence-free survival (P = 0.08). Margin status was the only variable associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis (odds ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 12.13, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: In this multi-institutional retrospective analysis of resected high-grade truncal STS, receipt of perioperative CTX was not associated with improved OS, which may be related to selection bias. Microscopically negative margin status was the only independent factor associated with OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.05.030DOI Listing
November 2018

Preventable Complications and Deaths after Emergency Nontrauma Surgery.

Am Surg 2018 Sep;84(9):1422-1428

The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and cause of preventable and potentially preventable complications on an emergency nontrauma surgical service. The study is a retrospective review conducted at an academic teaching hospital. All patients were assessed (January 2010-June 2012) for emergency general surgical conditions, excluding trauma. The main outcome measures were preventable and potentially preventable complications and deaths, treatments, loop closure mechanisms, and impact on outcomes. The results showed that of 9078 nontrauma emergency surgical admissions and consultations, 194 patients (2.1%) had 261 complications. One hundred and ten (42.1% of total complications) were preventable. The most common causes of preventable complications were delay in management or diagnosis (n = 45, 41% of all preventable complications), technical/iatrogenic (n = 28, 25%), and infectious (n = 18, 16%). The most common nonpreventable complication was infectious (n = 84, 82% of all complications). The most common diagnoses associated with preventable complications were acute cholecystitis (n = 27, 25%), acute appendicitis (n = 25, 23%), and small bowel obstruction (n = 7, 6%). Preventable complications changed management in 80 per cent of cases. Of three (0.01%) mortalities, two were preventable. The mortality rate in emergency nontrauma surgery is low. A significant burden of complications remains. A large proportion are preventable or potentially preventable, with many changing management. These preventable errors are important targets for quality improvement efforts as the specialty of acute care surgery evolves.
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September 2018

Analysis of recurrence after the resection of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

J Surg Oncol 2018 Sep;118(3):416-421

Department of General Surgery, Surgical Oncology Section, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background And Objectives: Outcomes after recurrence of resected pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are not well described. We aim to assess the rate and sites of recurrence, and its effect on clinical outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients (n = 83) who underwent surgical resection of PNETs at 2 institutions. Patients were treated from September 2002 to July 2010.

Results: There were 13 (16%) recurrences. The most common site of recurrence was the liver (9 patients, 9.6%). The most common treatment of recurrences was chemotherapy (5 patients, 36%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival was 90.9%, 82.7%, and 72.5%, respectively. Median recurrence-free survival was 127 months. The median follow-up for all PNET patients was 25.8 months (range, 1-140 months). The 3-year survival was 97%. The median follow-up of patients after the diagnosis of a recurrence was 13.8 months. The overall survival for those with and without recurrence was 96.3% and 100%, respectively (P = .36). The age ( P = .002) and lymph node ratio ( P < .001) were predictors of recurrence on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Age and lymph node ratio are significant predictors of recurrence after the resection of PNETs with hepatic metastases being the most common. Survival of patients with recurrence is not significantly different from patients without recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25146DOI Listing
September 2018

Studying a Rare Disease Using Multi-Institutional Research Collaborations vs Big Data: Where Lies the Truth?

J Am Coll Surg 2018 09 12;227(3):357-366.e3. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address:

Background: Multi-institutional collaborations provide granularity lacking in epidemiologic data sets to enable in-depth study of rare diseases. For patients with superficial, high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the trunk and extremity, the value of radiation therapy (RT) is not clear. We aimed to use the 7-institution US Sarcoma Collaborative (USSC) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to investigate this issue.

Study Design: All adult patients with superficial truncal and extremity high-grade soft tissue sarcomas who underwent primary curative-intent resection from 2000 to 2016 at USSC institutions or were included in the NCDB from 2004 to 2013 were analyzed. Propensity score matching was performed. End points were locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS).

Results: Of 4,153 patients in the USSC, 169 patients with superficial high-grade tumors underwent primary curative-intent resection, 38% of which received RT. On multivariable Cox-regression analysis, RT was not associated with improved LRFS (p = 0.56), OS (p = 0.31), or DSS (p = 0.20). On analysis of 51 propensity score-matched pairs, RT was still not associated with increased LRFS, OS, or DSS. Analysis of 631 propensity score-matched pairs in the NCDB demonstrated improved 5-year OS rate associated with RT (80% vs 70%; p = 0.02). The LRFS and DSS rates were not evaluable.

