Publications by authors named "Koji Narui"

59 Publications

Evaluation of the Apnea-Hypopnea Index Determined by Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Devices in Patients With Heart Failure and Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 25;8:680053. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) devices are designed to suppress central respiratory events, and therefore effective for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with heart failure (HF) and provide information about their residual respiratory events. However, whether the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), determined by the ASV device AutoSet CS (ASC), correlates with the AHI calculated by polysomnography (PSG) in patients with HF and SDB remains to be evaluated. Consecutive patients with SDB titrated on ASC were included in the study. We assessed the correlation between AHI determined by manual scoring during PSG (AHI-PSG) and that determined by the ASC device (AHI-ASC) during an overnight session. Thirty patients with HF and SDB (age, 68.8 ± 15.4 years; two women; left ventricular ejection fraction, 53.8 ± 17.9%) were included. The median AHI in the diagnostic study was 28.4 events/h, including both obstructive and central respiratory events. During the titration, ASC markedly suppressed the respiratory events (AHI-PSG, 3.3 events/h), while the median AHI-ASC was 12.8 events/h. We identified a modest correlation between AHI-PSG and AHI-ASC ( = 0.36, = 0.048). The Brand-Altman plot indicated that the ASC device overestimated the AHI, and a moderate agreement was observed with PSG. There was only a modest correlation between AHI-PSG and AHI-ASC. The discrepancy may be explained by either the central respiratory events that occur during wakefulness or the other differences between PSG and ASC in the detected respiratory events. Therefore, clinicians should consider this divergence when assessing residual respiratory events using ASC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.680053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267007PMC
June 2021

Obstructive sleep apnea during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with diabetic kidney disease.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 03;17(3):453-460

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Study Objectives: Although recent studies suggest that obstructive sleep apnea during rapid eye movement (REM) is associated with different cardiometabolic and neurocognitive risks compared with non-REM (NREM) sleep, there is no information on whether obstructive sleep apnea during REM and/or NREM sleep is independently associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 303 patients with type 2 diabetes who were followed up at our diabetes outpatient clinic underwent all-night polysomnography. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the separate effects of obstructive sleep apnea during REM and/or NREM sleep (REM and/or NREM-apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]) and several other polysomnography parameters on DKD after adjustment for several known risk factors for DKD.

Results: The median (interquartile range) AHI, REM-AHI, and NREM-AHI of the patients (age 57.8 ± 11.8 years, male sex 86.8%, hypertension 64.3%, and DKD 35.2%) were 29.8 (18.0-45.4), 35.4 (21.1-53.3), and 29.1 (16.3-45.4) events/h, respectively. REM-AHI quartiles, but not NREM-AHI quartiles, correlated independently and significantly with DKD (P = .03 for linear trend, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval for Q2: 3.14 (1.10-8.98), Q3: 3.83 (1.26-11.60), Q4: 4.97 (1.60-15.46), compared with Q1). In addition, categorical AHI (P = .01, OR, and 95% confidence interval for ≥ 15 to < 30: 1.54 (0.64-3.71), ≥ 30: 3.08 (1.36-6.94) compared with < 15), quartiles of AHI (P = .01), quartiles of lowest arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (P < .01), quartiles of percentage of time spent with arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90 (P < .01), and quartiles of mean arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation were independently associated with DKD.

Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea, especially during REM sleep, is a potential risk factor for DKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927344PMC
March 2021

Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and SYNTAX Score.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 15;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the association between OSA and the severity of CAD by assessing coronary angiography findings. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent their first coronary angiography to evaluate CAD and polysomnography (PSG) to investigate the severity of OSA in our hospital from March 2002 to May 2015. The severity of CAD was determined based on coronary angiography findings using the SYNTAX score. The patients were divided into two groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild OSA (AHI < 15/h) and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15/h). Overall, 98 patients were enrolled. The SYNTAX score was significantly different between the two groups ( = 0.001). After adjustment for other risk factors, including age, sex, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and family history of CAD, moderate-to-severe OSA significantly correlated to the SYNTAX score (partial correlations = 0.24, = 0.039). These results suggest that the severity of CAD is related to moderate-to-severe OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602636PMC
October 2020

Clinical utility of a type 4 portable device for in-home screening of sleep disordered breathing.

Ann Palliat Med 2020 Sep 10;9(5):2895-2902. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Sleep Respiratory Medicine, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Cardiovascular Respiratory Sleep Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Sleep and Sleep Disordered Breathing Center, Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Portable monitoring devices have been developed for in-home screening and to aid in the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) while increasing accessibility and reducing costs. Although there are many different devices available in the market, most have not undergone rigorous validation. Therefore, although such devices are promising, more research on their clinical utility is necessary. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of a type 4 home sleep apnea test (HSAT) as an in-home screening for SDB.

