Publications by authors named "Koji Takahashi"

301 Publications

"Salvage techniques" are the key to overcome difficult biliary cannulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

Sci Rep 2022 Aug 10;12(1):13627. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba-City, 260-8670, Japan.

Although the efficacy and safety of salvage techniques for biliary cannulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have been reported, few reports analyzed the choice of techniques and their clinical outcomes in large cohorts. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of biliary cannulation in patients with native papillae. We retrospectively identified 1021 patients who underwent initial ERCP from January 2013 to March 2020. We investigated background factors, treatment details, cannulation success rates, and adverse event rates. Then we analyzed a series of treatment processes, including salvage techniques such as double guidewire technique (DGT), needle knife pre-cutting (NKP), and transpancreatic pre-cut papillotomy (TPPP). The initial ERCP success rate using standard technique alone was 62.8%, which increased to 94.3% including salvage techniques. Salvage techniques were frequently required in patients with long oral protrusions (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.80-3.15; p < 0.001). A total of 503 cases (49.3%) had long oral protrusions, 47.5% of which required the salvage techniques, much higher than 27.5% of not-long cases. Patients with long oral protrusions had a higher frequency of NKP. In conclusion, patients with long oral protrusions frequently required salvage techniques. Salvage techniques may help to overcome many difficult biliary cannulation cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17809-5DOI Listing
August 2022

A paradox in the video head impulse test.

J Neurol Sci 2022 Aug 2;441:120378. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2022.120378DOI Listing
August 2022

Successful endoscopic retrieval of a migrated pancreatic stent using a basket catheter for peroral cholangioscopy through a biliary plastic stent pusher tube: a case report.

J Rural Med 2022 Jul 1;17(3):189-192. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan.

Retrieval is challenging once prophylactic pancreatic stents migrate deep into the pancreatic duct. Herein, we describe a case of successful endoscopic retrieval of a migrated prophylactic pancreatic stent using a basket catheter through a biliary plastic stent pusher tube. A 71 year-old man was referred to our hospital for removal of a straight-shaped migrated 5-Fr 3-cm prophylactic pancreatic stent with a flap on the duodenal side. There were no subjective symptoms at the time of the hospital visit. During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, we inserted an 8.5-Fr plastic biliary stent pusher tube in front of the migrated pancreatic stent. The stent was then grasped using a basket catheter for peroral cholangioscopy through the biliary stent pusher tube. The stent was pulled into the pusher tube and was successfully retrieved from the pancreatic duct. No complications were associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Although rare, prophylactic pancreatic duct stent migration after pancreatic duct guidewire placement should be noted. In our case, endoscopic retrieval of a migrated prophylactic pancreatic stent using a basket catheter for peroral cholangioscopy through the biliary plastic stent pusher tube was successful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2185/jrm.2022-003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263960PMC
July 2022

Intraperitoneal bleeding from the right gastroepiploic artery by endoscopic ultrasonography: a case report.

J Rural Med 2022 Jul 1;17(3):184-188. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan.

To describe the case of a patient with intraperitoneal bleeding from the gastroepiploic artery by endoscopic ultrasound who was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial coil embolization. An 87-year-old man was referred to our hospital for examination of a gallbladder tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography was performed using an oblique-view echoendoscope. After the endoscopic ultrasound, the patient went into shock. Computed tomography revealed a huge intraperitoneal hematoma and an aneurysm in the right gastroepiploic artery that were not seen on previous computed tomography images. Thus, urgent catheter angiography was performed, which showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right gastroepiploic artery and extravasation of the contrast medium from the pseudoaneurysm. Transcatheter arterial coil embolization was subsequently performed, and the bleeding stopped. Thereafter, his hemodynamics stabilized and his general condition improved. The patient was discharged 22 days post-treatment with an uneventful course. Observation-only endoscopic ultrasound without invasive procedures can cause intraperitoneal bleeding due to a ruptured splanchnic artery. Thus, endoscopic ultrasonography should be performed more carefully in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2185/jrm.2022-002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263947PMC
July 2022

Changes in oral function, swallowing function, and quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Oral Health 2022 07 17;22(1):293. Epub 2022 Jul 17.