Conclusions: Granular data afforded by collaborative research enables in-depth analysis of patient outcomes. The NCDB, although powered with large numbers, cannot assess many relevant outcomes (eg recurrence, DSS, or complications). In this study, the approaches yielded conflicting results. The USSC data suggested no value of radiation and the NCDB demonstrated improved OS, contradicting all randomized controlled trials in sarcoma. The pros and cons of either approach must be considered when applying results to clinical practice, and underscore the importance of randomized controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.05.009DOI Listing
September 2018

PCI is Not Predictive of Survival After Complete CRS/HIPEC in Peritoneal Dissemination from High-Grade Appendiceal Primaries.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Mar 29;25(3):674-678. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is a treatment option in patients with carcinomatosis from high-grade appendiceal (HGA) primaries. It is unknown if there is a Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) upper limit above which a complete CRS/HIPEC does not assure long-term survival.

Methods: Retrospective analysis from three centers was performed. The PCI was used to grade volume of of disease. Survival in relation to PCI was studied on patients with complete cytoreduction.

Results: Overall, 521 HGA patients underwent CRS/HIPEC from 1993 to 2015, with complete CRS being achieved in 50% (260/622). Mean PCI was 14.8 (standard deviation 8.7, range 0-36). Median survival for the complete CRS cohort was 6.1 years, while 5- and 10-year survival was 51.7% (standard error [SE] 4.6) and 36.1% (SE 6.3), respectively. Arbitrary cut-off PCI limits with 5-point splits (p = 0.63) were not predictive of a detrimental effect on survival as long as a complete CRS was achieved. A linear effect of the PCI on survival (p = 0.62) was not observed, and single-point PCI cohort splits within a PCI range of < 5 to > 10 were not predictive of survival for complete CRS patients. The PCI correlated with the ability to achieve a complete CRS, with a mean PCI of 14.7 (8.7) for completeness of cytoreduction (CC)0, 22.3 (7.8) for CC1 and 26.1 (9.5) for CC2/3 resections (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09), with an HR of 1.15 for each 1-unit increase in the PCI score. Only 21% of the cohort achieved a complete CRS with a PCI ≥ 21.

Conclusions: The PCI correlates with the ability to achieve a complete CRS in carcinomatosis from HGA. PCI is not associated with survival as long as a complete CRS can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6315-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890297PMC
March 2018

Is Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Justified for Biphasic Variants of Peritoneal Mesothelioma? Outcomes from the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International Registry.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Mar 19;25(3):667-673. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Surgical Oncology Service, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) has dramatically improved the survival of patients with epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma. It is unknown if CRS/HIPEC is indicated for the more aggressive biphasic mesothelioma variant.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) registry including data from 33 centers was performed. Survival was reviewed based on mesothelioma type, completion of cytoreduction, and volume of disease.

Results: Overall, 484 of 1165 (41.5%) CRS/HIPEC procedures with complete CC0 and CC1 cytoreductions were analyzed; 450 (93%) procedures were performed for epithelioid mesotheliomas, while 34 (7%) were performed for biphasic mesotheliomas. For patients with CC0 resection, 5-year survival was 64.5 and 50.2% (median 7.8 and 6.8 years; p = 0.015) for epithelioid and biphasic mesotheliomas, respectively, while inclusion of CC1 resections in the analysis resulted in inferior 5-year survival of 62.9% and 41.6% (median 7.8 and 2.8 years; p = 0.0012), respectively. Incomplete CC2 resections for biphasic primaries resulted in a median survival of 4.3 months. Univariate analysis of the biphasic cohort indicated Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI; p = 0.015), CC status of resection (p < 0.0001), and Ki67 (p = 0.04) as predictors of survival. Systemic chemotherapy before (p = 0.55) or after (p = 0.7) CRS/HIPEC did not influence survival. In multivariate analysis, only PCI (p = 0.03) and CC (p = 0.04) remained significant.