Methods: We investigated consecutive subjects who underwent in-laboratory overnight polysomnography following in-home screening using HSAT. We evaluated the correlation between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by in-laboratory overnight polysomnography and by HSAT and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity for AHI ≥5 and AHI ≥30 by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: Finally, data of 387 participants (86.8% men, mean age 55.3±13.3 years and body mass index 25.1±4.1 kg/m2) were assessed. In all patients, AHI by HSAT correlated significantly with AHI by polysomnography (r=0.670, P<0.001). The area under curves of ROC for AHI ≥5 and AHI ≥30 were 0.854±0.029 and 0.841±0.022, respectively. The best cut-off of AHI by HSAT for detecting AHI by polysomnography ≥5 was 10.3 events/h (sensitivity, 82.8%; and specificity, 76.0%), and AHI by HSAT for detecting AHI by polysomnography ≥30 was 24.5 events/h (sensitivity, 75.8%; and specificity, 80.4%).

Conclusions: This type 4 HSAT may have potential as a screening tool for SDB and thus have sufficient clinical utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-384DOI Listing
September 2020

Relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea during rapid eye movement sleep and metabolic syndrome parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Sleep Breath 2021 Mar 19;25(1):309-314. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toranomon Hospital, 2-2-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8470, Japan.

Purpose: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with hypertension, poor glycemic control and dyslipidemia. Usually, apnoea events tend to be more prominent during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than non-REM (NREM) sleep. We examined which SDB parameters are associated with blood pressure (BP), HbA1c and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: A total of 185 patients with T2D who underwent polysomnography were analysed. Exclusion criteria were: the presence of pulmonary diseases, central sleep apnoea, treated SDB, or REM sleep < 30 min. To predict BP, HbA1c, and lipid profiles, we performed multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for known risk factors. Subsequently, we performed multivariable logistic regression analyses.

Results: Patient characteristics (mean ± standard deviation/median) were as follows: age 58.0 ± 11.8 years, body mass index 26.0 kg/m2 (24.1-28.9 kg/m2 ), systolic BP 134 ± 19 mmHg, mean BP 98 ± 14 mmHg, HbA1c 7.4% (6.8-8.4%), triglyceride 143 mg/dL (97-195 mg/dL), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol 143 mg/dL (120-163 mg/dL), REM-apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) 35.1/h (21.1-53.1/h). The analyses revealed that REM-AHI was independently associated with systolic and mean BP, whereas NREM-AHI was not. A statistically significant association was not observed between REM-AHI and HbA1c or lipid profile.

Conclusion: In patients with T2D, REM-AHI was associated with systolic and mean BP. The alteration of BP, associated with SDB during REM sleep, may be an important pathophysiological link between SDB and cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-020-02129-7DOI Listing
March 2021

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Telemedicine for Long-Term Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Management.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2020 03;17(3):329-337

System Integration Center, Gunma University, Gunma, Japan; and.

The effects of telemedicine on adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use have never been investigated. To examine effects of a telemedicine intervention on adherence in long-term CPAP users. In a prospective, randomized, multicenter noninferiority trial conducted in 17 sleep centers across Japan, patients who had used CPAP for >3 months and were receiving face-to-face follow-up by physicians every 1 or 2 months were randomized by a coordinating center in a blind manner to the following three groups: ) follow-up every 3 months accompanied by a monthly telemedicine intervention (telemedicine group: TM-group), ) follow-up every 3 months (3-month group: 3M-group), or ) monthly follow-up (1-month group: 1M-group). Each group was followed up for 6 months. The change in percentage of days with ≥4 h/night of CPAP use from baseline to the end of the study period was evaluated. A decline of ≥5% from baseline was considered deterioration of adherence. Noninferiority of TM- and 3M-groups compared with the 1M-group according to the number of patients with deterioration of adherence was evaluated with the Farrington and Manning test (noninferiority margin 15%). A total of 483 patients were analyzed (median duration of CPAP use, 29 [interquartile range, 12-71] mo), and deterioration of adherence was found in 41 of 161 (25.5%), 55 of 166 (33.1%), and 35 of 156 (22.4%) patients in the TM-, 3M-, and 1M-groups, respectively. The noninferiority of the TM-group compared with the 1M-group was verified (difference in percentage of patients with adherence deterioration, 3.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.8% to 10.9%;  < 0.01). Conversely, the 3M-group did not show noninferiority to the 1M-group (percentage difference, 10.7%; 95% CI, 2.6% to 18.8%;  = 0.19). In the stratified analysis, adherence in TM- and 1M-group patients with poor adherence at baseline improved (TM: 45.8% ± 18.2% to 57.3% ± 24.4%;  < 0.01; 1M: 43.1% ± 18.5% to 53.6% ± 24.3%;  < 0.01), whereas that of the 3M-group did not (39.3% ± 20.8% to 39.8% ± 24.8%;  = 0.84). Intensive telemedicine support could help to optimize CPAP adherence even after long-term CPAP use.Clinical trial registered with www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm (trial number: UMIN000023118).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201907-494OCDOI Listing
March 2020

Aortic Knob Width as a Novel Indicator of Atherosclerosis and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Jun 28;27(6):501-508. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital.

Aim: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are likely to show increased arterial stiffness and progressive systemic atherosclerosis. Chest radiography reveals atherosclerotic changes in the aorta via measurement of aortic knob width. However, to our knowledge, aortic knob width in patients with OSA has never been evaluated.