Division of Oral Functional Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Special Needs Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Kitasenzoku 2-1-1, Oh-taku, Tokyo, 145-8515, Japan.

Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment can cause oral morbidities, such as oral dryness and dysphagia, affecting the patient's quality of life (QOL). The relationship between oral functions and QOL in patients with early-stage HNC remains poorly studied. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the QOL of patients with early-stage HNC and identify factors that affect the QOL of these patients.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 37 patients who underwent early-stage (Stage I/Stage II) HNC treatment were evaluated for their oral function, swallowing function, and the QOL score at baseline (BL) and 12 months after surgical treatment (12 M). The participants were divided into two groups: patients who returned to the BL QOL score at 12 M (RE; n = 26) and those who did not (NR; n = 11).

Results: In total, 29.7% (11/37) patients with early-stage HNC did not return to the BL QOL score at 12 M. There was no significant difference between the RE and NR groups regarding the oral and swallowing function. Moreover, oral and swallowing function of all patients returned to the BL at 12 M. The NR group showed lower QOL scores than the RE group in the global health status, and "sticky saliva" parameters in the questionnaires.

Conclusion: Restoration of the oral function is insufficient to improve the QOL of patients with early-stage HNC. The treatment of these patients should instead consider several factors that affect their QOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02329-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288711PMC
July 2022

Bradycardia, Renal Failure, Atrioventricular Nodal Blockade, Shock, and Hyperkalemia Syndrome as a Clinical Profile Leading to the Diagnosis of Transthyretin Amyloidosis: A Report of Two Cases.

Cureus 2022 May 29;14(5):e25444. Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Community Emergency Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, JPN.

We describe two cases in which the onset of bradycardia, renal failure, atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockade, shock, and hyperkalemia (BRASH) syndrome led to the diagnosis of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. In Case 1, BRASH syndrome developed shortly after a therapeutic dose of AV nodal blockers was prescribed for new-onset atrial flutter. BRASH syndrome improved with intravenous dopamine infusion and temporary cardiac pacing. In Case 2, BRASH syndrome developed immediately after bronchopneumonia followed by worsening heart failure, despite no change in medications such as AV nodal blockers. Intravenous injection of calcium dramatically improved BRASH syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9238110PMC
May 2022

Successful endoscopic treatment of huge infected biloma and hepatic abscess after endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy with brain abscess.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

A 77-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice due to pancreatic head tumor was admitted to our hospital for biliary drainage. Transpapillary biliary drainage was attempted using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; however, the catheter could not be inserted into the bile duct. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) was conducted using a 7-Fr plastic stent. Fever and cognitive dysfunction were observed 73 days after EUS-HGS. Abdominal-computed tomography (CT) showed a huge biloma and a liver abscess. On admission, an uncovered metal stent was applied to the biliary obstruction site of the distal bile duct using an antegrade stenting technique, and the plastic hepaticogastrostomy stent was substituted with a new one. On the second day, two double-pigtail plastic stents were inserted into the biloma, and one into the liver abscess. Head CT and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a brain abscess in the right cerebral frontal lobe. Serum white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level, and the state of consciousness, improved with antibiotic administration. Biloma and liver abscess almost disappeared on CT 38 days after admission. The brain abscess also improved, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 48 days after admission. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biloma drainage is helpful because self-removal of the drainage tube and reduced activities of daily living are unlikely to occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-022-01659-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Feasibility of a Single Pigtail Stent Made by Cutting a Nasobiliary Drainage Tube in Endoscopic Transpapillary Gallbladder Stenting for Acute Cholecystitis.

Cureus 2022 May 17;14(5):e25072. Epub 2022 May 17.

Gastroenterology, Chiba University, Chiba, JPN.