Conclusions: Long-term survival is achievable in patients with low-volume biphasic mesothelioma after complete macroscopic cytoreduction. Biphasic peritoneal mesotheliomas should not be considered as an absolute contraindication for CRS/HIPEC if there is low-volume disease and if complete cytoreduction can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6293-5DOI Listing
March 2018

Frailty Correlates with Postoperative Mortality and Major Morbidity After Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Dec 10;24(13):3825-3830. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Surgical Oncology Service, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Frailty is increasingly being recognized as a powerful predictor of postoperative outcomes for cancer patients. This study examined the role of the modified frailty index (MFI) in predicting outcomes for patients undergoing cytoreduction (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

Methods: Data from National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) patients who underwent CRS/HIPEC between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. The MFI, validated for use in NSQIP, was used to determine correlation between frailty and postoperative outcomes.

Results: The analysis included 1171 patients. The patients were divided into three groups: non-frail (MFI 0), mildly frail (MFI 1 or 2), or severely frail (MFI ≥ 3). More than 90% of patients had an MFI of 0 or 1. The MFI was 0 for 716 patients (61.1%), 1 for 373 patients (31.9%), 2 for 76 patients (6.5%), 3 for 5 patients (0.4%), and 4 for 1 patient (0.1%). Overall, grade 4 Clavien morbidity was observed in 99 patients (8.5%) and mortality in 26 patients (2.2%). For non-frail, mildly frail, and severely frail patients, worsening frailty correlated respectively with increases in grade 4 Clavien morbidity (6.7% vs. 10.9% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.004) and mortality (1.3% vs. 3.3% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, which included age of 70 years or older and albumin level of 3 or lower, frailty was the only factor that correlated with postoperative mortality: non-frail:reference, mildly frail [odds ratio (OR) 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.73; p = 0.025], severely frail (OR 29.1, 95% CI 4-210.87; p = 0.01), age of 70 years or older (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.34-3.93; p = 0.81), and albumin level of 3 or lower (OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.84-6.98; p = 0.1).

Conclusions: Frailty is a strong predictor of major grade 4 morbidity and mortality after CRS/HIPEC. Severe frailty should be a relative contraindication to CRS/HIPEC. Frailty correlates should be a selection factor in the evaluation of all candidates for CRS/HIPEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6111-0DOI Listing
December 2017

The Relationship between Age, Common Bile Duct Diameter and Diagnostic Probability in Suspected Choledocholithiasis.

Dig Surg 2017 1;34(5):421-428. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Division of Trauma, Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, LAC + USC Medical Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Aging has been associated with increasing common bile duct (CBD) diameter and reported as independently predictive of the likelihood of choledocolithiasis. These associations are controversial with uncertain diagnostic utility in patients presenting with symptomatic disease. The current study examined the relationship between age, CBD size, and the diagnostic probability of choledocolithiasis.

Methods: Symptomatic patients undergoing evaluation for suspected choledocolithiasis from January 2008 to February 2011 were reviewed. In the cohort without choledocolithiasis, the relationship between aging and CBD size was examined as a continuous variable and by comparing mean CBD size across stratified age groups. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between increasing age and diagnostic probability of choledocolithiasis in all patients.

Results: Choledocolithasis was diagnosed by MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde (ERCP) in 496 of 1,000 patients reviewed. Mean CBD was 6.0 mm (±2.8 mm) in the 504 of 1,000 patients without choledocolithiasis on ERCP/MRCP. Increasing age had no correlation with CBD size as a continuous variable (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.811). No difference occurred across age groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.157). Age had no association with diagnostic likelihood of choledocolithiasis (AOR [95% CI] 0.99 [0.98-1.01], adjusted-p = 0.335).

Conclusion: In a large population undergoing investigation for biliary disease, increasing age was neither associated with increasing CBD diameter nor predictive of the likelihood of choledocolithiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000455272DOI Listing
May 2018

Interval between cytoreductions as a marker of tumor biology in selecting patients for repeat cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

J Surg Oncol 2017 Nov 12;116(6):741-745. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Surgical Oncology Service, Department of General Surgery, City of Hope Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background And Objectives: Repeat cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) for recurrence of peritoneal surface malignancies is safe and effective. Patient selection and factors associated with a favorable outcome are still evolving.