Methods: We measured the aortic knob width in chest radiographs of 549 patients (age: 52.5±13.2 years; 69 women) who underwent overnight polysomnography. Moreover, we evaluated the association between aortic knob width and other clinical characteristics, including cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with aortic knob width.

Results: A significant direct correlation between aortic knob width and CAVI and between aortic knob width and AHI was observed. In multivariate linear regression analysis, either CAVI or AHI was independently associated with aortic knob width (p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively) in addition to age, male gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure.

Conclusion: A significant independent correlation between aortic knob width and OSA severity was observed. Our findings suggest that an increase in the aortic knob width suggests atherosclerotic changes in the aorta and may be associated with OSA and increased arterial stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.50286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355100PMC
June 2020

Relationship between sleep disordered breathing and heart rate turbulence in non-obese subjects.

Heart Vessels 2019 Nov 20;34(11):1801-1810. Epub 2019 May 20.

Clinical Physiology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is regarded as a parameter of cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have suggested that patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) have an impaired HRT, which play a role in the relationship between SDB and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the impact of SDB on HRT independent from obesity is still debatable. Data of eligible subjects who underwent sleep test and 24 h Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) recording from 2009-2012 were analyzed. HRT parameters, turbulence onset (TO), and turbulence slope (TS) in the 24 h recording, while awakening, and sleeping (TO-24 h, TO-awake, TO-sleep, TS-24 h, TS-awake, and TS-sleep, respectively) were compared across subjects with no-to-mild, moderate, and severe SDB. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses including TO or TS as a dependent variable were performed. Data from 41 subjects were evaluated. Compared with the no-to-mild and moderate SDB groups, in the severe SDB group, the TO-24 h and TO-awake were significantly greater, and the TS-24 h, TS-awake, and TS-sleep were significantly lower. In multivariable analyses, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was correlated directly with TO-24 h (coefficient, 0.36; P = 0.03) and TO-awake (coefficient, 0.40; P = 0.01). SDB severity, as represented by AHI, is related to HRT impairments in non-obese subjects. SDB, independent from obesity, may affect cardiac autonomic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-019-01430-0DOI Listing
November 2019

Apnea Hypopnea Index During Rapid Eye Movement Sleep With Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 06;104(6):2075-2082

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Context: Recent studies based on home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) reported the potential association of sleep disordered breathing, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with diabetic retinopathy (DR). A few studies showed that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (REM-AHI) is associated with glycated hemoglobin and hypertension, two known risk factors for DR. However, there are no studies that have evaluated the association of REM-AHI with DR because previous studies were based on HSAT.

Objective: To determine the association of REM-AHI with DR.

Design, Setting, And Patients: The study subjects were 131 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent all-night polysomnography with ≥30 minutes of REM sleep and were free of heart failure or active lung disease and had not yet been treated for OSA. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of REM-AHI on the prevalence of DR adjusted by several known risk factors for DR.

Results: Quartile of REM-AHI was independently associated with DR (P = 0.024) (Q2: OR, 3.887; 95% CI, 0.737 to 20.495; Q3: OR, 9.467; 95% CI, 1.883 to 47.588; Q4: OR, 12.898; 95% CI, 2.008 to 82.823 relative to Q1), whereas quartile of non-REM (NREM)-AHI was not (P = 0.119). Similarly, continuous REM-AHI (OR, 2.875; 95% CI, 1.224 to 6.752; P = 0.015) was independently associated with DR, whereas NREM-AHI was not (P = 0.107). In addition, AHI was independently associated with DR when controlling for several known risk factors for DR (P = 0.043).

Conclusion: REM-AHI was independently associated with DR. REM-AHI could be a potential risk factor for DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-00946DOI Listing
June 2019

Effect of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Albuminuria in 273 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Sleep Med 2018 03 15;14(3):401-407. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toranomon Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) can induce hyperglycemia, hypertension, and oxidative stress, conditions that are known to cause kidney damage. Therefore, SDB may exacerbate albuminuria, which is an established marker of early-stage kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The association between SDB and albuminuria in patients with T2DM was investigated in this study.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 273 patients with T2DM who underwent portable sleep testing and measurement of urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The association between the severity of SDB and albuminuria was investigated. Patients were divided into three groups according to the respiratory event index (REI): the no or mild group (REI < 15 events/h), moderate (REI 15 to < 30 events/h), and severe (REI ≥ 30 events/h). Albuminuria was defined as UACR ≥ 3.4 mg/mmol creatinine. Logistic regression analysis for albuminuria included the categorical REI as the independent variable.

Results: The median (interquartile range) REI of all patients (age 57.9 ± 11.9 years, mean ± standard deviation, male sex 81.7%, body mass index 26.7 [24.2-29.5] kg/m, estimated glomerular filtration rate 82 [65-97] mL/min/1.73 m) was 13.0 (7.0-24.2) events/h. The REI, as a categorical variable, was significantly associated with albuminuria after adjustment for other risk factors for albuminuria; REI 15 to < 30 events/h: odds ratio (OR) 3.35, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.68-6.67, < .001; REI ≥ 30: OR 8.52, 95% CI, 3.52-20.63, < .001). In addition, the natural logarithm-transformed REI of all patients also correlated significantly with albuminuria.