Background and objective In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single pigtail stent made by cutting a nasobiliary drainage tube (NBD stent) by comparing the clinical outcomes of using an NBD stent and those of using a ready-made double pigtail stent (RDP stent) in endoscopic gallbladder stenting (EGBS) for acute cholecystitis. Materials and methods This was a single-center retrospective study involving 20 cases that had technical success with EGBS for acute cholecystitis; the patients were divided into two groups: those using NBD stent (NBD group) and those using RDP stent (RDP group). The baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results There were 13 patients in the NBD group and seven in the RDP group. The rates of clinical success (NBD group: 92% vs. RDP group: 100%, p=0.45) did not differ significantly between the groups. Regarding adverse events, gallbladder perforation occurred in one case in the NBD group; however, no other adverse events occurred in either group (NBD group: 7.7% vs. RDP group: 0%, p=0.45). The stent patency periods did not differ significantly between the groups [NBD group: 43 (12-64) days vs. RDP group: 97 (58-215) days, p=0.17]. The stent patency period in cases of long-term stent placement after EGBS was 1,381 days and 1,579 days in the NBD group and 305 days in the RDP group, respectively. Conclusion NBD stents are considered as effective as RDP stents in EGBS for acute cholecystitis. They are highly versatile and can be used for both bridging to surgery and long-term stent placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202489PMC
May 2022

Cemented or Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Hip Fracture.

N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(22):e59

University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2203632DOI Listing
June 2022

Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain changes in the hanger reflex.

J Neurol Sci 2022 07 11;438:120277. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan; Department of Neurology, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2022.120277DOI Listing
July 2022

Corrigendum: Molecular Serotype-Specific Identification of Non-type b by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

Front Microbiol 2022 14;13:870651. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01877.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.870651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8964425PMC
March 2022

Downbeat Nystagmus Associated With Wall-Eyed Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia in Paramedian Pontine Tegmentum Infarction.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Neurology (YK, KJ) and Clinical Laboratory (KT), Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001502DOI Listing
February 2022

"Positional" upbeat nystagmus in medullary lesions.

Acta Neurol Belg 2022 06 3;122(3):837-839. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-022-01882-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Identification of stomatal-regulating molecules from de novo arylamine collection through aromatic C-H amination.

Sci Rep 2022 01 18;12(1):949. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

JST PRESTO, 7 Gobancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-0076, Japan.

Stomata-small pores generally found on the leaves of plants-control gas exchange between plant and the atmosphere. Elucidating the mechanism that underlies such control through the regulation of stomatal opening/closing is important to understand how plants regulate photosynthesis and tolerate against drought. However, up-to-date, molecular components and their function involved in stomatal regulation are not fully understood. We challenged such problem through a chemical genetic approach by isolating and characterizing synthetic molecules that influence stomatal movement. Here, we describe that a small chemical collection, prepared during the development of C-H amination reactions, lead to the discovery of a Stomata Influencing Molecule (SIM); namely, a sulfonimidated oxazole that inhibits stomatal opening. The starting molecule SIM1 was initially isolated from screening of compounds that inhibit light induced opening of dayflower stomata. A range of SIM molecules were rapidly accessed using our state-of-the-art C-H amination technologies. This enabled an efficient structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, culminating in the discovery of a sulfonamidated oxazole derivative (SIM*) having higher activity and enhanced specificity against stomatal regulation. Biological assay results have shed some light on the mode of action of SIM molecules within the cell, which may ultimately lead to drought tolerance-conferring agrochemicals through the control of stomatal movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-04947-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8766585PMC
January 2022

A study of acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds produced before and immediately after swallowing.

Sci Rep 2022 01 14;12(1):765. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.