Methods: A prospectively maintained institutional database consisting of 1314 CRS/HIPEC procedures performed between February 1993 and December 2015 was reviewed. Clinicopathologic data from 103 patients and 112 (8.5%) repeat CRS/HIPEC procedures were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Primary tumors were appendiceal for 60 patients (58.3%), mesothelioma for 14 (13.6%), colorectal for 9 (8.7%), ovarian for 8 (7.8%). R0/R1 resection was achieved in 46 (46.5%) patients. The time interval between the initial and the repeat CRS/HIPEC was <1 year for 21 (20.4%), 1-2 years for 40 (38.8%), and >2 years for 42 patients (40.8%). Overall median survival was 4.3 years and correlated with the time interval (1.3 years for <1 years, 3.7 years for 1-2 years, and 7 years for >2 years; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the R status (P = 0.005) and a time interval of more than 2 years (P = 0.0002) were strongly associated with survival with each additional month between the surgeries conferring a 2.6% reduction in the risk of death.

Conclusions: The current series validates time interval between cytoreductions as a major surrogate of tumor biology in selection of patients with recurrent peritoneal surface malignancies for repeat CRS/HIPEC. Complete repeat cytoreduction more than 2 years from the initial surgery is associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.24703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783693PMC
November 2017

Severe injuries associated with skiing and snowboarding: A national trauma data bank study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 04;82(4):781-786

From the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California; Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care (A.D., K.I., A.S., K.C., D.D.), LAC+USC Medical Center; and Department of General Surgery (K.C.), Wake Forest School of Medicine.

Background: Injuries after skiing and snowboarding accidents lead to an estimated 7,000 hospital admissions annually and present a significant burden to the health care system. The epidemiology, injury patterns, hospital resource utilization, and outcomes associated with these severe injuries need further characterization.

Methods: The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for the period 2007 to 2014 for admissions with Injury Severity Score > 15 and International Classification of Diseases Codes-9th Revision codes 885.3 (fall from skis, n = 1,353) and 885.4 (fall from snowboard, n = 1,216). Demographics, emergency department data, diagnosis and procedure codes, and outcomes were abstracted from the database.

Results: Severe (Injury Severity Score > 15) ski-associated and snowboard-associated injuries differed with respect to age distribution (median age, 38; interquartile range, 19-59 for skiers and median age, 20; interquartile range, 16-25 for snowboarders; p < 0.001) and sex (78.9% and 86.4% males, respectively, p < 0.001). Traumatic brain injury was common for both sports (56.8% of skiers vs. 46.6% of snowboarders, p < 0.001). Injuries to the spine (28.9%), chest (37.6%), and abdomen (35.0%) were also common. Eighty percent of patients used emergency medical services (50% ambulance, 30% helicopter) with a median emergency medical services transport time of 84 minutes. 50.8% of patients required interhospital transport. 43.2% of injuries required surgical intervention (21.3% orthopedic, 12.5% neurosurgical, 10.5% thoracic, 7.8% abdominal). Median hospital length of stay was 5.0 days. 60.0% of patients required intensive care unit admission with median intensive care unit length of stay 3.0 days. Overall mortality was 4.0% for skiers and 1.9% for snowboarders.

Conclusion: Severe injuries after ski and snowboard accidents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Differences in injury patterns, risk factors for severe injury, and resource utilization require further study. Increased resource allocation to alpine trauma systems is warranted.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic/epidemiologic, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000001358DOI Listing
April 2017

Prognostic Factors and Significance of Gastrointestinal Leak After Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Apr 19;24(4):890-897. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Surgical Oncology Service, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Gastrointestinal leak (GIL) after cytoreductive surgery with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify GIL prognostic factors and its impact on overall survival.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database comprising 1270 CRS/HIPEC procedures was performed. Type of GIL, functional and resection status, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed.

Results: Gastrointestinal leaks were identified in 8.7% (110/1270) of CRS/HIPEC procedures, including 53 anastomotic leaks (4.2%), 53 hollow viscus perforations (4.2%), and four leaks at unknown sites. The multivariate predictors of leak were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) functional status (ECOG 1 vs. 0: odds ratio [OR] 2.12, p = 0.009; ECOG 2 vs. 0: OR 2.90, p = 0.004), and number of anastomoses (OR 5.34; p < 0.0001). The in-hospital mortality rate for the GIL cohort was 21.8% (24/110), with a 72% (80/110) reoperation rate. The leak cohort had a higher major morbidity rate (88.3 vs. 23.3%; p < 0.0001), a longer hospital stay (39.0 vs. 9.9 days; p < 0.0001), and a longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (7.7 vs. 1.7 days; p = 0.0003). After surgical mortality was excluded, the overall survival periods for the leak and no-leak patients with complete cytoreduction were respectively 1.5 and 4.98 years (p = 0.0001). Clinically significant decreases in survival were observed for all primary malignancies.