Conclusions: The severity of SDB is associated with albuminuria in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.6986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837841PMC
March 2018

Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

Yakugaku Zasshi 2016 ;136(7):945-50

School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.15-00257-3DOI Listing
May 2017

Comparison of clinical features and polysomnographic findings between men and women with sleep apnea.

J Thorac Dis 2016 Jan;8(1):145-51

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan ; 2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya, Kanagawa, Japan ; 3 Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan ; 4 Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: There is a scarcity of reports comparing gender differences in polysomnographic findings among Asian patients with sleep apnea (SA). In this study, we elucidated gender differences in the clinical features and polysomnographic findings of SA patients in Japan.

Methods: We conducted a case-matched control study to compare the gender differences. A total of 4,714 patients (4,127 men; 587 women) were matched for age, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and body mass index (BMI). The criteria used for sex matching were (I) age ±4 years, (II) AHI ± 4 h of sleep, and (III) BMI ±2 kg/m(2). This facilitated the comparison of polysomnography sleep variables in 296 men and 296 women with SA.

Results: Compared with their male counterparts, female SA patients had a significantly higher rapid eye movement AHI [men: 27.7 (IQR, 14.3-45.2); women: 43.3 (IQR, 25.5-56.6); P<0.001], lower supine AHI [men: 29.7 (IQR, 16.8-49.5); women: 25.0 (IQR, 14.7-39.3); P=0.004], longer total sleep time (TST), and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stage 3 (N3), %TST [TST in men: 356.3 (IQR, 319.5-392.3); women: 372.0 (IQR, 327.8-404.5); P=0.007; N3, %TST in men: 8.8 (IQR, 3.0-14.6); women: 14.4 (IQR, 8.3-20.4); P<0.001], and better sleep efficiency [men: 80.9 (IQR, 71.0-88.0); women: 83.2 (IQR, 74.5-90.0); P=0.011].

Conclusions: This study revealed that women with SA had a significantly longer TST and N3, %TST, which represents deep sleep. Future prospective studies must be conducted together with polysomnography tests including electromyography of pharyngeal muscle expansion and electroencephalography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2016.01.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740166PMC
January 2016

Relationship between sleep disordered breathing and diabetic retinopathy: Analysis of 136 patients with diabetes.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2015 Aug 12;109(2):306-11. Epub 2015 May 12.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Aims: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with poor glycemic control. However, whether SDB contributes to diabetic microangiopathies, especially diabetic retinopathy (DR), is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SDB and DR.

Methods: Between January 2010 and November 2012, 136 patients underwent a sleep test and were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of DR. Sleep test results and known risk factors for DR were compared between groups. Optic fundi were examined using indirect ophthalmoscope or retinal photographs and diagnosed by experienced ophthalmologists. Multivariate stepwise (backward) logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with DR.

Results: Ninety-nine patients without DR (NDR) and 37 patients with DR were assessed. Patients in the DR group had significantly longer duration of diabetes, were more likely to have hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and were more likely to be taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (p=0.000 for each). In the multivariate backward logistic regression analysis, minimum SO2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; p=0.001), HbA1c (OR, 1.40; p=0.021), duration of diabetes (OR, 1.23; p<0.001), and history of CVD (OR, 8.96; p=0.008) remained significant.

Conclusions: Minimum SO2 values were associated with DR independent from glycemic control level, duration of diabetes, and history of CVD. This finding suggests that SDB may contribute to the development of DR not through frequency, but due to the degree of intermittent hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2015.05.015DOI Listing
August 2015

Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients with Polycystic Liver and Kidney Disease Referred for Transcatheter Arterial Embolization.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Jun 30;10(6):949-56. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Nephrology Center, Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya, Kanagawa, Japan; Nephrology Center and.

Background And Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among patients with CKD, but its prevalence among patients with symptomatic autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and its association with total liver and kidney volume remain unclear.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: This study examined the association between height-adjusted total liver and kidney volume (htTLKV) and SDB in a cross-sectional study of 304 adult patients with symptomatic ADPKD who were hospitalized at Toranomon Hospital for transcatheter arterial embolization and who underwent pulse oximetry between April 2008 and November 2013. SDB was defined as having a 3% oxygen desaturation index of ≥15 events per hour of sleep. Logistic regression was performed with sex-specific quartiles of htTLKV as the main predictor, using patient data and comorbidities as covariates.

Results: Overall (54.6% women, mean age 56.2±9.4 years, 83.5% on hemodialysis), 177 of 304 patients (58.2%) had SDB. SDB was strongly associated with htTLKV quartiles, demonstrating that odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for SDB were 1.63 (0.76 to 3.48), 2.35 (1.09 to 5.06), and 4.61 (1.98 to 10.7) for htTLKV quartiles 2-4 (P for trend, P=0.003), respectively. Older age (OR, 1.81 per 10 years; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.55), male sex (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.96 to 7.66), receiving hemodialysis (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.62 to 12.1), and higher body mass index (≥25 kg/m(2)) (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.08 to 8.52) were also associated with SDB.