To evaluate the expiratory sounds produced during swallowing recorded simultaneously with videofluorographic examination of swallowing (VF) using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and to examine the relationship between dysphagia and its acoustic characteristics. A total of 348 samples of expiratory sounds were collected from 61 patients with dysphagia whose expiratory sounds were recorded during VF. The VF results were evaluated by one dentist and categorized into three groups: safe group (SG), penetration group (PG), and aspiration group (AG). The duration and maximum amplitude of expiratory sounds produced were measured as the domain characteristics on the time waveform of these sounds and compared among the groups. Time window-length appropriate for FFT and acoustic discriminate values (AD values) of SG, PG, and AG were also investigated. The groups were analyzed using analysis of variance and Scheffé's multiple comparison method. The maximum amplitude of SG was significantly smaller than those of PG and AG. The mean duration in SG (2.05 s) was significantly longer than those in PG (0.84 s) and AG (0.96 s). The AD value in SG was significantly lower than those in PG and AG. AD value detects penetration or aspiration, and can be useful in screening for dysphagia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04624-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8760329PMC
January 2022

Improvement in Bending Strength of Silicon Nitride through Laser Peening.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jan 2;15(1). Epub 2022 Jan 2.

Sintokogio, Ltd., Nagoya 450-6424, Japan.

This study aimed to improve the bending strength and reliability of ceramics using laser peening (LP). In the experiment, LP without coating (LPwC) and with coating (LPC) were applied to silicon nitride (SiN) under various conditions. The surface roughness, residual stress, and bending strength were then measured for the non-LP, LPwC, and LPC specimens. The results show that the LPwC specimen had a greater surface roughness but introduced larger and deeper compressive residual stress when compared with the non-LP and LPC specimens. In addition, the bending strength of the LPwC specimen was higher and scatter in bending strength was less compared with the non-LP and LPC specimens. This may be attributed to the transition of the fracture initiation point from the surface to the interior of the LPwC specimen because of the compressive residual stress introduced near the surface. Thus, it was demonstrated that the application of LP is effective in improving the strength and reliability of ceramics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15010315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8745892PMC
January 2022

Identification of Abscisic Acid-Dependent Phosphorylated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors in Guard Cells of by Mass Spectrometry.

Front Plant Sci 2021 20;12:735271. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

An unknown 61 kDa protein is phosphorylated by abscisic acid (ABA)-activated protein kinase in response to ABA and binds to 14-3-3 protein in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in guard-cell protoplasts (GCPs) from . Subsequently, ABA-dependent phosphorylated proteins were identified as basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, named ABA-responsive kinase substrates (AKSs) in GCPs from . However, whether the 61 kDa protein in GCPs is an AKS is unclear. We performed immunoprecipitation of ABA-treated GCPs using anti-14-3-3 protein antibodies and identified several AKS isoforms in (VfAKSs) by mass spectrometry. The 61 kDa protein was identified as VfAKS1. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that VfAKSs are phosphorylated at Ser residues, which are important for 14-3-3 protein binding and monomerisation, in response to ABA in GCPs. Orthologs of AtABCG40, an ABA importer in guard cells, and CHC1, a clathrin heavy chain and a regulator of stomatal movement, also co-immunoprecipitated with 14-3-3 protein from guard cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.735271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8721282PMC
December 2021

Amyloid deposit corresponds to technetium-99m-pyrophosphate accumulation in abdominal fat of patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 Dec 28. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Background: Radionuclide imaging using bone-avid tracers plays a critical role in diagnosing transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), but technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (PYP) rarely allows the detection of extracardiac amyloid infiltration. We retrospectively investigated the frequency of PYP uptake in the subcutaneous abdominal fat of patients with ATTR-CA and its relevance to the results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of this tissue.

Methods: Chest-centered images of PYP scintigraphy were obtained 2 h after the intravenous injection of the tracer (20 mCi), and the frequency of PYP uptake in the subcutaneous abdominal fat was evaluated. Amyloid deposits of fat smears taken by subcutaneous abdominal fat FNAB were assessed by Congo red staining.

Results: Twenty-four patients with ATTR-CA were included. Ten (41.7%) patients showed some PYP uptake in the subcutaneous abdominal fat (positive PYP group), and 14 patients did not (negative PYP group). Amyloid deposits were detected by subcutaneous abdominal fat FNAB in 7/10 patients (70.0%) of the positive PYP group versus 0/14 patients (0%) of the negative PYP group, and the difference was significant.