Conclusions: Gastrointestinal leak after CRS/HIPEC is a source of significant mortality, with a decrease in overall survival even after complete CRS. Preoperative functional status and number of anastomoses are predictors of leak for CRS/HIPEC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5738-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567826PMC
April 2017

Discontinuity of the Bowel Following Damage Control Operation Revisited: A Multi-institutional Study.

World J Surg 2017 Jan;41(1):146-151

Division of Acute Care Surgery Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care), Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center, IPT-C5L100, 2051 Marengo Str. 90033, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Discontinuity of the bowel following intestinal injury and resection is a common practice in damage control procedures for severe abdominal trauma. However, there are concerns that complete occlusion of the bowel, especially in the presence of hypotension or edema that may result in ischemic bowel changes or increase bacterial or toxin translocation.

Methods: This was a retrospective study from three Level-1 trauma centers. Included were trauma patients who required bowel resection and damage control. The study population was stratified into two groups based on the management for bowel injury: bowel discontinuity versus primary anastomosis. Outcomes included anastomotic leak, organ space infection, bowel ischemia, and mortality.

Results: A total of 167 cases were included. In 84 cases, continuity of the bowel was established, and in 83, the bowel was left in discontinuity. The epidemiological, admission, and intraoperative physiological characteristics, the abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale, type of intra-abdominal injury, and transfusion requirements were similar in the two study groups. The mortality was 8.3 % in the continuity group and 16.9 % for the discontinuity group (p = 0.096). On the crude bivariate and adjusted regression analyses, there was a higher rate of bowel ischemia at the take-back operation in the discontinuity group (p = 0.003 for the crude and p = 0.034 for the adjusted). The organ space infection and anastomotic leak rate were not significantly different between the study groups.

Conclusions: Discontinuity of the bowel following damage control operation is associated with a higher risk of bowel ischemia than in patients with anastomosis. Further prospective observational and randomized studies are warranted.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3685-9DOI Listing
January 2017

Repeat cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: review of indications and outcomes.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2016 Feb;7(1):129-42

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an established treatment option in selected patients with peritoneal dissemination from a variety of epithelial primaries. Even though a small proportion will be alive and potentially cured at 10 years, the majority will eventually develop recurrent disease. Repeat CRS/HIPEC is a valid consideration in a selected subpopulation of patients with isolated peritoneal recurrence. This review summarizes the data on patient selection, feasibility, limitations and outcomes of repeat CRS/HIPEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2015.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4754305PMC
February 2016

Multiple Preoperative Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Large Common Bile Duct Diameter Predict the Need for Complex Surgery.

Am Surg 2016 Feb;82(2):122-7

Division of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Abdominal Organ Transplant Surgery, Keck Hospital of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is frequently used to clear the common bile duct (CBD) in patients with choledocholithiasis. While a single ERCP is usually effective, many patients undergo multiple ERCP attempts before cholecystectomy. Here we sought to identify preoperative factors predictive of surgical complexity beyond routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy after ERCP. Data were prospectively collected for all ERCPs between September 2010 and February 2012 at a public academic medical center including demographics, indication, stone presence, CBD diameter, sphincterotomy, stent placement, and ERCP number. A total of 124 ERCPs were attempted in 73 patients with choledocholithiasis, 10 per cent of whom presented with cholangitis. Fifty-six per cent of patients underwent one ERCP, whereas 16 per cent required ≥ 3 procedures. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 58 (79%) patients whereas 15 (21%) patients required more complex operations including eight open CBD explorations and two hepaticojejunostomies. The likelihood of requiring more complex surgery correlated with increasing number of ERCPs with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.75 (95% confidence interval: 2.31-14.3, P ≤ 0.001). Increased CBD diameter also correlated with complex surgery with adjusted odds ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.06, P = 0.012) for each millimeter. The number of preoperative ERCPs and CBD diameter in choledocholithiasis patients are strong predictors of the need for open surgery and CBD exploration and should be considered in surgical planning and consent for patients requiring more than one ERCP procedure.
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February 2016