Conclusions: In this highly selected population of patients with symptomatic ADPKD referred for transcatheter arterial embolization, SDB was highly prevalent and independently associated with higher htTLKV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.06930714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455207PMC
June 2015

Adaptive servo-ventilation in cardiac function and neurohormonal status in patients with heart failure and central sleep apnea nonresponsive to continuous positive airway pressure.

JACC Heart Fail 2013 Feb 4;1(1):58-63. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Cardiovascular Division, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether effective suppression of central sleep apnea (CSA) by adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) improves underlying cardiac dysfunction among patients with heart failure (HF) in whom CSA was not effectively suppressed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

Background: The presence of CSA in HF is associated with a poor prognosis, whereas CPAP treatment improves HF. However, in a large-scale trial, CPAP failed to improve survival, probably due to insufficient CSA suppression. Recently, ASV was reported as the most effective alternative to CSA suppression. However, the effects of sufficient CSA suppression by ASV on cardiac function are unknown.

Methods: Patients with New York Heart Association class ≥II HF, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and CSA that was unsuppressed (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15) despite ≥3 months of CPAP were randomly assigned to receive ASV in either CPAP mode or ASV mode.

Results: Of 23 patients enrolled, 12 were assigned to the ASV-mode group and 11 were assigned to the CPAP-mode group. Three months after randomization, the ASV mode was significantly more effective in suppressing the apnea-hypopnea index (from 25.0 ± 6.9 events/h to 2.0 ± 1.4 events/h; p < 0.001) compared to the CPAP mode. Compliance was signi-ficantly greater with the ASV mode than with the CPAP mode. Improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction was greater with the ASV mode (32.0 ± 7.9% to 37.8 ± 9.1%; p < 0.001) than with the CPAP mode.

Conclusions: Patients with HF and unsuppressed CSA despite receiving CPAP may receive additional benefit by having CPAP replaced with ASV. Additionally, effective suppression of CSA may improve cardiac function in HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2012.11.002DOI Listing
February 2013

Craniofacial anatomical risk factors in men with obstructive sleep apnea and heart failure: a pilot study.

Sleep Breath 2014 May 9;18(2):439-45. Epub 2013 Nov 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated with heart failure (HF); however, the reason for this is not well understood. Craniofacial anatomic risk factors may contribute to OSA pathogenesis in HF patients. However, there are no data about cephalometric findings among OSA patients with HF.

Methods: Consecutive patients with HF and OSA (defined as total apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h) were enrolled. As controls, OSA patients without HF but matching the test group in age, BMI, and obstructive AHI were also enrolled.

Results: Overall, 17 OSA patients with HF and 34 OSA patients without HF were compared. There are no significant differences in the characteristics or polysomnographic parameters between 2 groups. In the cephalometric findings, compared with patients without HF, patients with HF showed a significantly greater angle between the line SN to point "A" (SNA) and a longer inferior airway space and greater airway area. However, the tongue area of patients with HF was more than those without HF.

Conclusions: The craniofacial structures of OSA patients with HF were different from those without HF. OSA patients with HF had an upper airway anatomy that is more likely to collapse when sleeping while recumbent, despite having a larger airway space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-013-0906-4DOI Listing
May 2014

Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment on signal-averaged P-wave duration in men.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2013 Apr 20;6(2):287-93. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Prolonged P-wave duration, indicating atrial conduction delay, is a potent precursor of atrial fibrillation. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation development. We investigated the association of P-wave duration with OSA and its treatment.

Methods And Results: We enrolled 80 consecutive men with normal sinus rhythms who underwent polysomnography, had no history of atrial fibrillation or ischemic heart disease, and no evidence of heart failure. Signal-averaged P-wave duration (SAPWD) was measured in all participants. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age, hypertension, and log-transformed apnea-hypopnea index were significantly and independently correlated with SAPWD. SAPWD was repeatedly measured after 1 month of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 62 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. As controls, 18 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were enrolled. Their SAPWD was also measured at baseline and after 1 month without CPAP therapy. No significant change in SAPWD was found between baseline and after 1 month in the controls. However, SAPWD was significantly shortened after 1 month of CPAP therapy (from 137.5±8.6 to 129.7±8.5 ms; P<0.001), and the SAPWD change was significantly different in patients with CPAP therapy compared with controls (P<0.001). In addition, the SAPWD change in patients with CPAP therapy correlated inversely with nightly CPAP usage (r=-0.52; P<0.001).

Conclusions: OSA severity was significantly associated with prolonged SAPWD. CPAP therapy significantly shortened SAPWD in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. Thus, OSA may cause atrial conduction disturbances, leading to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation development, which may be modifiable by alleviating OSA with CPAP therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000266DOI Listing
April 2013

Comparison between the apnea-hypopnea indices determined by the REMstar Auto M series and those determined by standard in-laboratory polysomnography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Intern Med 2012 15;51(20):2877-85. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Japan.