Conclusions: In patients with ATTR-CA, abnormal PYP uptake in the subcutaneous abdominal fat could reflect the regional amyloid deposition confirmed by FNAB of this tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-021-02890-6DOI Listing
December 2021

Developmental changes in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic transmission to rat motoneurons innervating jaw-closing and jaw-opening muscles.

Brain Res 2022 02 13;1777:147753. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Oral Physiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

Trigeminal motoneurons (MNs) innervating the jaw-closing and jaw-opening muscles receive numerous inhibitory synaptic inputs from GABAergic and glycinergic neurons, which are essential for oromotor functions, such as the orofacial reflex, suckling, and mastication. The properties of the GABAergic and glycinergic inputs of these MNs undergo developmental alterations during the period in which their feeding behavior proceeds from suckling to mastication; however, the detailed characteristics of the developmental patterns of GABAergic and glycinergic transmission in these neurons remain to be elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate developmental changes in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in masseter (jaw-closing) and digastric (jaw-opening) MNs using brainstem slice preparations obtained from Wistar rats on postnatal day (P)2-5, P9-12, and P14-17. The frequency and amplitude of glycinergic mIPSCs substantially increased with age in both the masseter and digastric MNs. The rise time and decay time of glycinergic mIPSCs in both MNs decreased during development. In contrast, the frequency of GABAergic components in masseter MNs was higher at P2-5 than at P14-17, whereas that in the digastric MNs remained unchanged throughout the postnatal period. The proportion of currents mediated by GABA-glycine co-transmission was higher at P2-5, and then it decreased with age in both MNs. These results suggest that characteristics related to the development of inhibitory synaptic inputs differ between jaw-closing and jaw-opening MNs and between GABAergic and glycinergic currents. These distinct developmental characteristics may contribute to the development of feeding behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147753DOI Listing
February 2022

Association between pulse pressure and progression of chronic kidney disease.

Sci Rep 2021 12 2;11(1):23275. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pulse pressure (PP) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression among the general population in Japan. We conducted a population-based cohort study of the residents of Iki Island, Nagasaki, Japan, from 2008 to 2018. We identified 1042 participants who had CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m or the presence of proteinuria) at baseline. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the association between PP and progression of CKD. During a 4.66-year mean follow-up, there were 241 cases of CKD progression (incident rate: 49.8 per 1000 person-years). A significant increase existed in CKD progression per 10 mmHg of PP elevation, even when adjusted for confounding factors [adjusted hazard ratio 1.17 (1.06-1.29) p < 0.001]. Similar results were obtained even after dividing PP into quartiles [Q2: 1.14 (0.74-1.76), Q3: 1.35 (0.88-2.06), Q4: 1.87 (1.23-2.83) p = 0.003 for trend]. This trend did not change significantly irrespective of baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressures. PP remained a potential predictive marker, especially for eGFR decline. In conclusion, we found a significant association between PP and CKD progression. PP might be a potential predictive marker for CKD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02809-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8640028PMC
December 2021

Effect of chronic kidney disease on the association between hyperuricemia and new-onset hypertension in the general Japanese population: ISSA-CKD study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 12 21;23(12):2071-2077. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

We aimed to investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and development of hypertension as well as the interaction effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on this relationship in the general Japanese population. We included 7895 participants aged ≥30 years from the ISSA-CKD study, a population-based retrospective cohort study that used annual health check-up data of residents from Iki Island, Japan. After the exclusion of 1881 with l < 1-year follow-up, 2812 with hypertension at baseline, and 165 with missing information on SUA, a total of 3037 participants were enrolled in this analysis. Participants were divided into four groups according to the quartiles of SUA level at baseline, and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for new-onset hypertension were calculated. Stratified analyses were performed for each subgroup (defined by sex, age, alcohol intake, and CKD) to assess the interaction effects. During a mean follow-up period of 4.4 years, 943 participants developed hypertension. The first quartile group was set as the reference group, and the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for new-onset hypertension were 1.11 (0.90-1.36) in the second quartile, 1.25 (1.02-1.54) in the third quartile, and 1.35 (1.07-1.70) in the fourth quartile compared with those in the reference group (p = .007 for trend). The stratified analyses showed that the association between SUA and hypertension was significantly stronger in participants with CKD than in those without CKD (p = .035 for interaction). SUA level is an independent risk factor for new-onset hypertension. This tendency was significantly stronger in participants with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8696210PMC
December 2021

TMK-based cell-surface auxin signalling activates cell-wall acidification.