Objective: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). After performing an initial titration study, most physicians do not have the CPAP equipment retitrated unless the patient complains about the CPAP use. Several automated CPAP devices are used clinically that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP. The aim of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by automated CPAP devices to that obtained from polysomnography.

Methods: Patients with OSA underwent polysomnography for CPAP titration using the REMstar Auto M-series. The initial two hours of CPAP titration were spent at a subtherapeutic pressure of 4 cmH(2)O so that more breathing events could be observed. The correlations between the simultaneous determination of the AHI with polysomnography (AHI-PSG) and the automated device (AHI-RAM) during the subtherapeutic, therapeutic and overall phases were evaluated. In addition, the apnea index (AI) and the hypopnea index (HI) were each evaluated separately.

Results: Sixty patients were enrolled. The mean AHI on diagnostic PSG was 35.2±2.6 events/hour. Strong correlations were observed between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-RAM (subtherapeutic: r=0.958, p<0.001; therapeutic: r=0.824, p<0.001; overall: r=0.927, p<0.001). A slightly stronger correlation was observed between the AI values, whereas a weaker correlation was observed between the HI values in all three phases.

Conclusion: Strong correlations between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-RAM were observed. The correlations were weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI and the therapeutic phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.51.8249DOI Listing
August 2013

Relationship between atrial conduction delay and obstructive sleep apnea.

Heart Vessels 2013 Sep 14;28(5):639-45. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, 2-2-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8470, Japan.

Prolonged P-wave duration, indicating atrial conduction delay, is a marker of left atrial abnormality and is reported as a potent precursor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Several studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with AF. We evaluated the relationship between OSA and prolonged P-wave duration. Consecutive subjects who underwent overnight polysomnography and showed a normal sinus rhythm, had no history of AF or ischemic heart disease, and showed no evidence of heart failure were enrolled. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is defined as the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep. P-wave duration was determined on the basis of the mean duration of three consecutive beats in lead II from a digitally stored electrocardiogram. A total of 250 subjects (middle-aged, predominantly male, mildly obese, with a mean P-wave duration of 106 ms) were enrolled. In addition to age, male gender, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and uric acid and creatinine levels, AHI (r = 0.56; P < 0.001) had significant univariable relationship with P-wave duration. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, BMI, male gender, and AHI (partial correlation coefficient, 0.47; P < 0.001) were significantly independently correlated to P-wave duration. Severity of OSA is significantly associated with delayed atrial conduction time. Obstructive sleep apnea may lead to progression of atrial remodeling as an AF substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-012-0288-8DOI Listing
September 2013

Conversion from predominant central sleep apnea to obstructive sleep apnea following valvuloplasty in a patient with mitral regurgitation.

J Clin Sleep Med 2011 Oct;7(5):523-5

Clinical Physiology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

A few reports have shown that cardiac valve repair may improve central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with valvular heart disease. It has been suggested that such improvements are associated with the improvement of cardiac function. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with mitral regurgitation, whose CSA converted to predominant obstructive sleep apnea following mitral valvuloplasty in association with a shortening of lung-to-finger circulation time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/JCSM.1324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3190853PMC
October 2011

Change in cardio-ankle vascular index by long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea.

J Cardiol 2011 Jul 28;58(1):74-82. Epub 2011 May 28.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, 2-2-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan.

Background: It has been reported that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have an elevated arterial stiffness, and alleviation of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might attenuate this. Recently, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) has been reported to be a highly reproducible arterial stiffness parameter in OSA patients. However, the change in CAVI that occurs following long-term CPAP treatment for OSA remains unclear.

Methods: Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were enrolled. Changes in CAVI at 1 and 12 months after CPAP initiation (ΔCAVI(1) and ΔCAVI(12), respectively) were assessed. Factors associated with ΔCAVI(1) and ΔCAVI(12) were determined by multivariable regression analyses.

Results: Thirty subjects were assessed. CAVI was significantly reduced at 1 month compared with the baseline from 7.80 ± 1.19 to 7.56 ± 1.08 (p = 0.013). A non-significant reduction was observed at 12 months (7.72 ± 1.18, p = 0.365 versus baseline) and CAVI had actually increased compared with that measured at 1 month. In multivariable analyses, ΔCAVI(1) was inversely correlated with CPAP usage (coefficient: -0.500, p = 0.006) and was directly correlated with the change in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency in heart rate variability (coefficient: 0.607, p < 0.001), whereas ΔCAVI(12) was related to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin-II-receptor blockers (ARB; coefficient: 0.464, p = 0.013), was directly correlated with the change in hemoglobin A1c levels (coefficient: 0.644, p < 0.001), and was inversely correlated with the change in CPAP usage (coefficient: -0.380, p = 0.046).

Conclusions: CAVI was significantly reduced by short-term CPAP and then slightly increased from 1 to 12 months, which was probably due to natural progression associated with the aging process. However, long-term CPAP treatment had the beneficial effect of maintaining CAVI below baseline levels when associated with the use of ACE-I/ARB, the control of blood glucose and the CPAP compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.03.005DOI Listing
July 2011

Aortic dissection is associated with intermittent hypoxia and re-oxygenation.