Nature 2021 11 27;599(7884):278-282. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

FAFU-UCR Joint Center for Horticultural Biology and Metabolomics, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

The phytohormone auxin controls many processes in plants, at least in part through its regulation of cell expansion. The acid growth hypothesis has been proposed to explain auxin-stimulated cell expansion for five decades, but the mechanism that underlies auxin-induced cell-wall acidification is poorly characterized. Auxin induces the phosphorylation and activation of the plasma membrane H-ATPase that pumps protons into the apoplast, yet how auxin activates its phosphorylation remains unclear. Here we show that the transmembrane kinase (TMK) auxin-signalling proteins interact with plasma membrane H-ATPases, inducing their phosphorylation, and thereby promoting cell-wall acidification and hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis. Auxin induced interactions between TMKs and H-ATPases in the plasma membrane within seconds, as well as TMK-dependent phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine residue on the H+-ATPases. Our genetic, biochemical and molecular evidence demonstrates that TMKs directly phosphorylate plasma membrane H-ATPase and are required for auxin-induced H-ATPase activation, apoplastic acidification and cell expansion. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial connection between auxin and plasma membrane H-ATPase activation in regulating apoplastic pH changes and cell expansion through TMK-based cell surface auxin signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03976-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549421PMC
November 2021

Cell surface and intracellular auxin signalling for H fluxes in root growth.

Nature 2021 11 27;599(7884):273-277. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria.

Growth regulation tailors development in plants to their environment. A prominent example of this is the response to gravity, in which shoots bend up and roots bend down. This paradox is based on opposite effects of the phytohormone auxin, which promotes cell expansion in shoots while inhibiting it in roots via a yet unknown cellular mechanism. Here, by combining microfluidics, live imaging, genetic engineering and phosphoproteomics in Arabidopsis thaliana, we advance understanding of how auxin inhibits root growth. We show that auxin activates two distinct, antagonistically acting signalling pathways that converge on rapid regulation of apoplastic pH, a causative determinant of growth. Cell surface-based TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE1 (TMK1) interacts with and mediates phosphorylation and activation of plasma membrane H-ATPases for apoplast acidification, while intracellular canonical auxin signalling promotes net cellular H influx, causing apoplast alkalinization. Simultaneous activation of these two counteracting mechanisms poises roots for rapid, fine-tuned growth modulation in navigating complex soil environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04037-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7612300PMC
November 2021

Dynamic interplay between interfacial nanobubbles: oversaturation promotes anisotropic depinning and bubble coalescence.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Nov 10;23(43):24652-24660. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

Probing the dynamics of nanobubbles is essential to understand their longevity and behavior. Importantly, such an observation requires tools and techniques having high temporal resolutions to capture the intrinsic characteristics of the nanobubbles. In this work, we have used the liquid-phase electron microscopy (LPEM) technique to gain insights into nanobubbles' behavior and their interfacial dynamics. Interestingly, we could observe a freely growing-shrinking nanobubble and a pinned nanobubble under the same experimental conditions, suggesting the possibility of multiple nanobubble stabilization theories and pathways. Remarkably, the study reveals that a freely growing-shrinking nanobubble induces anisotropic depinning in the three-phase contact line of a strongly pinned neighboring nanobubble. The anisotropic depinning is attributed to the differential local gas saturation levels, depending on the relative positioning of the freely growing-shrinking nanobubble. Furthermore, we also observed a unique pull-push phenomenon exhibited by the nanobubble's interfaces, which is attributed to the van der Waals interactions and the electric double layer collectively. The role of the electric double layer in suppressing and delaying the merging is also highlighted in this study. The present work aims to reveal the role of locally varying gas saturation in the depinning of nanobubbles, their longevity due to the electric double layer, and the consequent coalescence, which is crucial to understand the behavior of the nanobubbles. Our findings will essentially contribute to the understanding of these novel nanoscale gaseous domains and their dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03451kDOI Listing
November 2021

Premature atrial contractions with multiple patterns of aberrant conduction followed by torsade de pointes in a patient with polymyalgia rheumatica: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(37):e27286

Higuchi Internal Medicine Clinic, Ehime, Japan.

Rationale: Recent studies have shown that QT interval prolongation is associated with disease severity and predicts mortality in systemic inflammatory diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines released from synovial tissues in rheumatoid arthritis, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, could have direct effects on cardiac electrophysiology, particularly changes in the expression and function of potassium and calcium channels, resulting in QT interval prolongation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and an increased predisposition to develop lethal ventricular arrhythmias. However, reports on torsade de pointes (TdP) due to acquired long QT syndrome in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are limited.

Patient Concerns: An 85-year-old Japanese woman with active PMR developed first syncope.

Diagnosis: Frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) with multiple patterns of aberrant conduction, QT interval prolongation, and morphological T-U wave variability followed by TdP were documented. PACs were the first beat of TdP.

Interventions: Amiodarone, together with magnesium and potassium, was intravenously administered. However, TdP resulted in a ventricular arrhythmic storm, for which sedation with mechanical ventilatory support, temporary overdrive cardiac pacing, and intravenous landiolol administration in addition to multiple direct current shocks were effective.

Outcomes: Approximately 2 years later, the patient was treated with amiodarone, propranolol, and prednisolone. She did not undergo implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation and was quite well, with no recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmia.

Lessons: IL-6 hyperproduction in inflamed tissues has been widely confirmed in PMR. Frequent PACs with various patterns of aberrant conduction, QT interval prolongation, and morphological T-U wave variability followed by TdP, for which IL-6-mediated enhancement of L-type Ca2+ current and inhibition of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current are the most likely mechanisms, were documented in an elderly Japanese woman with PMR. ECG may be recorded once in patients with active PMR even when these patients do not complain of palpitation or syncope. If QT interval prolongation or arrhythmia, including even PACs, is observed, follow-up ECG may be warranted, particularly for patients with some risk factors for QT prolongation that could lead to TdP, such as advanced age, female sex, hypopotassemia, and polypharmacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000027286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448026PMC
September 2021

Pinning in a Contact and Noncontact Manner: Direct Observation of a Three-Phase Contact Line Using Graphene Liquid Cells.

Langmuir 2021 Oct 13;37(42):12271-12277. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

Pinning of a three-phase contact line at the nanoscale cannot be explained by conventional macroscale theories and thus requires an experimental insight to understand this phenomenon. We performed in-situ transmission electron microscopy observation of the three-phase contact lines of bubbles inside graphene liquid cells to experimentally investigate the causes of nanoscale pinning. In our observations, the three-phase contact line was not affected by the 0.6 nm-thick inhomogeneity of the graphene surface, but thicker metal nanoparticles with diameters of 2-10 nm and nanoflakes caused pinning of the gas-liquid interface. Notably, we found that flake-like objects can cause pinning that prevents the bubble overcome the flake object in a noncontact state, with a 2 nm-thick liquid film between them and the bubble. This phenomenon can be explained by the repulsive force obtained using the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory. We also observed that the flake temporally prevented the gas-liquid interface moving away from the flake. We discussed the physical mechanism of the attractive force-like phenomenon by considering the nanoconfinement effect of the liquid sandwiched by two graphene sheets and the hydration layer formed near the solid surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01589DOI Listing
October 2021

Eating before bed and new-onset hypertension in a Japanese population: the Iki city epidemiological study of atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease.