Heart Vessels 2012 May 15;27(3):265-70. Epub 2011 May 15.

Department of Integrated Medicine I, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 847-1 Amanuma-cho, Oomiya-ku, Saitama, Saitama, 330-8503, Japan.

Aortic dissection is a life-threatening cardiovascular disease with high in-hospital mortality. However, the risk factors of aortic dissection have not been fully elucidated. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been increasingly recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Among the underlying mechanisms to explain the association between OSA and cardiovascular morbidity, previous studies reported that intermittent hypoxia and re-oxygenation (IHR) might induce cardiovascular diseases via atherosclerosis. However, little is known about an association between aortic dissection and IHR. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of nocturnal IHR among patients with aortic dissection and compared with that in subjects without aortic dissection, and to investigate whether there is an independent association between aortic dissection and IHR. We enrolled 29 patients with aortic dissection and 59 control subjects. We performed sleep studies and compared the results between the groups. Frequency of IHR is expressed as 3% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify determinants of aortic dissection. The percentage of either moderate-to-severe IHR or severe IHR was significantly higher in the aortic dissection group (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) than in the control group. The mean 3% ODI of patients with aortic dissection was significantly higher than that of control subjects (34.8 ± 23.1 and 19.0 ± 14.1, p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, 3% ODI was significantly associated with aortic dissection (odds ratio 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.91; p = 0.01). The present study showed the close association between aortic dissection and, IHR, a major component of OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-011-0149-xDOI Listing
May 2012

Effects of olmesartan on blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

Heart Vessels 2011 Nov 8;26(6):603-8. Epub 2011 Jan 8.

Cardiovascular Center, Toranomon Hospital, 2-2-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8470, Japan.

The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been linked to arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. However, an effective antihypertensive agent for patients with SDB has not been identified. We investigated the effect of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blocker olmesartan in hypertensive patients with SDB. This prospective, one-arm pilot study included 25 male patients with untreated SDB (mean age, 52.7 ± 11.4 years). We measured blood pressure, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cardiac function using echocardiography, and insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) before and after 12 weeks of olmesartan therapy (mean dose, 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day). Olmesartan significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (151.4 ± 8.0 vs. 134.0 ± 7.4 mmHg; P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (93.4 ± 7.1 vs. 83.9 ± 6.3 mmHg; P < 0.001), and HOMA index (3.7 ± 2.9 vs. 2.8 ± 1.9; P = 0.012). Furthermore, left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased at 12 weeks (68.1 ± 5.1 vs. 71.6 ± 5.4%; P = 0.009). However, body mass index (BMI) and degree of SDB did not change (BMI, 26.6 ± 4.0 vs. 26.6 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P = 0.129; 3% ODI, 29.5 ± 23.1 vs. 28.2 ± 21.0 events/h, P = 0.394). Olmesartan significantly reduced blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with SDB without changing BMI or SDB severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-010-0104-2DOI Listing
November 2011

Plasma pentraxin3 and arterial stiffness in men with obstructive sleep apnea.

Am J Hypertens 2011 Apr 30;24(4):401-7. Epub 2010 Dec 30.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces inflammation and vascular damage that might contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanisms linking OSA and CVD are not fully understood. Pentraxin3 may play a significant role in vascular inflammation and damage. Currently, there is lack of data on pentraxin3 and its role in vascular damage associated with OSA.

Methods: We enrolled 50 males with OSA and 25 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Patients with OSA were further divided into mild and moderate to severe groups. We measured plasma pentraxin3 and evaluated vascular damage using an arterial stiffness parameter--the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI)--in all subjects. In the moderate to severe OSA group, pentraxin3 and CAVI were repeatedly measured following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for 1 month.

Results: Pentraxin3 levels in the moderate-to-severe OSA group were significantly higher than those in the mild OSA and control groups, with median levels (25th-75th percentile) of 2.36 (1.79-2.78), 1.63 (1.15-2.05), and 1.53 (1.14-2.04) ng/ml, respectively (P < 0.01). Pentraxin3 level was independently correlated with CAVI (coefficient, 0.34 P < 0.01). In the moderate-to-severe OSA group, pentraxin3 and CAVI levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively) after 1 month of CPAP therapy.

Conclusions: Plasma pentraxin3 and arterial stiffness levels in the moderate-to-severe OSA group were greater than the corresponding levels in patients without OSA. However, pentraxin3 level can be managed by CPAP therapy for OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2010.248DOI Listing
April 2011

Therapeutic efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea patients with acute aortic dissection: a case report.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2010 Sep 2;17(9):999-1002. Epub 2010 Jul 2.