Hypertens Res 2021 12 22;44(12):1662-1667. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between eating before bed and the development of hypertension in a general Japanese population. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using annual health check-up data collected from the residents of Iki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. In total, 2930 participants without hypertension at baseline (mean age 57.0 years, male 42.8%) were included in the present analysis. Eating before bed was defined as eating within 2 h of bedtime. The outcome of this study was incident hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering medications). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. During an average follow-up of 4.5 years, 909 participants developed hypertension. The incidence (per 1000 person-years) of hypertension in the group of individuals who ate before bed was 82.8, whereas that in the group of individuals who did not eat before bed was 65.8. The association was significant even after adjusting for other risk factors, including age, sex, current smoking status, current alcohol intake, regular exercise, obesity, elevated blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, with a hazard ratio of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.05-1.44) for the group of individuals who ate before bed compared with the group of individuals who did not eat before bed (P = 0.01 for trend). Eating before bed was correlated with a future risk of developing hypertension in the general Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00727-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and concurrent glomerular microangiopathy after long-term imatinib administration.

CEN Case Rep 2022 02 9;11(1):134-140. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma 7-45-1, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

A 79-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of proteinuria and kidney dysfunction. He was diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia 13 years before and was treated with imatinib. Deep molecular response was achieved but he developed 1+ proteinuria in the first year, which gradually worsened thereafter. Imatinib was discontinued 12 years later but proteinuria and kidney dysfunction were progressive. Percutaneous kidney biopsy revealed mild mesangial hyper-cellularity and matrix increase, swelling of endothelial cells, and partial double contours of glomerular tufts. Subendothelial edema in the interlobular artery was also noted. Immunofluorescence was not remarkable. Electron microscopy revealed endothelial injury with severe sub-endothelial edema. Since imatinib had already been discontinued, conservative therapy with maximal dose of azilsartan was administered. A second biopsy was performed 1 year later because of further deterioration of kidney function, which revealed markedly increased global glomerulosclerosis and severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Segmental glomerulosclerosis with podocyte hyperplasia was also observed. Electron microscopy revealed glomerulosclerotic changes and partially attenuated endothelial injury. Two and a half years later, proteinuria reduced, progression of kidney dysfunction slowed, and he was independent on dialysis therapy. Molecular response of chronic myeloid leukemia was also maintained. The clinical course suggested that endothelial and podocyte injuries were induced by imatinib, and that the nephrotoxic effects lasted for a few years after discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13730-021-00622-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8810982PMC
February 2022

Cerebral perfusion changes in chronic dizziness: A single-photon emission computed tomography study.

eNeurologicalSci 2021 Dec 27;25:100367. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Radiology, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Dizziness may persist even after the causative vestibular imbalance subsides. Although the precise mechanism of chronic dizziness is unknown, various cerebral activity changes associated with it have been reported. To understand its mechanism in the absence of the causative vestibular imbalance, we compared cerebral changes in chronic dizziness with and without persistent vestibular imbalance.

Methods: Between September 2014 and March 2020, we examined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 patients having chronic post-lateral medullary infarction dizziness with persistent brainstem vestibular imbalance and 23 patients having chronic dizziness without currently active vestibular imbalance using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Technetium-ethyl cysteinate dimer. Further, we analyzed the SPECT images using a voxel-based group comparison.

Results: We observed a decreased rCBF in the occipital lobe and increased rCBF in the medial and inferior parts of the temporal lobe in patients having chronic dizziness with and without active vestibular imbalance compared to healthy controls. However, only patients having chronic dizziness without active vestibular imbalance exhibited increased rCBF in the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.

Conclusion: This is the first study to highlight the difference in rCBF changes between patients having chronic dizziness with and without active vestibular imbalance. Decreased occipital lobe activity and increased medial and inferior temporal lobe activity may be related to keeping dizziness perception triggered regardless of the presence or absence of active vestibular imbalance, whereas increased frontal lobe activity may explain the dizziness background to persist after the disappearance of vestibular imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2021.100367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413887PMC
December 2021
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