Cardiovascular Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

The coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may impose an additional risk on aortic dissection due to the possible increase in aortic transmural pressure. Thus, effective treatment for OSA, such as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), is thought to decrease the risk in patients with aortic dissection. We experienced one case of an OSA patient with aortic dissection who was successfully treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), resting and antihypertensive therapy. Few reports of this kind are available in the medical literature. A 55-year old Japanese man with sudden chest and back pain was admitted to this hospital. Acute aortic dissection De Bakey type 3b was observed by radiography and the patient was treated success-fully. In cases with a high likelihood of OSA with aortic dissection, application of CPAP treatment should be considered promptly along with resting and antihypertensive therapy, except if there are complications such as comorbidities or withholding of consent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.4895DOI Listing
September 2010

Evaluation of the apnea-hypopnea index determined by the S8 auto-CPAP, a continuous positive airway pressure device, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

J Clin Sleep Med 2010 Apr;6(2):146-51

Sleep Center Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been established as an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Recently, several auto-CPAP devices that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP have come into clinical use. The purpose of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by the S8 auto-CPAP device with the AHI derived by polysomnography in patients with OSAHS.

Method: Consecutive patients with OSAHS titrated on S8 auto-CPAP were included. The correlation between AHI determined by manual scoring (AHI-PSG) and by S8 (AHIS8) during an overnight in-hospital polysomnogram with the patient on CPAP was assessed. Furthermore, the apnea index (Al) and the hypopnea index (HI) were evaluated separately.

Results: Seventy patients with OSAHS (94% men) were enrolled. The mean AHI on the diagnostic study was 51.9 +/- 2.4. During the titration, this device markedly suppressed the respiratory events (AHI-PSG, 4.2 +/- 0.4; AI, 1.9 +/- 0.3; HI, 2.3 +/- 0.3). On the other hand, the AHI-S8 was 9.9 +/- 0.6 (AI-S8, 2.4 +/- 0.3; HI-S8, 7.5 +/- 0.4). There was a strong correlation between the overall AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 (r = 0.85, p < 0.001), with a stronger correlation in the apnea component AI-PSG and the AI-S8 (r = 0.93, p < 0.001), whereas there was a weaker correlation between the HI-PSG and the HI-S8 (r = 0.67, p <0.001).

Conclusions: Using the same airflow signals as those of the CPAP device, a strong correlation between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 was observed. However, the correlation was weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854701PMC
April 2010

Effect of flow-triggered adaptive servo-ventilation compared with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with chronic heart failure with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

Circ Heart Fail 2010 Jan 20;3(1):140-8. Epub 2009 Nov 20.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, including either obstructive sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea, is associated with a poor prognosis. A large-scale clinical trial showed that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) did not improve the prognosis of such patients with CHF, probably because of insufficient sleep-disordered breathing suppression. Recently, it was reported that adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) can effectively treat sleep-disordered breathing. However, there are no specific data about the efficacy of flow-triggered ASV for cardiac function in patients with CHF with sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of flow-triggered ASV to CPAP in patients with CHF with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea.

Methods And Results: Thirty-one patients with CHF, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and New York Heart Association class >or=II, with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea, were randomly assigned to either CPAP or flow-triggered ASV. The suppression of respiratory events, changes in cardiac function, and compliance with the devices during the 3-month study period were compared. Although both devices decreased respiratory events, ASV more effectively suppressed respiratory events (DeltaAHI [apnea-hypopnea index], -35.4+/-19.5 with ASV; -23.2+/-12.0 with CPAP, P<0.05). Compliance was significantly greater with ASV than with CPAP (5.2+/-0.9 versus 4.4+/-1.1 h/night, P<0.05). The improvements in quality-of-life and left ventricular ejection fraction were greater in the ASV group (DeltaLVEF [left ventricular ejection fraction], +9.1+/-4.7% versus +1.9+/-10.9%).

Conclusions: These results suggest that patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea may receive greater benefit from treatment with ASV than with CPAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.109.868786DOI Listing
January 2010

Establishment of the cardio-ankle vascular index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Chest 2009 Sep 30;136(3):779-786. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

Sleep Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: An arterial stiffness parameter, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), has been developed. CAVI is adjusted for BP and can be used to measure arterial stiffness with little influence of BP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility, validity, and clinical usefulness of CAVI among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), who often have elevated BP during measurement.

Methods: Overall, 543 consecutive patients with OSA were studied. CAVI was automatically calculated from the pulse volume record, BP, and the vascular length from the heart to the ankle. First, CAVI was measured three times on different days in 25 patients to evaluate its reproducibility. Second, the correlation between CAVI and BP was assessed. Third, patients were classified into two groups (mild OSA or moderate-to-severe OSA), and the CAVIs of these groups were compared. Fourth, the correlation between CAVI and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was also assessed in 74 patients.

Results: The mean coefficient of variation was 2.8. CAVI demonstrated weak or no correlations with BP (with systolic BP, r = 0.184; with diastolic BP, r = 0.223). Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 469) had a significantly greater CAVI than patients with mild OSA (p = 0.034). CAVI was positively correlated with IMT (r = 0.487).

Conclusions: The measurement of CAVI demonstrated good reproducibility and was not affected by the BP during measurement. Additionally, CAVI was positively correlated with another arteriosclerosis indicator. CAVI was higher in patients with more severe OSA and is regarded as a clinically useful index for the progression of vascular damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.09-0178DOI Listing
September 2009
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